A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

- Top 30 Publications

Letter--Prudent Formulary Management or Underutilization of the Novel P2Y12 Receptor Inhibitors in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Who Received Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

The author is a former employee of AstraZeneca and owns stock in AstraZeneca. The author reports no conflicts of interest related to the subject of this letter.

The Nurse Who Saw Me.

A mother's long night at her sick newborn's side. What can possibly ease the strain?

What Types of Articles to Write.

: This is the third in a series of articles to help nurses share their knowledge, skills, and insight through writing for publication. Nurses have something important to contribute no matter what their nursing role. This series will help nurses develop good writing habits and sharpen their writing skills. It will take nurses step by step through the publication process, highlighting what gets published and why, how to submit articles and work with editors, and common pitfalls to avoid. For the previous articles in this series, see

Project TENDR.

: Chemicals are ubiquitous in the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the products we use at work and in our personal lives. Toxic chemicals increase the risk of cognitive, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental disorders throughout the life span. The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 was intended to allow for the collection of data on and regulation of these chemicals but has been criticized for its significant limitations in protecting the public's health. In recognition of the scientific evidence demonstrating the connection between toxic environmental chemicals and neurodevelopmental disorders, Project TENDR (Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks)-a collaborative initiative of scientists, health professionals, and children's health advocates-produced a call to action last July with the aim of reducing exposure to chemicals and pollutants that contribute to the development of these disorders.

Discharge Planning and Teaching.

This article is the fifth in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups, conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project, supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The fifth video can be accessed at

Deep Tissue Pressure Injury: A Clinical Review.

: A deep tissue pressure injury (DTPI) is a serious type of pressure injury that begins in the muscle closest to the bone and may not be visible in its early stages. Its hallmark is rapid deterioration despite the use of appropriate preventive interventions. In 2007, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel added suspected deep tissue injuries to the traditional classification system, and by 2010 DTPIs had accounted for about 9% of all pressure injuries and were for the first time more prevalent than stage 3 or 4 pressure injuries. On average, patients who develop these injuries are older and have a lower body mass index than patients who develop other pressure injuries. Most commonly, DTPIs appear on the skin over the coccyx or sacrum, the buttocks, and the heels. This article discusses the pathophysiology; risk factors; and assessment, prevention, and treatment of DTPIs, using a composite case to illustrate the progression of this serious type of pressure injury.

In Defense of Routine Inpatient Pain Assessment.

Getting rid of the fifth vital sign won't solve the opioid abuse crisis.

The Essence of Nursing Care.

Frontline nurses are central to ensuring the patient experience is positive and dignified.

Challenges to Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration for Teen Mothers.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding practices of teen mothers in a pre- and postnatal education and support program.

Sleep Quality and Quantity in Low-Income Postpartum Women.

To describe and explore patterns of postpartum sleep, fatigue, and depressive symptoms in low-income urban women.

A Nurse-Directed Model for Nitrous Oxide Use During Labor.

Nitrous oxide has a long history of use and has been well documented in the literature as a safe, effective, and inexpensive option for pain management in labor in other countries, but it is underused in the United States.

Use of Ovine-based Collagen Extracellular Matrix and Gentian Violet/Methylene Blue Antibacterial Foam Dressings to Help Improve Clinical Outcomes in Lower Extremity Wounds: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Dressings that provide broad spectrum metalloprotease reduction along with inherent aspects of an extracellular matrix may contribute to improved wound healing outcomes and shorter treatment times.

Obesity and Cognitive Decline in Adults: Effect of Methodological Choices and Confounding by Age in a Longitudinal Study.

Obesity has been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia, but recent findings are contradictory, possibly due to methodological differences. The present study tries to clarify these inconsistencies by following the cognitive trajectories of individuals with obesity over 12 years and studying the effect of obesity status (obesity at baseline versus incident obesity at follow-up), chronicity, definition, potential confounding (e.g. age, cardiovascular factors), and non-linear associations.

MowA®: A simple and economic way of monitoring chronic wounds outcome with your mobile devices.

The treatment of skin ulcers of the lower extremities is a difficult challenge for surgeons as demonstrated in the literature 1,2. Furthermore objective monitoring of skin ulcers represts an important necessity for the plastic surgeon who has to update the treatment over time. In the past we had to write about systems and applications designed to catalog and manage digital libraries 3, so we have gone looking for a system to catalog and manage date related skin in ulcers. I present an application for mobile devices that allows to calculate , evaluate and analyze, the both surface area and tissue quality of skin ulcers m in a fast and practical way. The application is called "Mowa®"and it is available both for Apple and Android devices. Often we have to treat chronic injuries to the skin for several weeks and the evaluation needs to takes place in a periodic manner. An important problem for a surgeon, in the treatment of chronic wounds of the skin, is to evaluate the effectiveness of the cure in terms of "reduction of the lesion" and "quality of tissue". That is, it would be useful having s way to assess the size(area) of the wound an quality if tissues inside the lesion. This would make it objectively easier to measure the progress if the treatment in the past there have been many proposed systems 4-6. We tried in the past, to use theVisa-track system (smith & Nephew) with good outcomes, but this is limited because it can be used by a single patient at atime. The need to find a more affordable way led us to experience Mora application in our devices. This simple application allows, through a photograph, to quantify in quare centimeters the surface of the lesion. Furtermore Mowa® provides a system for detecting the fibrin percentage of granulation and necrotic tissue. The analysis of the chronic lesion of the skin is also completed by the insertion of the main characteristics of the qound, for esample, the exudate (in small quantities,moderate or a lot). The suspicion of infection, bleeding and the depth of the lesion. The application also offers a treatment algorithm based in the data entered and follows the EPUAP and NPUAP guidelines 7. Once the assessment of chronic skin lesion takes place, it is possible to produce a PDF or JPEG file with photography and the characteristics of the wound.The producted files can be shared via email. The use of this simple application is of interest to those surgeons who want a quick way to evaluate in size and percentage skin ulcers. The ability to store and search Ptients data in a fast and practice way is the strongest point of this application. Through this application you can monitor and compare both size and outcome of chronic wound over time, When using the applicatiom, if you want, there is need to include any sensitive information relates to the patients, No author has economic interest and financed by the the advertising of this application.

Neuroretinal evaluation using optical coherence tomography in patients affected by pituitary tumors.

To investigate the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and choroid thickness (CT) in patients with pituitary tumours, microadenoma and macroadenoma, using spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT).

RAINFALL before RAINBOW-an illusion or reality?

Regorafenib in gastric cancer.

The microbiome, microbial-generated proinflammatory neurotoxins, and Alzheimer's disease.

Blunt chest trauma: is there a place for rib stabilization?

Rib fractures are a common and highly morbid finding in patients with blunt chest trauma. Over the past decade, a renewed interest in (and instrumentation for) rib fixation in this cohort has occurred. Stabilization of the chest wall in this setting, particularly when a flail segment is present, is associated with significant reductions in the rates of respiratory failure, pneumonia, ICU stay, and mortality. Thoracic surgeons should remain actively involved in this evolving area of our specialty to further optimize patient outcomes.

Whack-a-mole strategy for multifocal ground glass opacities of the lung.

Ground glass opacity (GGO) is a good prognostic indicator for lung cancer and is useful for physicians to predict prognosis. Due to recent advances in computed tomography (CT), the chance to encounter GGO is rapidly increasing in clinical practice. Based on the studies on radiological pathological correlation, GGO represents pathological lepidic growth and consolidation on CT represents pathologically invasive components. Thus, consolidation tumor ratio 0.5 or less means pathological less invasiveness for lung cancer. Not a few studies have shown that sublobar resection is equivalent to lobectomy for radiological early lung cancers. Additionally, observation of GGO is one of the options for physicians. Indication of surgical intervention remains unclear. Physician observing GGO in practice should know the natural history of GGO to reach an optimal treatment decision. For multifocal GGO lesions clinical management is surely challenging. Whack-a-mole strategy, which means sublobar resection for radiological invasive cancer is one of the most promising strategies for such lesions.

Role of CXC group chemokines in lung cancer development and progression.

Clinical and translational research on lung cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment can provide valuable scientific data and unique opportunity to study tumor microenvironment. CXC chemokines, which are members of a big family of cytokines, are undoubtedly involved in tumor growth regulation and metastasizing pathways. For better understanding of CXC chemokine involvement in the process of carcinogenesis we have studied the cohort of early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing surgery with curative intent. Our aim was to assess CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) levels in patient blood samples representing systemic circulation and tumor microenvironment; assess CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) expression in tumor tissue; and measure tumor infiltrating immune cell subpopulations.

Per-oral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia.

Symptoms in patients with achalasia are produced by outflow obstruction at the level of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). As a consequence of neural destruction the LES does not undergo normal swallow-induced relaxation. In addition, the esophageal body loses normal peristaltic function and esophageal emptying is on the basis of gravity. All therapies for achalasia are palliative in that normal LES or esophageal body function cannot be restored. The efficacy of any therapy for achalasia is directly related to its ability to reduce the outflow obstruction at the LES. The three main treatment options are pneumatic dilatation, laparoscopic myotomy and partial fundoplication and per-oral endoscopic myotomy or per-oral esophageal myotomy (POEM). Details of the procedures and outcomes will be discussed.

The role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in the infarcted myocardium.

The adult mammalian heart has negligible regenerative capacity. Following myocardial infarction, sudden necrosis of cardiomyocytes triggers an intense inflammatory reaction that clears the wound from dead cells and matrix debris, while activating a reparative program. A growing body of evidence suggests that members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family critically regulate the inflammatory and reparative response following infarction. Although all three TGF-β isoforms (TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3) are markedly upregulated in the infarcted myocardium, information on isoform-specific actions is limited. Experimental studies have suggested that TGF-β exerts a wide range of actions on cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells, and vascular cells. The findings are often conflicting, reflecting the context-dependence of TGF-β-mediated effects; conclusions are often based exclusively on in vitro studies and on associative evidence. TGF-β has been reported to modulate cardiomyocyte survival responses, promote monocyte recruitment, inhibit macrophage pro-inflammatory gene expression, suppress adhesion molecule synthesis by endothelial cells, promote myofibroblast conversion and extracellular matrix synthesis, and mediate both angiogenic and angiostatic effects. This review manuscript discusses our understanding of the cell biological effects of TGF-β in myocardial infarction. We discuss the relative significance of downstream TGF-β-mediated Smad-dependent and -independent pathways, and the risks and challenges of therapeutic TGF-β targeting. Considering the high significance of TGF-β-mediated actions in vivo, study of cell-specific effects and dissection of downstream signaling pathways are needed in order to design safe and effective therapeutic approaches.

Do guidelines for treating chest disease in children use Cochrane Reviews effectively? A systematic review.

Cochrane Reviews summarise best evidence and should inform guidelines. We assessed the use of Cochrane Reviews in the UK guidelines for paediatric respiratory disease. We found 21 guidelines which made 1025 recommendations, of which 96 could be informed by a Cochrane Review. In 38/96 recommendations (40%), some or all of the relevant Cochrane Reviews were not cited. We linked recommendations to 140 Cochrane Reviews. In 37/140 (26%) cases, the guideline recommendation did not fully agree with the Cochrane Review. Guideline developers may fail to use Cochrane Reviews or may make recommendations which are not in line with best evidence.

Effect of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention on prevalence of cognitive impairment.

To assess whether an average of 10 years of lifestyle intervention designed to reduce weight and increase physical activity lowers the prevalence of cognitive impairment among adults at increased risk due to type 2 diabetes and obesity or overweight.

Lactose Intolerance (LCT-13910C>T) Genotype Is Associated with Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Caucasians: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Background: The LCT-13910C>T gene variant is associated with lactose intolerance (LI) in different ethnic groups. Individuals with LI often limit or avoid dairy consumption, a major dietary source of vitamin D in North America, which may lead to inadequate vitamin D intake.Objective: The objective was to determine the prevalence of genotypes predictive of LI in different ethnic groups living in Canada and to determine whether the LCT genotype is associated with plasma 25(OH)D concentrations.Methods: Blood samples were drawn from a total of 1495 men and women aged 20-29 y from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study for genotyping and plasma 25(OH)D analysis. Intakes of dairy were assessed by using a 196-item food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of LCT-13910C>T genotypes was compared by using χ(2) analysis. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we examined the association between LCT genotypes and 25(OH)D concentrations.Results: Approximately 32% of Caucasians, 99% of East Asians, 74% of South Asians, and 59% of those with other or mixed ethnicities had the CC genotype associated with LI. Compared with those with the TT genotype, those with the CC genotype had a lower mean ± SE total dairy intake (2.15 ± 0.09 compared with 2.67 ± 0.12 servings/d, P = 0.003), a lower skim-milk intake (0.20 ± 0.03 compared with 0.46 ± 0.06 servings/d, P = 0.0004), and a lower plasma 25(OH)D concentration (63 ± 1.9 compared with 75.8 ± 2.4 nmol/L, P < 0.0001). The CT and CC genotypes were associated with a 50% and a 2-fold increased risk, respectively, of a suboptimal plasma 25(OH)D concentration (<75 nmol/L).Conclusions: In Caucasians, the CC genotype that predicts LI is associated with a lower plasma 25(OH)D concentration, which is attributable at least in part to a lower intake of dairy, particularly skim milk. Increased risk of suboptimal concentrations of vitamin D was also observed among those with the CT genotype, suggesting an intermediate effect of the heterozygous genotype.

Dietary Methionine Restriction Regulates Liver Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Phosphorylation in Mice.

Background: The phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2) during dietary amino acid insufficiency reduces protein synthesis and alters gene expression via the integrated stress response (ISR).Objective: We explored whether a Met-restricted (MR) diet activates the ISR to reduce body fat and regulate protein balance.Methods: Male and female mice aged 3-6 mo with either whole-body deletion of general control nonderepressible 2 (Gcn2) or liver-specific deletion of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk) alongside wild-type or floxed control mice were fed an obesogenic diet sufficient in Met (0.86%) or an MR (0.12% Met) diet for ≤5 wk. Ala enrichment with deuterium was measured to calculate protein synthesis rates. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity of eIF2B was measured alongside p-eIF2 and hepatic mRNA expression levels at 2 d and 5 wk. Metabolic phenotyping was conducted at 4 wk, and body composition was measured throughout. Results were evaluated with the use of ANOVA (P < 0.05).Results: Feeding an MR diet for 2 d did not increase hepatic p-eIF2 or reduce eIF2B activity in wild-type or Gcn2(-/-) mice, yet many genes transcriptionally regulated by the ISR were altered in both strains in the same direction and amplitude. Feeding an MR diet for 5 wk increased p-eIF2 and reduced eIF2B activity in wild-type but not Gcn2(-/-) mice, yet ISR-regulated genes altered in both strains similarly. Furthermore, the MR diet reduced mixed and cytosolic but not mitochondrial protein synthesis in both the liver and skeletal muscle regardless of Gcn2 status. Despite the similarities between strains, the MR diet did not increase energy expenditure or reduce body fat in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Finally, feeding the MR diet to mice with Perk deleted in the liver increased hepatic p-eIF2 and altered body composition similar to floxed controls.Conclusions: Hepatic activation of the ISR resulting from an MR diet does not require p-eIF2. Gcn2 status influences body fat loss but not protein balance when Met is restricted.

Combined Vitamin B-12 and Balanced Protein-Energy Supplementation Affect Homocysteine Remethylation in the Methionine Cycle in Pregnant South Indian Women of Low Vitamin B-12 Status.

Background: Low-quality dietary protein intake and vitamin B-12 deficiency could interact to decrease methionine transmethylation and remethylation rates during pregnancy and may affect epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome.Objective: The objective of this randomized, partially open-labeled intervention trial was to examine the effect of supplemental high-quality protein and vitamin B-12 on third-trimester methionine kinetics in pregnant Indian women with a low vitamin B-12 status.Methods: Pregnant women with low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations (<200 pmol/L) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: the first group received balanced protein-energy supplementation of 500 mL milk/d plus a 10-μg vitamin B-12 tablet/d (M+B-12 group; n = 30), the second group received milk (500 mL/d) plus a placebo tablet (M+P group; n = 30), and the third group received a placebo tablet alone (P group; n = 33). Third-trimester fasting plasma amino acid kinetics were measured by infusing 1-(13)C,methyl-(2)H3-methionine, ring-(2)H5-phenylalanine, ring-(2)H4-tyrosine,1-(13)C-glycine, and 2,3,3-(2)H3,(15)N-serine in a subset of participants. Placental mRNA expression of genes involved in methionine pathways, placental long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (LINE-1) methylation, and promoter methylation levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed.Results: Remethylation rates in the M+B-12, M+P, and P groups were 5.1 ± 1.7, 4.1 ± 1.0, and, 5.0 ± 1.4 μmol ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ h(-1), respectively (P = 0.057), such that the percentage of transmethylation remethylated to methionine tended to be higher in the M+B-12 group (49.5% ± 10.5%) than in the M+P group (42.3% ± 8.4%; P = 0.053) but neither differed from the P group (44.2% ± 8.1%; P > 0.1). Placental mRNA expression, LINE-1, and VEGF promoter methylation did not differ between groups.Conclusions: Combined vitamin B-12 and balanced protein-energy supplementation increased the homocysteine remethylation rate in late pregnancy. Thus, vitamin B-12 along with balanced protein-energy supplementation is critical for optimal functioning of the methionine cycle in the third trimester of pregnancy in Indian women with low serum vitamin B-12 in early pregnancy. This trial was registered at as CTRI/2016/01/006578.

Texture-Based Differences in Eating Rate Reduce the Impact of Increased Energy Density and Large Portions on Meal Size in Adults.

Background: Large portions and high dietary energy density promote overconsumption at meal times. This could be reduced by eating slowly.Objective: Two studies investigated whether texture-based reductions in eating rate and oral processing moderate consumption at breakfast in combination with variations in energy density and portion size.Methods: Adults attended 4 breakfast sessions (2 × 2 repeated-measures design) to consume rice porridge, combining a 45% reduction in eating rate [thin porridge (140 g/min) compared with thick porridge (77 g/min)] with a 77% increase in energy density (0.57 compared with 1.01 kcal/g) in study 1 [n = 61; aged 21-48 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 16-29] and a 50% increase in portion size (100% compared with 150%) in study 2 (n = 53; aged 21-42 y; BMI: 16-29). Oral processing behaviors were coded by using webcams. Porridge intake was measured alongside changes in rated appetite.Results: Increases in energy density and portion size led to increases of 80% and 13% in energy intake at breakfast, respectively (P < 0.001), but only portion size increased the weight of food consumed (13%). The thicker porridges were consumed at a slower rate and led to 11-13% reductions in food weight and energy intake compared with the thin versions (P < 0.001). Combined, the least energy was consumed when the thick "slow" porridge was served with a lower energy density or smaller portion (P < 0.05). Although intake was reduced for the thick porridges, they were expected to be more filling than the thin versions and experienced as equally satiating postconsumption.Conclusions: Adults eat in response to external features of the food environment. An opportunity exists to use a combination of energy-density dilution, smaller portions, and natural variations in food texture to design meals that promote reductions in energy intake while maintaining satiety.

Vitamin D Receptor and Megalin Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Longitudinal Cognitive Change among African-American Urban Adults.

Background: The link between longitudinal cognitive change and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and MEGALIN [or LDL receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2)] genes remains unclear, particularly among African-American (AA) adults.Objectives: We aimed to evaluate associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for VDR [rs11568820 (Cdx-2:T/C), rs1544410 (BsmI:G/A), rs7975232 (ApaI:A/C), rs731236 (TaqI:G/A)] and LRP2 [rs3755166:G/A,rs2075252:C/T, rs2228171:C/T] genes with longitudinal cognitive performance change in various domains of cognition.Methods: Data from 1024 AA urban adult participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span (Baltimore, Maryland) with complete genetic data were used, of whom 660-797 had complete data on 9 cognitive test scores at baseline and/or the first follow-up examination and complete covariate data (∼52% female; mean age: ∼52 y; mean years of education: 12.6 y). Time between examination visits 1 (2004-2009) and 2 (2009-2013) ranged from <1 y to ∼8 y, with a mean ± SD of 4.64 ± 0.93 y. Latent class and haplotype analyses were conducted by creating gene polymorphism groups that were related to longitudinal annual rate of cognitive change predicted from mixed-effects regression models.Results: Among key findings, the rs3755166:G/A MEGALIN SNP was associated with faster decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination overall (β = -0.002, P = 0.018) and among women. VDR2 (BsmI/ApaI/TaqI: G-/A-/A-) SNP latent class [SNPLC; compared with VDR1 (ApaI: "AA")] was linked to faster decline on the Verbal Fluency Test, Categorical, in women, among whom the MEGALIN2 (rs2228171: "TT") SNPLC (compared with MEGALIN1:rs2228171: "CC") was also associated with a faster decline on the Trailmaking Test, Part B (Trails B), but with a slower decline on the Digit Span Backward (DS-B). Moreover, among men, the VDR1 SNP haplotype (SNPHAP; GCA:baT) was associated with a slower decline on the Trails B, whereas the MEGALIN1 SNPHAP (GCC) was associated with a faster decline on the DS-B, reflected as a faster decline on cognitive domain 2 ("visual/working memory").Conclusion:VDR and MEGALIN gene variations can alter age-related cognitive trajectories differentially between men and women among AA urban adults, specifically in global mental status and domains of verbal fluency, visual/working memory, and executive function.