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- Top 30 Publications

In search of regulatory circuits that control the biological activity of vitamin D.

Although the cytochrome P450 CYP27B1 plays a critical role in vitamin D biology, the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of CYP27B1 have remained undefined. A new study has identified a kidney-specific control module distal to the Cyp27b1 gene that mediates the basal activity and hormonal regulation of Cyp27b1 This work provides a novel mechanism indicating differential regulation of Cyp27b1 in renal and non-renal cells and has implications for vitamin D biology in multiple sclerosis and perhaps other autoimmune diseases as well.

RE: Author response to Letter to the Editor from Dr. Galbraith.

Virtual Simulated Care Coordination Rounds for Nursing Students.

Implementation of the Affordable Care Act has nursing education reflecting on paradigm shifts in order to prepare nursing students for the evolving health care environment. The traditional focus of nursing education on nursing care in acute care settings does not provide learning experiences in care coordination and transitional care management skills. Virtual simulated care coordination rounds, using the National League for Nursing Advancing Care Excellence resources, offer nursing students an innovative experience in care coordination and transition care management.

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Neural and Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Controlling the Quality of Feeding Behavior: Diet Selection and Feeding Patterns.

We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. In contrast, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the qualitative aspects of feeding, although they also significantly impact the control of weight and health. However, two aspects of feeding quality relevant to weight loss and weight regain are discussed in this review: macronutrient-based diet selection (what) and feeding pattern (when). This review covers the importance of these two factors in controlling weight and health, and the central mechanisms that regulate them. The relatively limited and fragmented knowledge on these topics indicates that we lack an integrated understanding of the qualitative aspects of feeding behavior. To promote better understanding of weight control, research efforts must focus more on the mechanisms that control the quality and quantity of feeding behavior. This understanding will contribute to improving dietary interventions for achieving weight control and for preventing weight regain following weight loss.

A Systematic Review of Computational Drug Discovery, Development, and Repurposing for Ebola Virus Disease Treatment.

Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a deadly global public health threat, with no currently approved treatments. Traditional drug discovery and development is too expensive and inefficient to react quickly to the threat. We review published research studies that utilize computational approaches to find or develop drugs that target the Ebola virus and synthesize its results. A variety of hypothesized and/or novel treatments are reported to have potential anti-Ebola activity. Approaches that utilize multi-targeting/polypharmacology have the most promise in treating EVD.

Transforming Nursing Education: A Call for a Conceptual Approach.

In an effort to meet the changing landscape of the health care system and the explosion of nursing knowledge, the Institute of Medicine and the Robert Wood Johnston Foundation have summoned nursing academia to partner on curriculum development with an emphasis on the professional socialization of the new nurse. As health care continues to change, the education of nurses must also evolve to meet these changes. Curriculum transformation is needed at nearly every aspect of health care. This policy statement will explore these challenges and the transformation in nursing education required to meet them.

A Low-Cost Simulator for Training in Endoscopic-Assisted Transaxillary Dual-Plane Breast Augmentation.

Endoscopic-assisted transaxillary dual-plane (EATD) technique is a popular procedure for breast augmentation, especially for Chinese women. However, frustration is often expressed by plastic surgeons when first attempting EATD surgery. Simulation-based teaching is beneficial for EATD training, but it is expensive. This study presents a low-cost simulator to help plastic surgeons exercise psychomotor skills during EATD surgery.

An ecofriendly approach for bioremediation of contaminated water environment: Potential contribution of a coastal seaweed community to environmental improvement.

High levels of heavy metals like copper ions in many industrial based effluents lead to serious environmental and health problems. Biosorption is a potential environmental biotechnology approach for biotreatment of aquatic sites polluted with heavy metal ions. Seaweeds have received great attention for their high bioremediation potential in recent years. However, the co-application of marine macroalgae for removal of heavy metals from wastewater is very limited. Thus, for the first time in literature, a coastal seaweed community composed of Chaetomorpha sp., Polysiphonia sp., Ulva sp. and Cystoseira sp. species was applied to remove copper ions from synthetic aqueous medium in this study. The biosorption experiments in batch mode were conducted to examine the effects of operating variables including pH, biosorbent amount, metal ion concentration and contact time on the biosorption process. The biosorption behavior of biosorbent was described by various equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic models. The biosorption of copper ions was strongly influenced by the operating parameters. The results indicated that the equilibrium data of biosorption were best modeled by Sips isotherm model. The values of mean free energy of biosorption computed from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model and the standard Gibbs free energy change indicated a feasible, spontaneous and physical biotreatment system. The pseudo-second-order rate equation successfully defined the kinetic behavior of copper biosorption. The pore diffusion also played role in the control of biosorption process. The maximum copper uptake capacity of biosorbent was found to be greater than those of many other biosorbents. The obtained results revealed that this novel biosorbent could be a promising material for copper ion bioremediation implementations.

Multimodal serotonergic antidepressants.

Based on the original literature, the author for the first time describes a history of selective serotonergic antidepressants simultaneously inhibiting the serotonin reuptake and directly interacting with serotonin receptors. A history of creation and introduction of their main representatives is presented. A history of investigation of their neurochemical activity is analyzed in details. The history of the evolution of their classifications is systemized. The data presented suggest the rationale for unifying all selective serotonergic antidepressants, simultaneously inhibiting the serotonin reuptake and directly interacting with serotonin receptors (trazodone, etoperidone, nefazodone, vilazodone, vortioxetine), in one group of 'multimodal serotonergic antidepressants'. The expediency to include this group in the modern neurochemical classification of nootropic drugs is substantiated.

Author Correction: Long working hours directly and indirectly (via short sleep duration) induce headache even in healthy white-collar men: cross-sectional and 1-year follow-up analyses.

Author Correction: Int Arch Occup Environ Health DOI 10.1007/s00420-017-1255-6.

Correction to: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy with cortical involvement and polyneuropathy following gastrectomy.

In the original publication of the article, author name Hong-Shiu Chang was incorrectly written as Hong-Chiu Chang.

A New Dyslexia Reading Method and Visual Correction Position Method.

Pediatricians and educators may interact daily with several dyslexic patients or students. One dyslexic author accidently developed a personal, effective, corrective reading method. Its effectiveness was evaluated in 3 schools. One school utilized 8 demonstration special education students. Over 3 months, one student grew one third year, 3 grew 1 year, and 4 grew 2 years. In another school, 6 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade classroom teachers followed 45 treated dyslexic students. They all excelled and progressed beyond their classroom peers in 4 months. Using cyclovergence upper gaze, dyslexic reading problems disappeared at one of the Positional Reading Arc positions of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° for 10 dyslexics. Positional Reading Arc on 112 students of the second through eighth grades showed words read per minute, reading errors, and comprehension improved. Dyslexia was visually corrected by use of a new reading method and Positional Reading Arc positions.

Pediatric Testicular Microlithiasis: To Refer or Not to Refer?

A 17-Year-Old Girl With Weight Loss and Anemia.

Evaluating Diabetes Care for Patients With Serious Mental Illness Using the Chronic Care Model: A Pilot Study.

People with serious mental illness (SMI) have a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and shorter life span due to medical health problems. The chronic care model (CCM) has been used to improve care of patients with T2DM. One clinical organization that provided primary care to patients with SMI had excellent diabetes outcomes but did not have information on how they achieved those outcomes. Thus, we conducted a pilot study chart review for 30 patients with T2DM and SMI to determine how well the clinic's system aligned with the overall CCM components and which components correlated with diabetes control. We also evaluated use of the CCM using the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care provider survey. Results showed that the clinic had an overall basic implementation level of the CCM, which allows opportunity for improvement. Two elements of the CCM were correlated with hemoglobin A1C and both were in an unexpected direction: self-management support in the variable of percentage of visits that included patient-specific goal-setting (rs = .52; P = .004) and delivery system design in the variable of number of nurse practitioner visits per study period (rs = .43; P = .02). These findings suggest that the clinic may have made more concentrated efforts to manage diabetes for patients who were not in good diabetes control. Providers noted the influence of SMI and social service organization support on these patients' clinical outcomes. The findings will be reexamined after a fuller implementation of the CCM to further improve management in this population.

Accuracy of the Lever Sign Test in the Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

The lever sign test is a new physical examination tool to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Preliminary results suggest almost 100% sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute and chronic complete ACL tears and clinically significant partial tears as compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Rare Cause of Pathological Fracture of the Femur.

The incidence rate of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in the United States is approximately 0.005%; men are at slightly higher risk than women. Bony involvement or pathological fracture rarely occurs in CLL, and it may be the initial presentation. An 85-year-old woman presented with acute respiratory failure secondary to pneumonia. Symptomatology included dyspnea. She was found to have pathological fracture of the femur caused by CLL. The diagnosis of CLL had been made 6 years previously, but the patient had refused therapy. On admission, the patient required endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and admission to the medical intensive care unit. Endotracheal intubation extubation was successful after 48 hours. The patient then complained of severe left knee pain. Bone radiograph and femoral computed tomography scan revealed acute pathological fracture of the left distal femur. There was no history of trauma. The fracture was stabilized with extension lock splint. Pathological fracture in patients with CLL is associated with hypercalcemia, Richter's transformation, or multiple myeloma. This patient exemplifies the fact that pathological fracture can be caused by CLL in the absence of hypercalcemia, Richter's transformation, or multiple myeloma and can be the initial presentation of CLL.

A Diagnostic Surprise: Primary Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Lung.

An 81-year-old male presented to the emergency room with a 3-month history of progressive shortness of breath, productive cough with white sputum, and generalized weakness with 10-pound weight loss in 2 months. On presentation, the patient was afebrile, with blood pressure of 93/55 mm Hg and oxy-hemoglobin saturation of 92% on 2 liters of oxygen via nasal cannula. Complete blood count with differential was significant for white count of 12 400/mL. Brain natriuretic peptide level was 454 ng/mL. Postero-anterior chest radiograph showed multiple round opacities in the lung fields. Computed tomography scan of the chest confirmed multiple round densities in both the lung fields along with mild mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Core needle biopsy was performed. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD30 and CD15 in a population of large atypical cells amid a background of CD3-positive nonneoplastic cells. These results were in support of the diagnosis of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung with histological appearance confirming nodular sclerosis type. The patient was started on chemotherapy but was readmitted in 20 days for acute respiratory distress and suffered cardiac arrest and subsequently died. This case highlights the fact that although primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung is a rare entity, it should be thought of as a differential while evaluating lung masses. In these cases, definite diagnosis can only be made by biopsy and histology. Early commencement of chemotherapy and regular follow-up with oncology is essential.

Eosinophilic Enteritis: A Delayed Diagnosis.

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are a rare and complex group of disorders that are characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients often present with a wide range of signs and symptoms as any length or layer of the GI tract can be involved such as mucosal, muscular, or serosal. As a part of the workup, patients frequently undergo computed tomography scans and multiple endoscopies before the diagnosis is finally made as was true in our case of a 59-year-old male patient presenting with 2 months of nausea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. He underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopies, colonoscopies, video capsule study, and balloon enteroscopy before the diagnosis was confirmed histologically. Endoscopic and radiographic findings can be variable and are usually unpredictable. The diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination of biopsies that must show >15-50 eosinophils/high-power field based on the location in the GI tract. In our patient, erythema, scalloping, whitish exudate, and patches of villous blunting were noted in the duodenum to proximal ileum endoscopically with >50 eosinophils/high-power field confirming the diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis. This class of diseases is often found in patients with a history of allergic disorders suggestive of hypersensitivity in the etiology of the disease although our patient had no such known history. Elimination diets and steroids are the mainstay of therapy and often lead to complete resolution of symptoms as well as endoscopic and radiographic findings in up to 90% of patients as was seen in our patient, although some patients have a chronic remitting course.

Autoimmune Pancreatitis Type 2: Case Report.

A middle-aged man presents with acute pancreatitis of unknown etiology and is found to have a presentation consistent with the diagnosis of type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). AIP is a group of rare heterogeneous diseases that are challenging to diagnose. There are 2 types of AIP. Type 1 disease is the more common worldwide than type 2 AIP. While type 1 AIP is associated with IgG4-positive antibodies, type 2 AIP is IgG4 antibody negative. Both types of AIP are responsive to corticosteroid treatment. Although type 1 AIP has more extrapancreatic manifestations and more commonly relapses, this is a case of a patient with type 2 AIP with inflammatory bowel disease and relapsing course.

Scleroderma Renal Crisis in Mixed Connective Tissue Disease With Full Renal Recovery Within 3 Months: A Case Report With Expanding Treatment Modalities to Treat Each Clinical Sign as an Independent Entity.

Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rheumatologic overlap syndrome that can present with symptoms of systemic lupus erythematous, scleroderma, and polymyositis. A severe but rare complication that can occur in MCTD is scleroderma renal crisis. With multiple poor prognostic indicators, the renal outcome is usually poor. The clinical and histological picture is one of a thrombotic microangiopathy. Clinical suspicion has to be high for additional thrombotic or autoimmune processes coexisting due to associated morbidity. In this article, we report a rare case of scleroderma renal crisis in a patient with MCTD who we treated with plasma exchange for clinical suspicion for an underlying thrombotic thrombocytopenia and mycophenolate mofetil for MCTD. The patient had multiple poor prognostic indicators yet made a full renal recovery in less than 3 months.

Successful discontinuation of immunoglobulin G replacement at age 10 in a patient with immunoglobulin G2 deficiency.

Immunoglobulin G2 deficiency that persists beyond the age of 6 years is likely to be permanent.

Controlled dexamethasone delivery via double-walled microspheres to enhance long-term adipose tissue retention.

Current materials used for adipose tissue reconstruction have critical shortcomings such as suboptimal volume retention, donor-site morbidity, and poor biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to examine a controlled delivery system of dexamethasone to generate stable adipose tissue when mixed with disaggregated human fat in an athymic mouse model for 6 months. The hypothesis that the continued release of dexamethasone from polymeric microspheres would enhance both adipogenesis and angiogenesis more significantly when compared to the single-walled microsphere model, resulting in long-term adipose volume retention, was tested. Dexamethasone was encapsulated within single-walled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (Dex SW MS) and compared to dexamethasone encapsulated in a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) core surrounded by a shell of poly-l-lactide. The double-walled polymer microsphere system in the second model was developed to create a more sustainable drug delivery process. Dexamethasone-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (Dex SW MS) and dexamethasone-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly-l-lactide double-walled microspheres (Dex DW MS) were prepared using single and double emulsion/solvent techniques. In vitro release kinetics were determined. Two doses of each type of microsphere were examined; 50 and 27 mg of Dex MS and Dex DW MS were mixed with 0.3 mL of human lipoaspirate. Additionally, 50 mg of empty MS and lipoaspirate-only controls were examined. Samples were analyzed grossly and histologically after 6 months in vivo. Mass and volume were measured; dexamethasone microsphere-containing samples demonstrated greater adipose tissue retention compared to the control group. Histological analysis, including hematoxylin and eosin and CD31 staining, indicated increased vascularization (p < 0.05) within the Dex MS-containing samples. Controlled delivery of adipogenic factors, such as dexamethasone via polymer microspheres, significantly affects adipose tissue retention by maintaining healthy tissue formation and vascularization. Dex DW MS provide an improved model to former Dex SW MS, resulting in notably longer release time and, consequently, larger volumes of adipose retained in vivo. The use of microspheres, specifically double-walled, as vehicles for controlled drug delivery of adipogenic factors therefore present a clinically relevant model of adipose retention that has the potential to greatly improve soft tissue repair.

Impact of expansion and redifferentiation under hypothermia on chondrogenic capacity of cultured human septal chondrocytes.

A critical limitation in the cultivation of cartilage for tissue engineering is the dedifferentiation in chondrocytes, mainly during in vitro amplification. Despite many previous studies investigating the influence of various conditions, no data exist concerning the effects of hypothermia. Our aim has been to influence chondrocyte dedifferentiation in vitro by hypothermic conditions. Chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsies and seeded in monolayer and in three-dimensional pellet-cultures. Each cell culture was either performed at 32.2°C or 37°C during amplification. Additionally, the influence of the redifferentiation of chondrocytes in three-dimensional cell culture was examined at 32.2°C and 37°C after amplification at 32.2°C or 37°C. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay was used to measure cell proliferation in monolayer, whereas the polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical and histological staining were used in three-dimensional pellet-cultures. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to measure the relative expression of the target genes collagen II, collagen I, aggrecan and versican. Ratios were estimated between collagen II/collagen I and aggrecan/versican to evaluate differentiation. A higher value of these ratios indicated an advantageous status of differentiation. In monolayer, hypothermia at 32.2°C slowed down the proliferation rate of chondrocytes significantly, being up to two times lower at 32.2°C compared with culture at 37°C. Simultaneously, hypothermia in monolayer decelerated dedifferentiation. The ratio of aggrecan/versican was significantly higher at 32.2°C compared with that at 37°C. In three-dimensional pellet-culture, the chondrocytes redifferentiated at 32.2°C and at 37°C, and this process is more distinct at 37°C than at 32.2°C. Similar results were obtained for the ratios of collagen II/collagen I and aggrecan/versican and were supported by immunochemical and histological staining. Thus, hypothermic conditions for chondrocytes are mainly advantageous in monolayer culture. In three-dimensional pellet-culture, redifferentiation predominates at 37°C compared with at 32.2°C. In particular, the results from the monolayer cultures show potential in the avoidance of dedifferentiation.

Making microenvironments: A look into incorporating macromolecular crowding into in vitro experiments, to generate biomimetic microenvironments which are capable of directing cell function for tissue engineering applications.

Biomimetic microenvironments are key components to successful cell culture and tissue engineering in vitro. One of the most accurate biomimetic microenvironments is that made by the cells themselves. Cell-made microenvironments are most similar to the in vivo state as they are cell-specific and produced by the actual cells which reside in that specific microenvironment. However, cell-made microenvironments have been challenging to re-create in vitro due to the lack of extracellular matrix composition, volume and complexity which are required. By applying macromolecular crowding to current cell culture protocols, cell-made microenvironments, or cell-derived matrices, can be generated at significant rates in vitro. In this review, we will examine the causes and effects of macromolecular crowding and how it has been applied in several in vitro systems including tissue engineering.

Midostaurin: a novel therapeutic agent for patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis.

The development of FLT3-targeted inhibitors represents an important paradigm shift in the management of patients with highly aggressive fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-mutated (FLT3-mut) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Midostaurin is an orally administered type III tyrosine kinase inhibitor which in addition to FLT3 inhibits c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, src, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Midostaurin is the first FLT3 inhibitor that has been shown to significantly improve survival in younger patients with FLT3-mut AML when given in combination with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy based on the recently completed RATIFY study. Its role for maintenance therapy after allogeneic transplantation and use in combination with hypomethylating agents for older patients with FLT3-mut has not yet been defined. Midostaurin also has recently been shown to have significant activity in systemic mastocytosis and related disorders due to its inhibitory effect on c-kit bearing a D816V mutation. Activation of downstream pathways in both of these myeloid malignancies likely plays an important role in the development of resistance, and strategies to inhibit these downstream targets may be synergistic. Incorporating patient factors and tumor characteristics, such as FLT3 mutant to wild-type allele ratios and resistance mutations, likely will be important in the optimization of midostaurin and other FLT3 inhibitors in the treatment of myeloid neoplasms.

The Mistaken Birth and Adoption of LNT: An Abridged Version.

The historical foundations of cancer risk assessment were based on the discovery of X-ray-induced gene mutations by Hermann J. Muller, its transformation into the linear nonthreshold (LNT) single-hit theory, the recommendation of the model by the US National Academy of Sciences, Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation I, Genetics Panel in 1956, and subsequent widespread adoption by regulatory agencies worldwide. This article summarizes substantial recent historical revelations of this history, which profoundly challenge the standard and widely acceptable history of cancer risk assessment, showing multiple significant scientific errors and incorrect interpretations, mixed with deliberate misrepresentation of the scientific record by leading ideologically motivated radiation geneticists. These novel historical findings demonstrate that the scientific foundations of the LNT single-hit model were seriously flawed and should not have been adopted for cancer risk assessment.

Continuous Low-Dose-Rate Irradiation Promotes Growth of Silkworms.

To investigate the influence of low-dose-rate irradiation on the growth of silkworms, Bombyx mori, eggs of silkworms were randomly divided into 2 groups and were grown on either low-dose-radiation-emitting sheets or control sheets. On the radiation-emitting sheets, the dose rate was measured as 66.0 (4.3) μSv/h (mean [standard deviation]) by a Geiger-Müller counter for α, β, and γ rays and 3.8 (0.3) μSv/h by a survey meter for γ rays. The silkworms became larger when bred on the radiation-emitting sheets, and their body weight was about 25% to 37% heavier on day 42 to 49 after starting the experiment. Continuous low-dose-rate irradiation promoted the growth of silkworms. It should be further investigated whether this phenomenon could be utilized by the silk industry.

Assessment of the Effects of Graded Doses of Polyphenolic-Rich Fraction of Garcinia kola Seeds on Pituitary-Testicular Axis of Male Wistar Rats.

This study evaluated the ameliorative and prophylactic effects of 2 different doses of polyphenolic-rich fraction of Garcinia kola (PPRFGk) seeds on the histology and hormones of pituitary-testicular axis of male Wistar rats. Thirty-five male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each. Groups I and II were given distilled water (0.5 mL/day) for 8 days followed by propylene glycol (0.2 mL/d) and 600 mg/kg of PPRFGk, respectively, for 21 days. Group III received sodium arsenate (8 days), left untreated for 21 days. Groups IV and V received sodium arsenate (20 mg/kg) for 8 days followed by PPRFGk (300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively) for 21 days. Groups VI and VII received PPRFGk (300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively) for 21 days followed by sodium arsenate (20 mg/kg) for 8 days. Rats were killed by cervical dislocation 24 hours after the last dose and their blood collected through cardiac puncture. Blood sera were assayed for the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone using immunoassay techniques. Histology of the pituitary gland and testes was carried out. A significant reduction was observed in the concentration of FSH in groups IV, V, VI, and VII in comparison with groups I and II. The concentrations of both LH and testosterone showed significant decreases in groups IV, V, VI, and VII in comparison with group I. Group III presented with the lowest serum hormonal concentrations. Photomicrographs of the pituitary gland revealed greatly reduced basophils in group III and mildly reduced basophils in groups IV, VI, and VII in comparison with groups I and II. Group V revealed hypercellularized and distorted basophils. Photomicrographs of the testes showed detachment of the seminiferous tubules from the basement membrane and disruption of the interstitial space which was worse in group III, moderate in groups V and VI, and mild in group VII. In conclusion, PPRFGk effected a dose-dependent reversal and prevention of the perturbations caused by arsenate in rats.