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Andrea Zini - Top 30 Publications

Development of an education campaign to reduce delays in pre-hospital response to stroke.

Systematic reviews call for well-designed trials with clearly described intervention components to support the effectiveness of educational campaigns to reduce patient delay in stroke presentation. We herein describe the systematic development process of a campaign aimed to increase stroke awareness and preparedness.

Platelet Function Testing in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Observational Study.

The measurement of platelet reactivity in patients with stroke undergoing antiplatelet therapies is not commonly performed in clinical practice. We assessed the prevalence of therapy responsiveness in patients with stroke and further investigated differences between patients on prevention therapy at stroke onset and patients naive to antiplatelet medications. We also sought differences in responsiveness between etiological subtypes and correlations between Clopidogrel responsiveness and genetic polymorphisms.

Association Between Migraine and Cervical Artery Dissection: The Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults.

Although sparse observational studies have suggested a link between migraine and cervical artery dissection (CEAD), any association between the 2 disorders is still unconfirmed. This lack of a definitive conclusion might have implications in understanding the pathogenesis of both conditions and the complex relationship between migraine and ischemic stroke (IS).

Sex Differences and Functional Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis.

Women have a worse outcome after stroke compared with men, although in intravenous thrombolysis (IVT)-treated patients, women seem to benefit more. Besides sex differences, age has also a possible effect on functional outcome. The interaction of sex on the functional outcome in IVT-treated patients in relation to age remains complex. The purpose of this study was to compare outcome after IVT between women and men with regard to age in a large multicenter European cohort reflecting daily clinical practice of acute stroke care.

Usefulness of Thromboelastography in the Detection and Management of Tissue Plasminogen Activator-Associated Hyperfibrinolysis.

Rotation thromboelastometry is a viscoelastometric method that provides a rapid assessment of a patient's hemostatic processes in emergency settings, allowing prompt identification of specific coagulation abnormalities. Its results thus might guide targeted replacement therapy in hemorrhagic conditions, in case of platelet or coagulation factor deficiency, or hyperfibrinolysis, which is difficult to identify otherwise. Although currently used in emergency and traumatic surgery, there are limited data about thromboelastometry in ischemic stroke, particularly in monitoring the coagulative response to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Here we report a case of ischemic stroke complicated by a remote asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after IVT and additional endovascular therapy that has been successfully treated with intravenous infusion of tranexamic acid after the detection of the status of hyperfibrinolysis provided by thromboelastometry. Further studies are needed to provide the potential usefulness of thromboelastometry and tranexamic acid in ischemic stroke complicated by intracranial bleeding.

Familial paraganglioma syndrome: a rare cause of carotid artery occlusion.

e-NIHSS: an Expanded National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Weighted for Anterior and Posterior Circulation Strokes.

The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is the most widespread clinical scale used in patients presenting with acute stroke. The merits of the NIHSS include simplicity, quickness, and agreement between clinicians. The clinical evaluation on posterior circulation stroke remains still a limit of NIHSS.

Propensity Score-Based Analysis of Percutaneous Closure Versus Medical Therapy in Patients With Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale: The IPSYS Registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults).

We sought to compare the benefit of percutaneous closure to that of medical therapy alone for the secondary prevention of embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and otherwise unexplained ischemic stroke, in a propensity scored study.

Risk Profile of Symptomatic Lacunar Stroke Versus Nonlobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Although lacunar stroke (LS) and deep intracerebral hemorrhage (dICH) represent acute manifestations of the same pathological process involving cerebral small vessels (small vessel disease), it remains unclear what factors predispose to one phenotype rather than the other at individual level.

"Opening the Unopenable": Endovascular Treatment in a Patient with Three Months' Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion and Hemispheric Symptomatic Hypoperfusion.

Internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) is defined as "untouchable" by all specialists; no treatment is indicated because intervention risks (carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or endovascular treatment) are usually much more than benefits.(1,2) We report the case of a patient admitted to our hospital with an atherothrombotic ischemic stroke due to symptomatic acute ICAO, who developed a recurrent stroke with hemispheric hypoperfusion and was treated in the emergency department with ICAO revascularization after 60 days of occlusion finding.

Serum cholesterol levels, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. The Multicenter Study on Cerebral Haemorrhage in Italy (MUCH-Italy).

Although a concern exists that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) might increase the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), the contribution of these agents to the relationship between serum cholesterol and disease occurrence has been poorly investigated.

CT perfusion and angiographic assessment of pial collateral reperfusion in acute ischemic stroke: the CAPRI study.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between a novel angiographic score for collaterals and CT perfusion (CTP) parameters in patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients Dependent on the Daily Help of Others Before Stroke.

We compared outcome and complications in patients with stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) who could not live alone without help of another person before stroke (dependent patients) versus independent ones.

How common is isolated dysphasia among patients with stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis, and what is their outcome? Results from the SITS-ISTR.

To describe the frequency and outcome of isolated dysphasia among patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT).

Time-Dependent Computed Tomographic Perfusion Thresholds for Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Among patients with acute ischemic stroke, we determine computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) thresholds associated with follow-up infarction at different stroke onset-to-CTP and CTP-to-reperfusion times.

Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial interventions in acute ischemic stroke: Italian Stroke Organisation (ISO)-SPREAD guidelines.

Recanalization therapies in acute ischemic stroke patients: impact of prior treatment with novel oral anticoagulants on bleeding complications and outcome.

We explored the safety of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in patients with ischemic stroke on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, last intake <48 hours) in comparison with patients (1) taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or (2) without previous anticoagulation (no-OAC).

Erratum to: The Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke: rationale, design and baseline features of patients.

The Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke: rationale, design and baseline features of patients.

Endovascular treatment (ET) showed to be safe in acute stroke, but its superiority over intravenous thrombolysis is debated. As ET is rapidly evolving, it is not clear which role it may deserve in the future of stoke treatments. Based on an observational design, a treatment registry allows to study a broad range of patients, turning into a powerful tool for patients' selection. We report the methodology and a descriptive analysis of patients from a national registry of ET for stroke. The Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke is a multicenter, observational registry running in Italy from 2010. All patients treated with ET in the participating centers were consecutively recorded. Safety measures were symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, procedural adverse events and death rate. Efficacy measures were arterial recanalization and 3-month good functional outcome. From 2008 to 2012, 960 patients were treated in 25 centers. Median age was 67 years, male gender 57 %. Median baseline NIHSS was 17. The most frequent occlusion site was Middle cerebral artery (46.9 %). Intra-arterial thrombolytics were used in 165 (17.9 %) patients, in 531 (57.5 %) thrombectomy was employed, and 228 (24.7 %) patients received both treatments. Baseline features of this cohort are in line with data from large clinical series and recent trials. This registry allows to collect data from a real practice scenario and to highlight time trends in treatment modalities. It can address unsolved safety and efficacy issues on ET of stroke, providing a useful tool for the planning of new trials.

Fibrinogen decrease after intravenous thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients is a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage.

Intravenous thrombolysis is an effective treatment in acute stroke patients, but it increases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhages. Our aim is to establish if fibrinogen depletion increases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

Intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke associated with cervical internal carotid artery occlusion: the ICARO-3 study.

The aim of the ICARO-3 study was to evaluate whether intra-arterial treatment, compared to intravenous thrombolysis, increases the rate of favourable functional outcome at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke and extracranial ICA occlusion. ICARO-3 was a non-randomized therapeutic trial that performed a non-blind assessment of outcomes using retrospective data collected prospectively from 37 centres in 7 countries. Patients treated with endovascular treatment within 6 h from stroke onset (cases) were matched with patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 h from symptom onset (controls). Patients receiving either intravenous or endovascular therapy were included among the cases. The efficacy outcome was disability at 90 days assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), dichotomized as favourable (score of 0-2) or unfavourable (score of 3-6). Safety outcomes were death and any intracranial bleeding. Included in the analysis were 324 cases and 324 controls: 105 cases (32.4 %) had a favourable outcome as compared with 89 controls (27.4 %) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.79, p = 0.1]. In the adjusted analysis, treatment with intra-arterial procedures was significantly associated with a reduction of mortality (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40-0.93, p = 0.022). The rates of patients with severe disability or death (mRS 5-6) were similar in cases and controls (30.5 versus 32.4 %, p = 0.67). For the ordinal analysis, adjusted for age, sex, NIHSS, presence of diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation, the common odds ratio was 1.15 (95 % IC 0.86-1.54), p = 0.33. There were more cases of intracranial bleeding (37.0 versus 17.3 %, p = 0.0001) in the intra-arterial procedure group than in the intravenous group. After the exclusion of the 135 cases treated with the combination of I.V. thrombolysis and I.A. procedures, 67/189 of those treated with I.A. procedures (35.3 %) had a favourable outcome, compared to 89/324 of those treated with I.V. thrombolysis (27.4 %) (adjusted OR 1.75, 95 % CI 1.00-3.03, p = 0.05). Endovascular treatment of patients with acute ICA occlusion did not result in a better functional outcome than treatment with intravenous thrombolysis, but was associated with a higher rate of intracranial bleeding. Overall mortality was significantly reduced in patients treated with endovascular treatment but the rates of patients with severe disability or death were similar. When excluding all patients treated with the combination of I.V. thrombolysis and I.A. procedures, a potential benefit of I.A. treatment alone compared to I.V. thrombolysis was observed.

Determinants of premature familial arterial thrombosis in patients with juvenile ischaemic stroke. The Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults (IPSYS).

Factors predicting family history (FH) of premature arterial thrombosis in young patients with ischaemic stroke (IS) have not been extensively investigated, and whether they might influence the risk of post-stroke recurrence is still unknown. In the present study we analysed 1,881 consecutive first-ever IS patients aged 18-45 years recruited from January 2000 to January 2012 as part of the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults (IPSYS). FH of premature arterial thrombosis was any thrombotic event [IS, myocardial infarction or other arterial events event] < 45 years in proband's first-degree relatives. Compared with patients without FH of premature arterial thrombosis, those with FH (n = 85) were more often smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21-3.09) and carriers of procoagulant abnormalities (OR, 3.66; 95 % CI, 2.21-6.06). Smoking (OR, 2.48; 95 % CI, 1.20-5.15), the A1691 mutation in factor V gene (OR, 3.64; 95 % CI, 1.31-10.10), and the A20210 mutation in the prothrombin gene (OR, 8.40; 95 % CI 3.35-21.05) were associated with FH of premature stroke (n = 33), while circulating anti-phospholipids to FH of premature myocardial infarction (n = 45; OR, 3.48; 95 % CI, 1.61-7.51). Mean follow-up time was 46.6 ± 38.6 months. Recurrent events occurred more frequently in the subgroup of patients with FH of premature stroke [19.4 %); p = 0.051] compared to patients without such a FH. In conclusion, young IS patients with FH of premature arterial thrombosis exhibit a distinct risk-factor profile, an underlying procoagulant state and have worse vascular prognosis than those with no FH of juvenile thrombotic events.

Intra-arterial therapy as a rescue strategy after clinically failed intravenous thrombolysis may increase the likelihood of a good outcome in patients with severe ischaemic stroke. A retrospective two centre study.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial therapy as a rescue strategy after clinically failed intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in acute ischaemic stroke patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients treated with rescue therapy. The results from this study group were compared with those obtained from a control group consisting of 260 consecutive patients treated with IVT alone. The study group consisted of 52 patients with a mean age of 63 years and a median NIHSS score at admission of 17. Recanalization was achieved in 92% with a symptomatic haemorrhage rate of 9.6%. Rescue patients admitted with a severe stroke (NIHSS score >12) had a significantly better outcome at 90 days compared to patients with the same score but treated with IVT alone. No difference was seen for patients with a lower score at admission. This study indicates that rescue therapy may increase the proportion of patients with independent outcome if presenting with a severe stroke (NIHSS score >12) without increasing the rate of symptomatic haemorrhage.

Predictors of long-term recurrent vascular events after ischemic stroke at young age: the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults.

Data on long-term risk and predictors of recurrent thrombotic events after ischemic stroke at a young age are limited.

When a smoking gun is not enough: unusual association in secondary headache.

Antithrombotic medications and the etiology of intracerebral hemorrhage: MUCH-Italy.

To test the hypothesis that the effect of antithrombotic medications on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) varies according to the location of the hematoma.

IV thrombolysis and renal function.

To investigate the association of renal impairment on functional outcome and complications in stroke patients treated with IV thrombolysis (IVT).

Progressive bilateral medial medullary infarction.

The Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Despite recent advances in acute stroke treatment, basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a death or disability rate of close to 70%. Randomised trials have shown the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) given within 4.5 h and have shown promising results of intra-arterial thrombolysis given within 6 h of symptom onset of acute ischaemic stroke, but these results do not directly apply to patients with an acute BAO because only few, if any, of these patients were included in randomised acute stroke trials.Recently the results of the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS), a prospective registry of patients with acute symptomatic BAO challenged the often-held assumption that intra-arterial treatment (IAT) is superior to IVT. Our observations in the BASICS registry underscore that we continue to lack a proven treatment modality for patients with an acute BAO and that current clinical practice varies widely.

Obesity and the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage: the multicenter study on cerebral hemorrhage in Italy.

The effect of obesity on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may depend on the pathophysiology of vessel damage. To further address this issue, we investigated and quantified the correlations between obesity and obesity-related conditions in the causal pathways leading to ICH.