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Andreas Alexandrou - Top 30 Publications

Single-Incision Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Review and a Critical Appraisal.

Single-incision laparoscopic surgery has attracted a great deal of interest in the surgical community in recent years, including bariatric surgery. Single-incision laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SILSG) has been proposed as an alternative to the multiport laparoscopic procedure; however, it has yet to meet wide acceptance and application.

Intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasm in a patient with choledochal cyst: a link between choledochal cyst and gallbladder cancer?

Intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasms are rare precursor lesions of gallbladder cancer. They were proposed as a separate pathologic entity in 2012 by Adsay et al. for the unification of a variety of mass-forming precursor lesions including papillary adenomas, tubulopapillary adenomas, intestinal adenomas, and others. They are considered homologous to intrapapillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and intrabiliary papillary neoplasms of the common bile duct. In contrast with the commoner flat-type precursor gallbladder cancer lesions, they follow a more indolent clinical course and probably different genetic pathways to carcinogenesis. They are largely uninvestigated with only a handful of studies providing biological and clinical information. Choledochal cysts are dilation of the common bile duct. Diagnosis is usually established during childhood, and only a minority of patients are diagnosed at adulthood. They are of major clinical importance as they are known predisposing factors for biliary carcinogenesis.

Sleeve Gastrectomy and Wernicke Encephalopathy.

Thyroid function and autoimmunity are associated with the risk of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women.

Overt or subclinical thyroid dysfunction may affect the risk of fragility fractures. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of thyroid function and autoimmunity with vertebral fractures (VF) in a large sample of Greek postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study recruited 335 euthyroid postmenopausal women, aged 35-79 years. Euthyroidism was verified by serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) within the laboratory reference range (0.4-4.5 μIU/mL). VFs were diagnosed by lumbar spine lateral radiographs, according to quantitative procedures. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, as well as levels of anti-thyroglobulin (anti-TG) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) were compared according to the presence of VFs. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the presence of VFs was predicted independently by ln-TSH levels (OR = 0.290, p = 0.037) and positive anti-TG antibodies (OR = 3.308, p = 0.026) in models adjusted for age, menopausal age, and ln-HOMA-IR. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of VFs was predicted by menopausal age (OR = 1.120, p = 0.001), ln-TSH (OR = 0.312, p = 0.052), and thyroid autoimmunity (anti-TG and anti-TPO positive: OR = 6.637, p = 0.007) in a model that also included age and ln-HOMA-IR. Women with lower circulating TSH had higher risk of having a VF, independently of age, menopausal age, and insulin resistance. The presence of positive anti-TG/anti-TPO antibodies also indicated an elevated risk of fracture. Levels of thyroid hormones had no apparent effect on the risk of fracture. Further studies are necessary to establish the significance of our findings.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy with Intraoperative Endoscopic Guidance: the Importance of This Technique.

Comment on "Laparo-Endoscopic Gastrostomy (LEG) Decompression: a Novel One-time Method of Management of Gastric Leaks Following Sleeve Gastrectomy".

Association of sex hormones and glucose metabolism with the severity of multiple sclerosis.

We evaluated possible associations between the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) and levels of sex hormones as well as biochemical parameters in a sample of ambulatory patients.

Diabetes mellitus and gynecologic cancer: molecular mechanisms, epidemiological, clinical and prognostic perspectives.

Diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of which has increased dramatically worldwide, may put patients at a higher risk of cancer. The aim of our study is the clarification of the possible mechanisms linking diabetes mellitus and gynecological cancer and their epidemiological relationship.

Indices of adiposity and thyroid hormones in euthyroid postmenopausal women.

We aimed to evaluate the association between thyroid hormones and indices of obesity in a sample of euthyroid postmenopausal women.

Robotic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity: report of a 5 year experience.

Robotic bariatric procedures are nowadays in the surgeon's arsenal for the treatment of morbid obesity. With proven efficacy and advantages in gastric bypass procedures, we attempted to employ robotics and study the results in the other major bariatric procedure, sleeve gastrectomy.

Determinants of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Bariatric Patients after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass or Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Pilot Study.

Objective. Nutritional deficiencies are common after bariatric surgery. We aimed to assess the prevalence and possible predictors of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in bariatric patients. Methods. A total of 95 patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were assessed after a median of 3 years after surgery. Anthropometric/demographic and weight-loss parameters were compared according to the presence of SHPT, independently for men/premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Results. SHPT was highly prevalent (men/premenopausal women, 52.1%; postmenopausal women, 31.9%). Among men/premenopausal women, multivariate analysis indicated that SHPT was predicted by (a) 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (Exp(B) = 0.869, P-value = 0.037), independently of age, sex, smoking; (b) calcium (Exp(B) = 0.159, P-value = 0.033) and smoking, independently of age and sex; (c) magnesium (Exp(B) = 0.026, P-value = 0.046) and smoking, independently of age and sex. Among postmenopausal women, SHPT was predicted by menopausal age independently of age, smoking, and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D or calcium. The development of SHPT was not associated with the type of surgery. Conclusions. RYGB and SG exhibited similar effects regarding the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-parathyroid axis after surgery. Vitamin D status and menopausal age appear to determine SHPT on the long term. SHPT should be sought and vigorously treated with calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity with Intra-operative Endoscopy: Lessons We Learned After 100 Consecutive Patients.

Sleeve gastrectomy has become the second most common bariatric operation due to its low rates of morbidity and mortality, satisfactory treatment of patients' obesity, and resolution of associated co-morbidities. According to standard technique, calibration of the stomach is performed with varying sizes of bougies while use of intra-operative endoscopy has only sparsely been reported.

Bsm1 vitamin D receptor polymorphism and calcium homeostasis following bariatric surgery.

To evaluate the association between the Bsm1 vitamin D receptor polymorphism and the calcium-vitamin D-parathormone axis following bariatric surgery.

Vertebral fracture prevalence among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women: association with demographics, anthropometric parameters, and bone mineral density.

The prevalence of skeletal fractures shows a marked geographic variability; however, data regarding the Greek population remain limited.

Variations in glomerular filtration rate are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy postmenopausal women.

This study aims to evaluate the potential effects of renal function variations on vascular structure before the development of hypertension.

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity: 5-year results.

Data concerning the long-term efficacy of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in the treatment of morbid obesity remain scarce. In this retrospective, the authors present 5-year follow-up of 30 patients having undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

Inferior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula: case report and world-literature review.

Arteriovenous fistulas between the inferior mesenteric artery and vein are rare, with only 26 primary and secondary cases described in the literature. Secondary fistulas occur following operations of the left hemicolon and manifest as abdominal pain, abdominal mass, gastrointestinal bleeding, colonic ischemia and portal hypertension. Symptom intensities are flow-dependent, and can range from minimal symptoms to severe heart failure due to left to right shunt. Diagnosis is usually established by radiological or intraoperative examination. Treatment options include embolization and/or surgical resection. Therapeutic decisions should be adapted to the unique characteristics of the fistula on an individual basis. A new case of a primary arteriovenous fistula is described and discussed along with a complete review of the literature. The patient in this report presented with signs and symptoms of colonic ischemia without portal hypertension. The optimal treatment for this patient required a combination of embolization and surgical operation. The characteristics of these rare inferior mesenteric arteriovenous fistulas are examined and some considerations concerning diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that should be followed are presented.

Review of long-term weight loss results after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has gained enormous popularity both as a first-stage procedure in high-risk super-obese patients and as a stand-alone procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term weight loss results after SG published in the literature and compare them with the well-documented short-term and mid-term weight loss results. A detailed search in PubMed using the keywords "sleeve gastrectomy" and "long-term results" found 16 studies fulfilling the criteria of this study. A total of 492 patients were analyzed, with a follow-up of at least 5 years after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) (373 at 5 years, 72 at 6 years, 13 at 7 years, and 34 at 8 or more years). Of the total number of patients, 71.1% were women (15 studies, n = 432 patients). Mean patient age was 45.1 years (15 studies, n = 432 patients). Mean preoperative body mass index in all 16 studies was 49.2 kg/m(2). The mean percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) was 62.3%, 53.8%, 43%, and 54.8% at 5, 6, 7, and 8 or more years after LSG, respectively. The overall mean %EWL (defined as the average %EWL at 5 or more years after LSG) was 59.3% (12 studies, n = 377 patients). The overall attrition rate was 31.2% (13 studies). LSG seems to maintain its well-documented weight loss outcome at 5 or more years postoperatively, with the overall mean %EWL at 5 or more years after LSG still remaining>50%. The existing data support the role of LSG in the treatment of morbid obesity.

Osteoprotegerin, Soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor- κ B Ligand, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Aims. To evaluate carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and biomarkers of the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor- κ B ligand (OPG/RANKL) system in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) children and adolescents and controls. Subjects and Methods. Fifty six T1DM patients (mean ± SD age: 12.0 ± 2.7 years, diabetes duration: 5.42 ± 2.87 years and HbA1c: 8.0 ± 1.5%) and 28 healthy matched controls, were studied with anthropometric and laboratory measurements, including serum OPG, soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and cIMT. Results. Anthropometric, laboratory, and cIMT measurements were similar between T1DM youngsters and controls. However patients with longer diabetes duration (>/7.0 years) had indicatively higher cIMT (cIMT = 0.49 vs 0.44 mm, P 0.072) and triglyceride levels than the rest of the patients (93.7 vs 64.6 mg/dl, P 0.025). Both in the total study population (β 0.418, P 0.027) and among T1DM patients separately (β 0.604, P 0.013), BMI was the only factor associated with cIMT. BMI was further associated with OPG in both groups (β -0.335, P 0.003 and β -0.356, P 0.008 respectively), while sRANKL levels were not associated with any factor. Conclusions. BMI was the strongest independent predictor of cIMT among the whole population, and especially in diabetics, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of diabetes and adiposity on atherosclerotic burden. BMI was overall strongly associated with circulating OPG, but the causes of this association remain unclear.

Cross-sectional long-term micronutrient deficiencies after sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a pilot study.

Nutritional deficiencies are highly prevalent in obese patients. Bariatric surgery has been associated with adverse effects on homeostasis of significant vitamins and micronutrients, mainly after gastric bypass. The aim of the present study was to compare the extent of long-term postsurgical nutritional deficiencies between Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG).

Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

The metabolic dysfunction accompanying the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may increase the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although menopause per se may be an additional risk factor of CVD, the association between PCOS in postmenopausal women and cardiovascular risk has not been adequately investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of PCOS on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in nondiabetic postmenopausal women.

Osteoprotegerin as a marker of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.

Atherosclerosis is the principal cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and has many risk factors, among which is diabetes. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble glycoprotein, involved in bone metabolism. OPG is also found in other tissues, and studies have shown that it is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. OPG has been implicated in various inflammations and also has been linked to diabetes mellitus. Increased serum OPG levels were found in patients with diabetes and poor glycemic control. Furthermore, prepubertal children with type 1 diabetes have significantly increased OPG levels. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is not found in the vasculature in normal conditions, but may appear in calcifying areas. OPG and RANKL are important regulators of mineral metabolism in both bone and vascular tissues. Few data are available on the relationship between plasma OPG/RANKL levels and endothelial dysfunction as assessed using noninvasive methods like ultrasound indexes, neither in the general population nor, more specifically, in diabetic patients. The aim of our review study was to investigate, based on the existing data, these interrelationships in order to identify a means of predicting, via noninvasive methods, later development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications in diabetic patients.

Vitamin D receptor Bsm1 polymorphism, calcium metabolism and bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

Vitamin D receptor's (VDR) genotypes have been associated both with the development of bone disease and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the association between the presence of Bsm1 restriction fragment length polymorphism of VDR and bone loss in ambulatory patients with MS. This cross-sectional study included 82 adult patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Fasting blood samples were obtained for biochemical-hormonal assessment and genotyping. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed at the lumbar spine (LS) and the femoral neck (FN), using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Possible associations between VDR's genotypes and BMD levels as well as biochemical and hormonal indices were evaluated. Among premenopausal women and men, carriers of the B allele exhibited higher BMD and Z score at the FN and a trend toward higher BMD at the LS, compared to patients with the bb genotype, after adjusting for age, BMI, sex, EDSS scoring, interferon administration, duration of MS and total steroids intake. Among postmenopausal women, the presence of the B allele was not associated with BMD or T score at any site, whereas carriers of the B allele exhibited higher levels of calcium (p value 0.008, univariate). No other significant differences were exhibited between levels of electrolytes, parathormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and the genotype of VDR, in any of the groups. VDR's Bsm1 polymorphism is associated with a mild effect on BMD in younger patients with MS. Larger studies are necessary to corroborate these findings.

Improvement in cardiovascular indices after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity.

Morbidly obese patients display cardiac abnormalities which are partially reversed after weight loss. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential difference in cardiovascular disease indices between patients who underwent either gastric bypass surgery or sleeve gastrectomy.

Prevalence of vasomotor, psychological, psychosomatic and sexual symptoms in perimenopausal and recently postmenopausal Greek women: association with demographic, life-style and hormonal factors.

To assess the prevalence of climacteric symptoms and their association with demographic, life-style and hormonal parameters in Greek peri- and recently postmenopausal women.

Serum lipid levels and bone mineral density in Greek postmenopausal women.

Contradictory results have been reported regarding a relationship between serum lipid levels and bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to further investigate a possible relationship between those parameters in Greek postmenopausal women. A total of 591 patients followed at a tertiary hospital were examined for seven different lipid factors in relation to dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry measurements at the lumbar spine. Lipoprotein-a was the only lipid measurement that univariately showed an almost significant trend of association with bone mass category (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p value 0.062 for Ln(Lipoprotein-a)). In multiple regression, it was noted that a non-significant negative trend of association of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and Apolipoprotein AI with lumbar T-score (p value 0.058 and 0.075, respectively). In age subgroup analysis, Lipoprotein-a and Ln(Lipoprotein-a) presented a negative correlation with lumbar T-score for women with age ≥ 53 years (p value 0.043 and 0.070, respectively), while a negative correlation of HDL and Apolipoprotein AI levels with lumbar T-score remained in women with age < 53 years (p value 0.039 and 0.052, respectively). The findings do not support a strong relationship between lipid levels and bone mass measurements.

High normal thyroid-stimulating hormone is associated with arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women.

Apart from the effects of a dysfunctional thyroid gland on the cardiovascular system, thyroid function within the reference range may have an impact on the vasculature. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between thyroid function and markers of arterial structure and function in euthyroid postmenopausal women.

Recently postmenopausal women have the same prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis as age and traditional risk factor matched men.

To compare the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis between postmenopausal women and men of similar age early after the onset of menopause.

Determinants of quality of life in Greek middle-age women: a population survey.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate how sociodemographic parameters, lifestyle indicators and intensity of climacteric symptoms affect the quality of life (QOL) of Greek community dwelling middle-aged women.

Lack of association between vitamin D levels and bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis.

There is conflicting evidence regarding the association of vitamin D status with bone mineral density (BMD) in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated cross-sectionaly the determinants (including vitamin D levels) of low BMD in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS).