A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Anthony W Russell - Top 30 Publications

Ophthalmic and clinical factors that predict four-year development and worsening of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes.

To investigate the role of ophthalmic imaging markers - namely retinal thickness measures and corneal nerve morphology - in predicting four-year development and worsening of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM).

Underappreciation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by primary care clinicians: limited awareness of surrogate markers of fibrosis.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of incidental liver test abnormalities. General practitioners have a key role in identifying people with NAFLD at risk of significant liver disease. Recent specialist guidelines emphasize the use of fibrosis algorithms or serum biomarkers rather than routine liver tests, to assess advanced fibrosis. This study evaluated primary care clinicians' current approach to diagnosis, management and referral of NAFLD.

A comparison of characteristics of patients seen in a tertiary hospital diabetes telehealth service versus specialist face-to-face outpatients.

This study aimed to describe patient-related characteristics of those attending the diabetes telehealth service delivered from a tertiary hospital and compare these with the characteristics of patients attending face-to-face visits at the same hospital's diabetes outpatient service. This analysis could inform diabetes telehealth service improvements. To our knowledge, there has been no prior evaluation of a diabetes telehealth service in Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted as part of the Australian National Diabetes Audit in May 2016 for all patients attending the diabetes telehealth service and diabetes outpatient service. The diabetes telehealth service was serving a greater proportion of females, indigenous people and patients with a longer mean duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in the diabetes telehealth service group had a higher average glycated haemoglobin of 9.1% (76 mmol/mol) vs 8.1% (65 mmol/mol) in the diabetes outpatient service group. The diabetes telehealth service had more people with initial visits; had higher self-reported smoking rates in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients; and had adequate access to allied health supports as recommended for diabetes management. Diabetes telehealth service patients had more complex diabetes as evidenced by a higher proportion of indigenous clients, higher glycated haemoglobin and longer mean duration of diabetes.

Presence of Peripheral Neuropathy Is Associated With Progressive Thinning of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Type 1 Diabetes.

Reduced retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in cross-sectional studies. This prospective study defines longitudinal alterations to the RNFL thickness in individuals with type 1 diabetes without (DPN-ve) and with (DPN+ve) DPN and in relation to risk factors for nerve damage.

Prospective evaluation of a week one overnight metyrapone test with subsequent dynamic assessments of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function after pituitary surgery.

Optical coherence tomography predicts 4-year incident diabetic neuropathy.

To examine the capability of optical coherence tomography-derived retinal thickness measures in detecting 4-year incident diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).

Predictors for secondary therapy after surgical resection of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

Factors determining recurrence of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) that require further therapy are unclear as are postoperative follow-up imaging guidelines. We aimed to identify predictors for secondary therapy after surgical resection of NFAs and use this knowledge to inform postoperative management.

Establishing a new model of integrated primary and secondary care based around general practice: a case study of lessons learned and challenges.

This case study describes the development and implementation of an innovative integrated primary-secondary model of care for people with complex diabetes. The aim of the paper is to present the experiences of clinicians and researchers involved in implementing the 'Beacon' model by providing a discussion of the contextual factors, including lessons learned, challenges and solutions. Beacon-type models of community care for people with chronic disease are well placed to deliver on Australia's health care reform agenda, and this commentary provides rich contextual information relevant to the translation of such models into policy and practice.What is known about the topic? Better integrated clinical models of care with close cooperation between hospital-based specialists and general practitioners (GPs) is fundamental to chronic disease management.What does this paper add? A real world example of the challenges faced in implementing models of integrated care across diverse settings and business models.What are the implications for clinicians? Practice, organisational and external factors including energy clinician leadership and resourcing are critical for translation of evidence into ongoing practice.

Prospective evaluation of a week one overnight metyrapone test with subsequent dynamic assessments of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function after pituitary surgery.

To determine whether an overnight metyrapone test (OMT) within the first week postpituitary surgery can definitively assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, compared with subsequent dynamic tests and glucocorticoid requirement at 6 months.

Mobile Health (mHealth) for Diabetes Care: Opportunities and Challenges.

A qualitative follow-up study of diabetes patients' appraisal of an integrated diabetes service in primary care.

As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to escalate, health system reform is seeking better patient outcomes through new models of care that aim to provide the most appropriate care when needed. Patients' experiences of service innovations can shed light on the successes and challenges of implementing change. This paper explores patients' views of a new model of integrated care for patients with type 2 diabetes. A mixed-methods, randomised control trial evaluated a beacon clinic model of care for complex type 2 diabetes led by specialist general practitioners (GPs) in primary care settings in Brisbane, Australia. In this qualitative sub-study conducted between May 2014 and January 2015, 25 consenting participants were re-interviewed after 12 months using semi-structured questions, to explore their experiences of the new model of care. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. In the first theme, Organised for patient-centred care, patients appraised the structural elements of the clinic. For most, it was an enabling experience which included convenience, flexibility and prompt communication back to the referring GPs. The preferences of a minority were partly realised, as they tried to understand the clinical purpose in comparison with traditional care. The second theme, Positioned as partners in care, revealed the pivotal role of patient-clinician relationships in patients' engagement with advice and self-care. Most found clinicians' collaborative approach engaging and motivating. A small minority with contextual concerns were disappointed with the focus on diabetes and struggled to engage fully with the model. Most participants valued this model of care, which reflects a capacity to manage the variable and complex needs of most patients referred for care. However, multi-level strategies are also needed to enhance patients' engagement with care and the sustainability of integrated diabetes care.

Focal loss volume of ganglion cell complex in diabetic neuropathy.

The aim was to investigate the relationship between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and abnormalities in ganglion cell complex (GCC); specifically, focal loss volume (FLV) and global loss volume (GLV).

Abnormal Anterior Corneal Morphology in Diabetes Observed Using In Vivo Laser-scanning Confocal Microscopy.

To assess if diabetes alters corneal epithelial, anterior stromal and subbasal nerve plexus morphology and to determine the associations between these and other clinical variables.

A rapid decline in corneal small fibers and occurrence of foot ulceration and Charcot foot.

We present clinical, neuropathy and corneal nerve morphology data in a participant with type 2 diabetes who developed diabetic foot ulceration, partial amputation and Charcot during a longitudinal observational study. While conventional measures of neuropathy did not deteriorate significantly, corneal nerve parameters showed a rapid reduction prior to the development of foot complications.

Diagnostic capability of retinal thickness measures in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

To examine the diagnostic capability of the full retinal and inner retinal thickness measures in differentiating individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) from those without neuropathy and non-diabetic controls.

Metformin for Clozapine Associated Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Although clozapine is the gold-standard for treatment refractory schizophrenia, it has the worst metabolic profile of all antipsychotics. This is partly mediated by clozapine's impact on glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1). There is an absence of robust evidence for effective treatments for clozapine associated weight gain and metabolic syndrome. Metformin, with its role in increasing GLP-1 may aid weight loss among people on clozapine.

Retinal Tissue Thickness is Reduced in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

To investigate the relationship between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and retinal tissue thickness.

Retinal tissue thickness in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

The objective was to investigate full retinal and inner retinal thickness in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors Associated With Corneal Nerve Alteration in Type 1 Diabetes in the Absence of Neuropathy: A Longitudinal In Vivo Corneal Confocal Microscopy Study.

The aim of this study was to determine alterations to the corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SNP) over 4 years using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy in participants with type 1 diabetes and to identify significant risk factors associated with these alterations.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists combating clozapine-associated obesity and diabetes.

Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic, but its use is tempered by adverse metabolic effects such as weight gain, glucose intolerance and type II diabetes. Current interventions do not facilitate compelling or sustained improvement in metabolic status. Recent studies suggest that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may play a key role in clozapine's metabolic effects, possibly suggesting that clozapine-associated obesity and diabetes are mediated independently through reduced GLP-1. As a result, GLP-1 agonists could show promise in reversing antipsychotic-induced metabolic derangements, providing mechanistic justification that they may represent a novel approach to treat, and ultimately prevent, both diabetes and obesity in patients on clozapine. GLP-1 agonists are already used for diabetes, and they provide a unique combination of glycaemic improvement and metabolically relevant weight loss in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, in the context of a currently favourable safety profile. Using GLP-1 agonists for clozapine-associated obesity and diabetes could be a potentially effective intervention that may reduce cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable patient population.

Retinal thickness profile of individuals with diabetes.

To examine the retinal thickness profiles of individuals with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR).

"I wish they could be in my shoes": patients' insights into tertiary health care for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Insightful accounts of patient experience within a health care system can be valuable for facilitating improvements in service delivery.

Longitudinal evaluation of the natural history of conservatively managed nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

The optimal management of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas presenting without symptomatic mass effect remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to elucidate the natural history of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas managed conservatively.

Treatment of clozapine-associated obesity and diabetes with exenatide (CODEX) in adults with schizophrenia: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

Clozapine causes significant metabolic disturbances including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence that reduced glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) may contribute to aetiology of clozapine-associated metabolic dysregulation suggests a potential therapeutic role for GLP-1 agonists.

Validity Study of Video Teleconsultation for the Management of Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

A large proportion of diabetes patients do not receive a basic minimum of standard care. Telemedicine holds the promise of improving access to health care. However, the validity of remote consultation for diabetes has not been well researched. This pilot randomized control trial was designed to evaluate the agreement on prescription decisions of endocrinologists between two consultation formats: videoconferencing and face-to-face (in-person) consultation.

Reduced Incidence of Foot-Related Hospitalisation and Amputation amongst Persons with Diabetes in Queensland, Australia.

To determine trends in the incidence of foot-related hospitalisation and amputation amongst persons with diabetes in Queensland (Australia) between 2005 and 2010 that coincided with changes in state-wide ambulatory diabetic foot-related complication management.

Evaluation of a Mobile Phone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

Image-based dietary records have limited evidence evaluating their performance and use among adults with a chronic disease. This study evaluated the performance of a 3-day mobile phone image-based dietary record, the Nutricam Dietary Assessment Method (NuDAM), in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Criterion validity was determined by comparing energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly-labelled water technique. Relative validity was established by comparison to a weighed food record (WFR). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of intake from three dietitians. Ten adults (6 males, age: 61.2 ± 6.9 years old, BMI: 31.0 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) participated. Compared to TEE, mean EI (MJ/day) was significantly under-reported using both methods, with a mean ratio of EI:TEE 0.76 ± 0.20 for the NuDAM and 0.76 ± 0.17 for the WFR. Correlations between the NuDAM and WFR were mostly moderate for energy (r = 0.57), carbohydrate (g/day) (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), protein (g/day) (r = 0.78, p < 0.01) and alcohol (g/day) (rs = 0.85, p < 0.01), with a weaker relationship for fat (g/day) (r = 0.24). Agreement between dietitians for nutrient intake for the 3-day NuDAM (Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.77-0.99) was lower when compared with the 3-day WFR (ICC = 0.82-0.99). These findings demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the NuDAM to assess energy and macronutrient intake in a small sample. Some modifications to the NuDAM could improve efficiency and an evaluation in a larger group of adults with T2DM is required.

Utility of Assessing Nerve Morphology in Central Cornea Versus Whorl Area for Diagnosing Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

To compare small nerve fiber damage in the central cornea and whorl area in participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and to examine the accuracy of evaluating these 2 anatomical sites for the diagnosis of DPN.

How do Australian podiatrists manage patients with diabetes? The Australian diabetic foot management survey.

Diabetic foot complications are the leading cause of lower extremity amputation and diabetes-related hospitalisation in Australia. Studies demonstrate significant reductions in amputations and hospitalisation when health professionals implement best practice management. Whilst other nations have surveyed health professionals on specific diabetic foot management, to the best of the authors' knowledge this appears not to have occurred in Australia. The primary aim of this study was to examine Australian podiatrists' diabetic foot management compared with best practice recommendations by the Australian National Health Medical Research Council.

Corneal confocal microscopy predicts 4-year incident peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes.

This study determined if deficits in corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) assessed using corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) can predict future onset of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).