PubTransformer

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Aref A Bin Abdulhak - Top 30 Publications

Impact of total occlusion of culprit artery in acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Total occlusion (TO) of the culprit artery usually presents with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. A subset of patients with TO present as non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) without classic ST-elevation on the electrocardiogram. This may lead to delay in identification of these patients and further management. We performed a meta-analysis to estimate the difference in outcomes between totally occluded and non-occluded culprit arteries in patients with NSTEMI.

Assessment of physicians' awareness and knowledge of familial hypercholesterolemia in Saudi Arabia: Is there a gap?

The scarcity of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases reported in Saudi Arabia might be indicative of a lack of awareness of this common genetic disease among physicians.

The Use of Statins and Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still associated with a large burden and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Besides universal vaccination and antibiotic treatment, statins as adjunctive therapy may also have a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of CAP. Our goal from this review is to discuss the epidemiology of CAP, and role of statins as adjunctive therapy in the development of CAP.

Indications of Surgery in Infective Endocarditis.

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Valve surgery is fundamental in the standard of care of selected IE patients. Indeed, valve surgery can be a lifesaving procedure in critically ill endocarditis patients. Our goal from this review is to discuss the indications of surgery in IE population and international cardiac societies' guideline recommendations.

Burden of Diarrhea in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.

Health in times of uncertainty in the eastern Mediterranean region, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

The eastern Mediterranean region is comprised of 22 countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Since our Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), the region has faced unrest as a result of revolutions, wars, and the so-called Arab uprisings. The objective of this study was to present the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in the eastern Mediterranean region as of 2013.

Does Ondansetron Modify Sympathectomy Due to Subarachnoid Anesthesia?: Meta-analysis, Meta-regression, and Trial Sequential Analysis.

Disagreement among many underpowered studies has led to an equivocal understanding of the efficacy of the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron in preventing the consequences of sympathectomy after subarachnoid anesthesia. The authors assessed the efficacy of ondansetron with respect to the overall quality and statistical power of the meta-analyses.

Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

Effect of pre-procedural interrupted apixaban on heparin anticoagulation during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: a prospective observational study.

Effective intraprocedural anticoagulation is considered essential to minimize the risk of thromboembolism in catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF). The effect of interrupted apixaban on intraprocedural heparin dosing requirements and levels of achieved anticoagulation with heparin has not been well studied. The purpose of the present study was to compare heparin administration and activated clotted times (ACTs) for patients undergoing CA for AF treated with interrupted apixaban before the procedure with patients on uninterrupted warfarin.

Platelet activation and myocardial infarction in patients with pneumonia: are statins the answer?

Azithromycin and Risk of Cardiovascular Death: A Meta-Analytic Review of Observational Studies.

Recent evidence, though conflicting, suggests an association between azithromycin use and cardiovascular death. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on risk of death. Multiple databases were searched. Authors independently screened and extracted the data from studies. Primary outcome of interest was risk of death (cardiovascular and/or noncardiovascular). Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the source of a possible heterogeneity. Random effects model meta-analysis and hazards ratio (HR) were used to pool the data and calculate the overall effect estimate, respectively. Eight hundred twenty-eight citations, identified with 5 cohort studies that involved 2,246,178 episodes of azithromycin use, met our inclusion criteria. Azithromycin use was not associated with higher risk of death from any cause, HR = 0.99 [confidence interval (CI), 0.82-1.19], I = 54%, or cardiovascular cause, HR = 1.15 (CI, 0.66-2.00), I = 64%, but there was a moderate degree of heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses have shown no increased risk of death with azithromycin use in younger population with zero degree of heterogeneity, HR = 0.85 (CI, 0.66-1.09), I = 0%. However, current use of azithromycin (within 1-5 days of therapy) was associated with a higher risk of death among older population with mild degree of heterogeneity, HR = 1.64 (CI, 1.23-2.19), I = 4%. In summary, azithromycin use was not associated with higher risk of death particularly in younger population. Nevertheless, older population might be at higher risk of death with current use of azithromycin, and an alternative therapy should probably be considered.

Capecitabine-Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Capecitabine is an orally administered chemotherapeutic agent that is metabolized at the tumor site to 5-fluorouracil and thought to be without significant cardiac toxicity. We report a rare case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy that is thought to be related to capecitabine where the patient presented with chest pain, and ST elevation within 48 hours of capecitabine therapy. Workup included cardiac catheterization and coronary angiogram that showed nonobstructive coronary artery disease and anteroapical left ventricular wall motion abnormality with left ventricular ejection fraction of 35%. The drug was stopped, and the patient was treated with beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzymes inhibitor. Six weeks later, she had a repeat echocardiogram that was normal. Capecitabine-related cardiomyopathy seems to be very rare because only 5 cases have been reported in the literature (including our case). The condition has to be anticipated and treated to prevent the serious consequence of cardiac dysfunction. All reported cases have eventually recovered after stopping capecitabine.

Global and regional burden of infective endocarditis, 1990-2010: a systematic review of the literature.

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease associated with serious complications. The GBD 2010 (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study IE expert group conducted a systematic review of IE epidemiology literature to inform estimates of the burden on IE in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010. The disease model of IE for the GBD 2010 study included IE death and 2 sequelae: stroke and valve surgery. Several medical and science databases were searched for IE epidemiology studies in GBD high-, low-, and middle-income regions published between 1980 and 2008. The epidemiologic parameters of interest were IE incidence, proportions of IE patients who developed stroke or underwent valve surgery, and case fatality. Literature searches yielded 1,975 unique papers, of which 115 published in 10 languages were included in the systematic review. Eligible studies were population-based (17%), multicenter hospital-based (11%), and single-center hospital-based studies (71%). Population-based studies were reported from only 6 world regions. Data were missing or sparse in many low- and middle-income regions. The crude incidence of IE ranged between 1.5 and 11.6 cases per 100,000 people and was reported from 10 countries. The overall mean proportion of IE patients that developed stroke was 0.158 ± 0.091, and the mean proportion of patients that underwent valve surgery was 0.324 ± 0.188. The mean case fatality risk was 0.211 ± 0.104. A systematic review for the GBD 2010 study provided IE epidemiology estimates for many world regions, but highlighted the lack of information about IE in low- and middle-income regions. More complete knowledge of the global burden of IE will require improved IE surveillance in all world regions.

Azithromycin for elderly patients with pneumonia.

Dabigatran in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a call for a randomized control trial.

Device closure of patent foramen ovale versus medical therapy in cryptogenic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

This study sought to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing device closure with medical therapy in the prevention of recurrent neurological events in patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale.

Dabigatran in the setting of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: the road ahead.

Safety and efficacy of interrupted dabigatran for peri-procedural anticoagulation in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

To examine the safety (defined as bleeding risk) and efficacy (defined as prevention of thromboembolic events) of interrupted dabigatran for peri-procedural anticoagulation in catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) in comparison with warfarin.

The association between histamine 2 receptor antagonist use and Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major health problem. Epidemiological evidence suggests that there is an association between acid suppression therapy and development of CDI.

The role of statins in prevention and treatment of community acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that statins may reduce the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and its complications.

Association between proton pump inhibitor therapy and clostridium difficile infection: a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis.

Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) acid-suppression therapy is associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).

Association between preoperative statin therapy and postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infectious complications of cardiac surgery are often severe and life threatening. Statins having both immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects were intuitively thought to influence the development of postsurgical infections. We sought to systematically examine whether any association exists between statin use and risk of infectious complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Thomson Scientific Web of Science, and Elsevier Scopus from inception through February 2011 for comparative studies examining the association between statin use and risk of postoperative infections in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We contacted a study's author for missing information. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of individual studies' odds ratios (adjusted for potential confounders). We identified 6 cohort studies for inclusion, 3 of which were conducted in Canada and 3 of which were conducted in the United States. Four were single-center studies, and 2 were population based. Exposure ascertainment was based on a review of admission medication list or prescription databases. Infectious outcomes were heterogeneous and included surgical site infections within 30 days, serious infections (sepsis), or any other postoperative infection. Statin use in the preoperative period was associated with a trend toward reduction in the incidence of postoperative infections in patients who underwent cardiac surgery (odds ratio, 0.81 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.01]; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]). Heterogeneity was explained by country effect. Studies performed in Canada showed weaker associations than studies performed in the United States. This difference could not be attributed to study quality alone. We did not find good evidence to support an association between statin use and postoperative infectious complications. However, the trend toward statistical significance for this association indicates that further investigation is warranted.

Transient osteoporosis of the hip/bone marrow edema syndrome with soft tissue involvement: a case report.

Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) is a rare condition mainly affecting pregnant women in their third trimester and middle aged men. We report a case of TOH/Bone marrow edema syndrome in pregnancy with involvement of the surrounding soft tissues on magnetic resonance image, which has not been previously reported. The presence of such edema in the soft tissues may help to differentiate this condition from early avascular necrosis of the hip, and may also provide an insight into the pathogenesis of the condition. The reported patient was treated conservatively and fully recovered.

Parental perceptions and beliefs about childhood asthma: a cross-sectional study.

To assess parental perceptions and beliefs about asthma in children.

Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections of intact skin: a systematic review of the literature.

To highlight the importance of intact skin infection syndromes caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, we review 17 reported cases. Skin infection syndrome presentations included metastatic cellulitis (58%), primary cellulitis (23%), and ecthyma gangrenosum (17%). Associated risk factors were hematologic malignancies and chemotherapy (94%), neutropenia (94%), presence of central venous catheter (17%), and exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics (84%). The diagnosis was supported by cultures of skin biopsy specimens (35%), blood cultures (24%), or both (41%). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was the treatment of choice (76%), and outcomes were favorable (71%).