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Barbara Darewicz - Top 30 Publications

Chromium in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

Many epidemiological and experimental studies report a strong role of chemical carcinogens in the etiology of bladder cancer. However, the involvement of heavy metals in tumourigenesis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chromium (Cr) and bladder cancer.

Reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased sialylation level in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Cancer cells are characterized by an aberrant increase in protein N-glycosylation and by disruption of E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions. However, the relationship between alterations in N-glycosylation process and loss of E-cadherin adhesion in cancer remains unclear. The mechanisms of altered expression of adhesive glycoproteins in cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the expression of E-cadherin and sialyl Lewisa/x, NeuAcα2-3Gal, NeuAcα2-6Gal/GalNAc structures in the normal renal tissue and intermediate and cancerous tissues from patients with clear cell RCC. Moreover, we attempted to correlate the E-cadherin expression with some specific sugar residues of renal cancer tissue glycoproteins. The expression of E-cadherin was analysed using ELISA test and immunoblotting. Oligosaccharide structures and sialylation level were detected with ELISA test using specific biotinylated lectins or antibodies. A significant decrease of E-cadherin expression as well as a significant increase in sialylated oligosaccharides level in intermediate zone and renal cancer tissue in comparison to normal renal tissue are reported. Significant decrease in expression of cadherins and increase in sialylation of oligosaccharide structures in renal cancer tissue in comparison to normal renal tissue, and in renal cancer tissue in comparison to intermediate zone of renal tissue, are important for the future research concerning detection and quantification of cadherins and sialylated oligosaccharide structures in urine and cells of urinary sediment as possible non-invasive marker of early RCC.

Characterization of human bladder cell membrane during cancer transformation.

Phenomena associated with changes in cell membranes are thought to play an important role in the cancer transformation. We hypothesized that the electrical charge of tumor cells can indirectly represent membrane-based changes that have occurred during cell transformation and may indicate tumor cell status. Here, we describe work showing that phospholipids, proteins content, and electric charge, are all altered in the cell membranes of pT2 stage/grade G3 bladder cancer. Qualitative and quantitative phospholipid composition and the presence of integral membrane proteins were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Protein composition was determined using selective hydrolysis of isolated bladder cell membrane proteins and peptide resolution. The surface charge density of human bladder cell membranes was determined using electrophoresis. Our results show that cancer transformation is associated with increased phospholipid levels and a decreased level of integral proteins. Moreover, the process of cancer transformation significantly enhanced changes in the surface charge density of the human bladder cell membrane. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that cell membrane structure and function are modified in bladder cancer cells and that further work in this area is warranted.

Cadmium in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cadmium (Cd) and bladder cancer (urothelial carcinoma of the bladder). Cadmium concentrations in two 36-sample series of bladder cancer tissue and blood, from patients with the neoplasm, were matched with those of the control group. The amount of heavy metal in every tissue sample was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. This was correlated with tumour stage. While the median cadmium concentration levels reached statistically lower values in the bladder cancer tissue, as compared with the non-cancer one (11.695 ng/g and 56.32 ng/g respectively, p < 0.001), the median Cd levels in the blood of the patients with this carcinoma showed no statistical difference when compared to those of the control group (8.237 μg/l and 7.556 μg/l respectively, p = 0.121). The median levels of cadmium in the bladder tissue, depending on the stage of the tumour, compared with the tissue without the neoplasm, observed the same relationship for both non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive tumours (p < 0.002 and p < 0.02 respectively). This study has shown that patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder had lower tissue cadmium levels than people without tumour while no difference in the Cd blood levels between the two groups of patients under investigation was found.

Phospholipid composition and electric charge in healthy and cancerous parts of human kidneys.

Phospholipids are ubiquitous in nature and are essential for the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. Their structural and functional properties are pivotal for the survival of the cell. In this study the phospholipids of healthy and cancerous human renal tissues from the same patients are compared with special reference to the electric charge of the membrane. A simple and highly effective normal-phase method is described for analyzing phospholipids content. This work is focused on changes of phospholipids content (PtdIns, phosphatidylinositol; PtdSer, phosphatidylserine; PtdEtn, phosphatidylethanoloamine; PtdCho, phosphatidylcholine) in cell membranes of renal cancer of pT1 stage, G2 grade, without metastasis. Surface charge density of healthy and cancerous human renal tissues was measured by electrophoresis. The measurements were carried out at various pH of solution. Depending on the surface charge density as a function of pH, acidic (C(TA)) and basic (C(TB)) functional group concentrations and their average association constants with hydrogen (K(AH)) or hydroxyl (K(BOH)) ions were evaluated. The process of cancer transformation was accompanied by an increase in total amount of phospholipids as well as an increase in C(TA) and K(BOH), whereas K(AH) and C(TB) were decreased compared with unchanged tumor cells.

Glycosylation of proteins in healthy and pathological human renal tissues.

Cancer development is associated with the improper glycosylation of proteins. There are alterations in the synthesis and expression of sugar structures. These changes can be important not only in the early stages of tumour development, but also in the next stages connected with cancer invasiveness and its ability to form metastases. Oligosaccharide structures of glycans in tumours deviate from normal cells. Relatively increased degrees of branching and sialylation of N-glycans, enhanced presentation of short-chain mucin-type O-glycans with sialylation, and alterations in the expression of blood group ABO and Lewis epitopes can be observed. The main aim of our study was to assess changes in the glycosylation of proteins in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. This study was performed on tissues taken from 15 patients. The relative amounts of sugar structures of proteins with molecular mass above 30 kDa in tumour (cancer tissue), intermediate zone i.e. tumour-adjacent tissue, and normal tissue uninvolved by tumour, were determined by ELISA-like test with biotinylated lectins highly specific to examined sugar antigens. A higher expression of all examined structures was revealed in cancer tissue. Increased levels of sialic acid, fucose, T and Tn antigens, compared to healthy renal tissue, were characteristic for clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Copper, zinc, and Cu/Zn ratio in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

Many epidemiological and experimental studies report a strong role of chemical carcinogens in the etiology of bladder cancer. However, involvement of trace elements in the tumorigenesis of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between zinc, copper and bladder cancer.

The effects of diet on selenium concentration in serum in patients with cancer.

The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of selenium (Se) in patients with larynx and urinary system cancers. We also estimated the influence of dietary habits on Se status in examined patients. The mean content of Se in serum of patients with urinary system cancer (48.94 +/- 16.3 mu/l) and larynx cancer (51.00 +/- 18.6 mu/l) was lower than the mean content of Se in the control group (68.25 +/- 15.6 mircog/l; P = 0.000006 or 64.03 +/- 16.8 microg/l; P = 0.0112, respectively). In tissue only, the mean level of Se in patients with kidney cancer (75.37 +/- 40.3 mircog/l) was lower to compare with the dead body control group (220.68 +/- 83.6 microg/l). We have observed the correlation between the content of Se in serum and tissue (r = 0.297; P = 0.002). Patients with studied cancers have deficiency of Se in serum and kidney tissue, and it depends on the diet in about 30%. Frequent consumption of eggs, ham, and wine has the biggest influence on the content of Se in serum of patients in Poland, whereas frequent consumption of pulses, eggs, bacon, and lard is connected with the content of Se in tissue.

Lead concentration in the bladder tissue and blood of patients with bladder cancer.

To investigate the relationship between lead and bladder cancer.

Effect of smoking on activity of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase in serum and urine of renal cancer patients.

To compare N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) activity in the serum and urine of smokers as well as non-smokers with renal cancer, and healthy people.

Assessment of the efficacy of cancer procoagulant (CP) activity evaluation in the oncological diagnosis of the urinary system.

Many studies have been carried out to develop unfailing diagnostic methods that could improve cancer detection. There are available cancer markers of relatively low sensitivity and specificity, which makes a reason why they not always let detect neoplasm at their earliest stage. There is a new protease cysteine enzyme named cancer procoagulant (CP) isolated from rabbit V2 Ca neoplasm and characterized by Gordon et al in 1975. Because of its exclusive presentation in the cancer tissues and blood serum of the patients with tumor, this neoplasm-cell-originated protein seems to be a new biochemical cancer disease marker. The elevated activity of CP was found in the cancers of pancreatic, breast, lung, alimentary and urinary system. The blood serum CP activity levels in the patients with renal, bladder, and prostate cancers were determined statistically higher as compared to controls but the difference varied depending on the mentioned organ of the urinary system. The CP highest activity levels was determined in the patients with prostate cancer, lower ones in bladder carcinoma ones and the lowest ones in individuals with renal tumours. That is why it appears to be justifiable to apply the determination of the CP in the oncological diagnosis in the urinary system.

Cancer procoagulant (CP).

Epidemiological studies point out steady increase of the incidence of cancer disease in Poland and all over the world. Neoplasms are associated with blood coagulation disorders very frequently. The investigations concentrate on searching for the substance producing malignant cells and causing activation of blood coagulation in neoplasm disease patients. Gordon and co-workers were the first who published results of their investigation in searching for such a substance in 1975. It was isolated from the rabbit's neoplasm type V2 Ca and then characterized and named as cancer procoagulant (CP). Cancer procoagulant is responsible for blood coagulation disorders in neoplasm disease patients, incorrect metabolism of fibrin and its concentration around malignant tissues. This enzyme (in vitro) is a direct activator of the factor X, without contribution of factor VII or any other cofactors. CF differs in physical, chemical and enzymatic activity from others procoagulants. The main aim of the paper is a review of the literature for structure, chemical characteristic, occurrence and clinical relevance of the cancer procoagulant (CP) and its clinical use in current oncological diagnostics.

Cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D activity in blood serum in patients with bladder cancer.

The increasing morbidity and mortality rates of bladder cancer forced the scientists to search for new unfailing diagnostic and therapeutic methods that will improve treatment effects. There are biochemical cancer markers as cancer procoagulant (CP) and cathepsin D which may be used to this end. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of the cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in the blood serum in patients with superficial bladder cancer. The venous blood samples were from 15 patients with microscopically proved superficial bladder carcinoma (i.e. study group) and 15 normal volunteers as a control group. The serum blood CP activity was determined by the Gordon-Benson's coagulation method and expressed by the clotting time in seconds (s) while the cathepsin D activity was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau's method and expressed by a quantity of released tyrosine in nmol/ml per 4 hours. The CP activity in serum of patients with superficial bladder cancer was increased in statistically way as compared to the non-cancer controls (p<0.0001). The cathepsin D activity in blood serum of the study group was also enhanced as compared to the control group and the said values differed statistically (p<0.0351). It appears to be justifiable to apply the determination of the CP and cathepsin D activity in blood serum for the diagnostics of superficial bladder cancer.

Antichlamydial antibodies in the serum and expressed prostatic secretion in prostatitis.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis (C.trachomatis) antibodies in serum and expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) in chronic prostatitis.

Surgical treatment of Peyronie's disease by the intracavernosal plaque excision method: a new surgical technique.

A new surgical method of treating Peyronie's disease consisting in intracavernosal excision of the plaque is presented.