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Charlotte Cordonnier - Top 30 Publications

Role of cortical microbleeds in cognitive impairment: In vivo behavioral and imaging characterization of a novel murine model.

Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) could contribute to cognitive impairment in the general population and in patients with dementia. We designed a study to (i) develop a murine model of CMBs, (ii) assess whether CMBs affect cognition in this model and (iii) assess whether this model is sensitive to pharmacological modulation. Male C57Bl6/J mice were stereotactically administered collagenase to induce cortical lesion analysed by MRI at 24 h. CMB-mice were assessed at six weeks post-lesion for cognitive performances (Barnes maze and Touchscreen automated paired-associated learning (PAL) task) and for cerebral metabolism (in vivo PET/CT with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)). CMB-model sensitivity to pharmacological modulation was assessed by administering atorvastatin (5 mg/kg/day) over the follow-up period. CMB mice were compared to naïve littermates. Collagenase at 0.8 µU/µl appeared suitable to induce reproducible and reliable CMBs. At six weeks, a decline in learning, spatial and visuospatial memory was significantly observed in CMB-mice. Brain metabolism was impaired in all cortex, striatum and the ipsilateral dentate gyrus. A significant improvement in cognition performances was depicted under atorvastatin. In this novel murine model of CMBs, we validated that CMBs lowered cognitive performances and affected regional metabolism. We also proved that this CMB-model is sensitive to pharmacological modulation.

The Edinburgh CT and genetic diagnostic criteria for lobar intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy: model development and diagnostic test accuracy study.

Identification of lobar spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is important because it is associated with a higher risk of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage than arteriolosclerosis-associated intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to develop a prediction model for the identification of CAA-associated lobar intracerebral haemorrhage using CT features and genotype.

Could Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Methods Differentiate Pneumonitis From Bacterial Aspiration Pneumonia?

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral microbleeds and implications for anticoagulation decisions: The need for a balanced approach.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common hemorrhagic small vessel disease of the brain, often associated with high risk of spontaneous lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. When the suspicion of cerebral amyloid angiopathy is raised, clinicians are hesitant in prescribing oral anticoagulation in patients in whom it is otherwise indicated, including the case of non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This is one of the thorniest clinical dilemmas in the field currently. In this short Leading Opinion piece by an international panel of clinicians-researchers active in the field, we present our consistent approach and future outlook on oral anticoagulation post intracerebral hemorrhage and in the setting of clinical-radiologic evidence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We discuss recent advances and support a more balanced approach with implications for the wider neurological clinical community in regards to successful recruiting this patient population in ongoing and future randomized trials.

Topographic distribution of brain iron deposition and small cerebrovascular lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in 15% of the cases. A neuropathological continuity between ALS and FTLD-TDP is suspected. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study compares the topographic distribution of iron (Fe) deposition and the incidence of small cerebrovascular lesions in ALS and in FTLD brains. Seventy-eight post-mortem brains underwent 7.0-tesla MRI. The patients consisted of 12 with ALS, 38 with FTLD, and 28 controls. Three ALS brains had minor FTLD features. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere were submitted to T2 and T2* MRI sequences. The amount of Fe deposition in the deep brain structures and the number of small cerebrovascular lesions was determined in ALS and the subtypes of FTLD compared to control brains, with neuropathological correlates. A significant increase of Fe deposition was observed in the claustrum, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, and subthalamic nucleus of the FTLD-FUS and FTLD-TDP groups, while in the ALS one, the Fe increase was only observed in the caudate and the subthalamic nuclei. White matter changes were only significantly more severe in the FTLD compared to those in ALS and in controls brains. Cortical micro-bleeds were increased in the frontal and temporal lobes of FTLD as well as of ALS brains compared to controls. Cortical micro-infarcts were, on the other hand, more frequent in the control compared to the ALS and FTLD groups. The present study supports the assumption of a neuropathological continuity between ALS and FTLD and illustrates the favourable vascular risk profile in these diseases.

Outcomes of Nonagenarians with Acute Ischemic Stroke Treated with Intravenous Thrombolytics.

Nonagenarians are under-represented in thrombolytic trials for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytics in nonagenarians in terms of safety and outcome is not well established.

Functional impairments for outcomes in a randomized trial of unruptured brain AVMs.

To investigate the effects of medical vs interventional management on functional outcome in A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA).

The increasing impact of cerebral amyloid angiopathy: essential new insights for clinical practice.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) has never been more relevant. The last 5 years have seen a rapid increase in publications and research in the field, with the development of new biomarkers for the disease, thanks to advances in MRI, amyloid positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis. The inadvertent development of CAA-like pathology in patients treated with amyloid-beta immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease has highlighted the importance of establishing how and why CAA develops; without this information, the use of these treatments may be unnecessarily restricted. Our understanding of the clinical and radiological spectrum of CAA has continued to evolve, and there are new insights into the independent impact that CAA has on cognition in the context of ageing and intracerebral haemorrhage, as well as in Alzheimer's and other dementias. While the association between CAA and lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (with its high recurrence risk) is now well recognised, a number of management dilemmas remain, particularly when considering the use of antithrombotics, anticoagulants and statins. The Boston criteria for CAA, in use in one form or another for the last 20 years, are now being reviewed to reflect these new wide-ranging clinical and radiological findings. This review aims to provide a 5-year update on these recent advances, as well as a look towards future directions for CAA research and clinical practice.

Brain hemorrhage recurrence, small vessel disease type, and cerebral microbleeds: A meta-analysis.

We evaluated recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in ICH survivors, stratified by the presence, distribution, and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on MRI (i.e., the presumed causal underlying small vessel disease and its severity).

Stroke in women - from evidence to inequalities.

Stroke is the second largest cause of disability-adjusted life-years lost worldwide. The prevalence of stroke in women is predicted to rise rapidly, owing to the increasing average age of the global female population. Vascular risk factors differ between women and men in terms of prevalence, and evidence increasingly supports the clinical importance of sex differences in stroke. The influence of some risk factors for stroke - including diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation - are stronger in women, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy also affect the risk of stroke decades after pregnancy. However, in an era of evidence-based medicine, women are notably under-represented in clinical trials - despite governmental actions highlighting the need to include both men and women in clinical trials - resulting in a reduced generalizability of study results to women. The aim of this Review is to highlight new insights into specificities of stroke in women, to plan future research priorities, and to influence public health policies to decrease the worldwide burden of stroke in women.

Microbleeds, Cerebral Hemorrhage, and Functional Outcome After Stroke Thrombolysis: Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.

We assessed whether the presence, number, and distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on pre-intravenous thrombolysis MRI scans of acute ischemic stroke patients are associated with an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or poor functional outcome.

In-hospital ischaemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy.

Patients with in-hospital strokes (IHS) may be eligible for recanalization therapies. The objective of this study is to compare outcomes in patients with IHS and community-onset strokes (COS) treated by recanalization therapy. We analysed data prospectively collected in consecutive patients treated by thrombolysis, thrombectomy, or both for cerebral ischemia at the Lille University Hospital. We compared four outcomes measures at 3 months in patients with IHS and COS: (1) modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-1, (2) mRS 0-2, (3) death, and (4) symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (ECASS 2 definition). Of 1209 patients, 64 (5.3%) had IHS, with an increasing proportion over time (p = 0.001). Their median onset-to-needle time was 128 min vs. 145 in COS (p < 0.001). They were more likely to have had a recent TIA [odds ratio (OR) 30.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.5-78.7], to have been treated by vitamin K antagonist before (OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.4-12.0) and to undergo mechanical thrombectomy (45 vs. 10%, p < 0.001). They were less likely to have a pre-stroke mRS 0-1 (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.09-0.50). After adjustment, IHS was not associated with any of the four outcome measures. Patients with IHS are treated 17 min earlier than patients with COS, but, taking into account that they were already in the hospital, delays are still too long. Their outcome does not differ from that of patients with COS, suggesting room for improvement if delays can be reduced. IHS being frequent, pre-specified pathways should be organised.

Cerebrovascular Lesions in Mixed Neurodegenerative Dementia: A Neuropathological and Magnetic Resonance Study.

In elderly brains of demented patients, Alzheimer and Lewy body pathology (LBP) are frequently associated. Cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs) are more observed in Lewy body disease, even in the absence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The present neuropathological and 7.0-tesla MRI studies investigate whether CoMIs are also more frequent in mixed neurodegenerative dementia syndromes.

Frequency and topography of small cerebrovascular lesions in vascular and in mixed dementia: a post-mortem 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study with neuropathological correlates.

<i><b>Introduction</b>: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD. <b>Material and methods</b>: Based on neuropathological criteria, 14 brains were classified as VaD, 24 as MixD and 11 as controls. Three coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere and a horizontal section of a cerebellar hemisphere underwent T2 and T2* 7.0-tesla MRI examination. The mean values and topographic distribution of white matter changes (WMCs), lacunar infarcts (LIs), cortical microbleeds (CoMBs) and cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs) were determined and compared between the different groups. <b>Results</b>: Compared to the controls, both VaD and MixD brains had significantly more severe WMCs and increased numbers of CoMBs and CoMIs. Lacunar infarcts predominated only in the VaD cases. On mutual comparison of VaD and MixD brains, CoMBs and CoMIs predominated in the frontal lobe and the cerebellum of VaD, while were mainly present in the occipital lobe of MixD. White matter changes predominated in the temporal lobe of MixD cases. Lacunar infarcts were significantly increased in the corona radiata and putamen of VaD patients. <b>Conclusions</b>: The present post-mortem MRI study shows clear differences in the distribution and the types of cerebrovascular lesions on high-field MRI, confirming that VaD and MixD are different diseases. </i>.

Outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with different oral anticoagulants.

In an international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, we compared mortality, functional outcome, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, and hematoma expansion (HE) between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulation-related ICH (NOAC-ICH) and vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH (VKA-ICH).

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli pathogenesis: role of Long polar fimbriae in Peyer's patches interactions.

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens whose survival and virulence in the human digestive tract remain unclear owing to paucity of relevant models. EHEC interact with the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches of the distal ileum and translocate across the intestinal epithelium via M-cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of Long polar fimbriae (Lpf) in EHEC pathogenesis. Of the 236 strains tested, a significant association was observed between the presence of lpf operons and pathogenicity. In sophisticated in vitro models of the human gastro-intestinal tract, lpf expression was induced during transit through the simulated stomach and small intestine, but not in the colonic compartment. To investigate the involvement of Lpf in EHEC pathogenesis, lpf isogenic mutants and their relative trans-complemented strains were generated. Translocation across M-cells, interactions with murine ileal biopsies containing Peyer's patches and the number of hemorrhagic lesions were significantly reduced with the lpf mutants compared to the wild-type strain. Complementation of lpf mutants fully restored the wild-type phenotypes. Our results indicate that (i) EHEC might colonize the terminal ileum at the early stages of infection, (ii) Lpf are an important player in the interactions with Peyer's patches and M-cells, and could contribute to intestinal colonization.

Temporal trends in early case-fatality rates in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

To assess whether temporal trends in very early (within 48 hours) case-fatality rates may differ from those occurring between 48 hours and 30 days in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

STROKOG (stroke and cognition consortium): An international consortium to examine the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocognitive disorders in relation to cerebrovascular disease.

The Stroke and Cognition consortium (STROKOG) aims to facilitate a better understanding of the determinants of vascular contributions to cognitive disorders and help improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD).

Management of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhages.

Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage is defined as a collection of blood in the cerebral parenchyma that is not caused by trauma. It represents roughly 10-20% of all strokes. The clinical presentation is unspecific and the diagnosis requires brain imaging. ICH is a medical emergency and ICH patients have to be admitted in an acute stroke unit. The priority is to fight against ICH expansion. The first step consists in the administration of a specific antagonist of the antithrombotic treatment when available, and in the strict control of blood pressure. Clinicians should keep in mind that the concept of so-called "primary" ICH is misleading since many causes should be searched for. During follow-up, the risk of recurrence may depend on the underlying vessel disease and blood pressure should be strictly managed. ICH patients are at high risk of dementia: cognitive evaluation should regularly be performed during follow-up.

Proportion of single-chain recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and outcome after stroke.

To determine whether the ratio single chain (sc)/(sc + 2 chain [tc]) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) influences outcomes in patients with cerebral ischemia.

Probiotic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: An effective strategy against a deadly enemy?

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens that constitute a serious public health threat. Currently, there is no specific treatment available for EHEC infections in human creating an urgent need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Among them, one of the most promising approaches is the use of probiotic microorganisms. Even if many studies have shown the antagonistic effects of probiotic bacteria or yeast on EHEC survival, virulence, adhesion on intestinal epithelium or pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, mechanisms mediating their beneficial effects remain unclear. This review describes EHEC pathogenesis and novel therapeutic strategies, with a particular emphasis on probiotics. The interests and limits of a probiotic-based approach and the way it might be incorporated into global health strategies against EHEC infections will be discussed.

Increased EHEC survival and virulence gene expression indicate an enhanced pathogenicity upon simulated pediatric gastrointestinal conditions.

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major foodborne pathogens that constitute a serious public health threat, mainly in young children. Shiga toxins (Stx) are the main virulence determinants of EHEC pathogenesis but adhesins like intimin (eae) and Long polar fimbriae (Lpf) also contribute to infection. The TNO GastroIntestinal Model (TIM) was used for a comparative study of EHEC O157:H7 survival and virulence under adult and child digestive conditions.

Disruption of a miR-29 binding site leading to COL4A1 upregulation causes pontine autosomal dominant microangiopathy with leukoencephalopathy.

Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders. Screening of known cSVD genes identifies the causative mutation in <15% of familial cSVD cases. We sought to identify novel causes of cSVD.

Cognitive status after intracerebral haemorrhage - Authors' reply.

Lobar intracerebral haematomas: Neuropathological and 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.

The Boston criteria for cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) need validation by neuropathological examination in patients with lobar cerebral haematomas (LCHs). In "vivo" 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unreliable to detect the age-related signal changes in LCHs. This post-mortem study investigates the validity of the Boston criteria in brains with LCHs and the signal changes during their time course with 7.0-tesla MRI.

Cerebral Microbleeds, Vascular Risk Factors, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers: The Northern Manhattan Study.

Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) represent intracerebral hemorrhages due to amyloid angiopathy or exposure to modifiable risk factors. Few community-based stroke-free studies including blacks and Hispanics have been done.

Statistical analysis plan for the PlAtelet Transfusion in Cerebral Haemorrhage (PATCH) trial: a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Use of antiplatelet therapy shortly before stroke due to spontaneous primary intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with higher case fatality in comparison to ICH without prior antithrombotic drug use. The PlAtelet Transfusion in Cerebral Haemorrhage (PATCH) trial aimed to assess the effect of platelet transfusion in patients presenting with ICH while using antiplatelet therapy. The main hypothesis of PATCH was that platelet transfusion would reduce death or dependence by reducing ICH growth.

The Topography of Cortical Microinfarcts in Neurodegenerative Diseases and in Vascular Dementia: A Postmortem 7.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

Cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs) are considered as barely visible lesions in clinical-neuroradiological correlation studies. On postmortem 7.0-tesla MRI, however, CoMIs of different size are easily detected.

The incidence of post-mortem neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathology in mixed dementia.

The clinical picture of dementia in most aged patients is due to a combination of different neurodegenerative processes and frequently associated to cerebrovascular lesions. They are called mixed dementia (MixD) cases, to be differentiated from those with pure vascular dementia (VaD) and those with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The present study compares the frequency of different associated lesions in these disease groups.

Orolingual Angioedema During or After Thrombolysis for Cerebral Ischemia.

Orolingual angioedema (OLAE) is a life-threatening complication of intravenous thrombolysis. Our objective was to compare outcomes of patients with and without OLAE.