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Chong-Jin Kim - Top 30 Publications

Comparison of effects between calcium channel blocker and diuretics in combination with angiotensin II receptor blocker on 24-h central blood pressure and vascular hemodynamic parameters in hypertensive patients: study design for a multicenter, double-blinded, active-controlled, phase 4, randomized trial.

Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke, and is one of the leading causes of death. Although over a billion people are affected worldwide, only half of them receive adequate treatment. Current guidelines on antihypertensive treatment recommend combination therapy for patients not responding to monotherapy, but as the number of pills increase, patient compliance tends to decrease. As a result, fixed-dose combination drugs with different antihypertensive agents have been developed and widely used in recent years. CCBs have been shown to be better at reducing central blood pressure and arterial stiffness than diuretics. Recent studies have reported that central blood pressure and arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular outcomes. This trial aims to compare the efficacy of combination of calcium channel blocker (CCB) or thiazide diuretic with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB).

Evaluation of the impact of statin therapy on the obesity paradox in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A propensity score matching analysis from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry.

The phenomenon of obesity paradox after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported under strong recommendation of statin therapy. However, the impact of statin therapy on this paradox has not been investigated. This study investigated the impact of statin therapy on 1-year mortality according to obesity after AMI. A total of 2745 AMI patients were included from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry after 1:4 propensity score matching analysis (n = 549 for nonstatin group and n = 2196 for statin group). Primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause and cardiac death, respectively. During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of all-cause (8.4% vs 3.7%) and cardiac (6.2% vs 2.3%) death was higher in nonstatin group than in statin (P < .001, respectively). In nonstatin group, the incidence of all-cause (7.2% vs 9.0%) and cardiac (5.5% vs 6.5%) death did not differ significantly between obese and nonobese patients. However, in statin group, obese patients had lower 1-year rate of all-cause (1.7% vs 4.8%) and cardiac (1.2% vs 2.9%) death (P < .05, respectively), and lower cumulative rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis of all-cause and cardiac death compared with nonobese patients (log-rank P < .05, respectively). The overall risk of all-cause death was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese patients only in statin group (hazard ratio: 0.35; P = .001). After adjusting for confounding factors, obesity was independently associated with decreased risk of all-cause death in statin group. In conclusion, the greater benefit of statin therapy for survival in obese patients is further confirmation of the obesity paradox after AMI.

SYNTAX Score and Pre- and Poststent Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris.

SYNTAX score (SS) has been reported to be an independent predictor of future cardiac events including target lesion revascularization. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between SS and plaque characteristics and poststent vascular response using optical coherence tomography in coronary artery tree and left anterior descending artery (LAD) in patients with stable angina. A total of 179 lesions among 165 patients, including 100 lesions in LAD, were analyzed. Patients were stratified into tertiles. In pre-percutaneous coronary intervention analysis of whole coronary tree and LAD, lesions of the third tertile had the highest prevalence of lipid-rich plaque. Compared with the first tertile, the third tertile had greater lipid index, thinner fibrous cap, and higher prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma. In poststent optical coherence tomography, the incidence of stent edge dissection and irregular protrusion was higher in the third tertile compared with the first tertile in coronary tree analysis. In LAD analysis, the prevalence of irregular protrusion was the highest in the third tertile. In conclusion, high SS may reflect higher plaque vulnerability. Stent edge dissection and irregular protrusion were more frequent in patients with higher SS, indicating poor vascular response to stenting. Our results may explain higher cardiac event rate and target lesion revascularization in patients with higher SS.

Efficacy and Tolerability of Combination Therapy Versus Monotherapy with Candesartan and/or Amlodipine for Dose Finding in Essential Hypertension: A Phase II Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial.

Intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering is important for the treatment of hypertension; however, it has been a challenge to achieve target BP in many patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the optimal dosage of a fixed-dose combination of candesartan cilexetil (CAN) and amlodipine besylate (AML), by examining the tolerability and efficacy of CAN/AML combination therapy compared with those of monotherapy with either drug in patients with essential hypertension.

Benefits of Statin Therapy in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction With Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol ≤ 50 mg/dl.

Previous trials have found that statin therapy reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level and the risk of cardiovascular events. However, the benefit of statin therapy in patients with baseline LDL-C levels ≤ 50 mg/dl is less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who have baseline LDL-C levels ≤ 50 mg/dl would benefit from statin therapy in real-world clinical practice. We analyzed the clinical data of 1,048 patients (67.3 ± 12.6 years, 69.6% men) with AMI, who had baseline LDL-C levels ≤ 50 mg/dl from the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry data between November 2005 and May 2014. They were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were prescribed statins or not at discharge (statin and nonstatin group, n = 738 and 310, respectively). The primary end point was the major adverse cardiac event (MACE), defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. MACE occurred in 9.2% of the statin group versus 19.6% in the nonstatin group during the 12-month follow-up. Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94, p = 0.025) and coronary artery bypass grafting (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.96, p = 0.043). There was a trend of reduced cardiac death in the statin group compared with the nonstatin group (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.02, p = 0.059). Statin therapy for patients with AMI with LDL-C levels ≤ 50 mg/dl was associated with improved outcomes. Therefore, statin therapy is feasible and effective, even in AMI patients with extremely low levels of LDL-C.

Clinical Significance of Lipid-Rich Plaque Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography: A 4-Year Follow-Up Study.

Lipid-rich plaque (LRP) is thought to be a precursor to cardiac events. However, its clinical significance in coronary arteries has never been systematically investigated.

Increased interarm blood pressure difference is associated with autonomic dysfunction and atherosclerosis in patients with chest pain and no history of coronary artery disease.

Interarm blood pressure (BP) difference has been reported to be associated with atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular death. We were to investigate associations of interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference with heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise, an index of autonomic function, and carotid atherosclerotic markers, and to evaluate the association of interarm SBP difference with concurrent coronary artery disease (CAD).

The pharmacological stimulation of Nurr1 improves cognitive functions via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

The nuclear receptor related-1 (Nurr1) protein plays an important role in both the development of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and cognitive functions. Despite its relevance, the effects of Nurr1 on adult hippocampal neurogenesis have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we used RT-PCR, western blot, and immunocytochemistry to show that adult hippocampal NPCs abundantly express Nurr1. We then examined the effect of Nurr1 activation on adult hippocampal NPCs using amodiaquine (AQ), an anti-malarial drug that was recently discovered to be a Nurr1 agonist. Cell proliferation assay showed that AQ significantly increased cell proliferation. AQ-treated NPCs showed increased levels of phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 whereas AQ-treated Nurr1 siRNA-transfected NPCs showed no changes in those levels. Further immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the stimulating effect of Nurr1 agonist on the proliferation and differentiation of adult hippocampal NPCs both in vivo and in vitro. In addition to its effects on proliferation and differentiation of NPCs, AQ-treated mice showed a significant enhancement of both short- and long-term memory in the Y-maze and the novel object recognition test. These data suggest that activation of Nurr1 may enhance cognitive functions by increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis and also indicate that Nurr1 may be used as a therapeutic target for the treatment of memory disorders and cognitive impairment observed in neurodegenerative diseases.

Prevalence and Predictors of Multiple Coronary Plaque Ruptures: In Vivo 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Study.

Plaque rupture may be the local expression of a widespread coronary instability. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of nonculprit plaque rupture; (2) the pancoronary atherosclerotic phenotype in patients with and without nonculprit plaque rupture; and (3) the prevalence and predictors of multiple plaque ruptures.

Relationship between time to treatment and mortality among patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention according to Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry.

Despite large reductions in door-to-balloon times over the period, several studies from regional and national data showed that annual mortality rates were not decreased among patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, these studies mostly focused on door-to-balloon time, and there was no consideration of total ischemic time in a trend of mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the annual trend between time to treatment and 1-month mortality among patients undergoing primary PCI.

Clinical outcome of statin plus ezetimibe versus high-intensity statin therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction propensity-score matching analysis.

It is unclear whether simvastatin-ezetimibe could be an alternative therapy to high-intensity statin therapy in high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of simvastatin-ezetimibe and high-intensity statin therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and especially in those with high-risk factor.

Comparative clinical implications of admission electrocardiographic findings for patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Early risk stratification is crucial for appropriate management using invasive strategies in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and electrocardiography (ECG) has been widely used for risk stratification. However, ECG findings in NSTEMI vary, and there is a need to define the clinical characteristics and outcomes according to ECG.We analyzed the admission ECGs of 345 NSTEMI patients who underwent coronary angiography from 2006 to 2013. Demographics, procedural characteristics, and clinical outcomes were analyzed.The ST-segment depression, T-wave inversion, and no ECG change groups included 114, 90, and 141 patients, respectively. The ST-segment depression group trended toward older, nonsmoking, and female, with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a higher incidence of comorbidities, than the no ECG change group. The ST-segment depression group also had a higher Killip class, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, a higher regional wall motion score index (RWMSI), and 3-vessel coronary artery disease angiographically, than the no ECG change group. Patients with T-wave inversion trended toward older, female, lower BMI, less smoking, lower creatine kinase MB, and more left anterior descending (LAD) artery involvement, than the no ECG change group. In clinical outcomes, the ST-segment depression group had a higher mortality rate at 30 days and 12 months after the index procedure than the no ECG change group, whereas the T-wave inversion group showed similar clinical outcomes.Patients with ST-segment depression have a greater burden of comorbidities with risk factors and worse clinical outcomes, whereas patients with T-wave inversion have an intermediate number of risk factors but similar outcomes, compared with the no ECG change group. Further study is necessary to evaluate the prognostic impact of the baseline ECG on admission.

Pharmacoinvasive Strategy Versus Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

The Strategic Reperfusion Early After Myocardial Infarction trial and the French Registry of Acute ST-elevation or Non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction 2015 suggested that pharmacoinvasive strategy compares favorably with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We sought to assess the clinical impact of pharmacoinvasive strategy compared with PPCI in real-world patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.

Clinical impact of immediate invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Immediate invasive approach for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) may permit treatment of the underlying plaque rupture as early as possible with subsequent reduction of death and myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to assess clinical impact of immediate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for NSTEMI.

Roles of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Many observational studies showed hogh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular (CV) outcome. However, recent large clinical trials evaluating therapies to raise HDL-C level in those already on statin therapy have been discouraging. This complexity is not well-known.A total of 28,357 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR), which was a prospective, multicenter, nationwide, web-based database of AMI in Korea. From this registry, we evaluated 3574 patients with AMI who have follow-up HDL-C level to investigate its association with clinical outcomes. The primary endpoint was the relationship between follow-up change in HDL-C and a 12-month composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs).Patients with initial HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL showed significantly lower rates of 12-month MACEs, especially cardiac and all-cause mortalities (P < 0.001). When patients were stratified into 4 groups according to the change of HDL-C, patients with decreasing HDL-C showed significantly higher rates of 12-month MACEs as comparable with patients with increasing HLD-C. A multivariate analysis indicated that HDL-C level was a significant predictor of CV events (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.71) after correcting for confounding variables.The follow-up change in HDL-C level was significantly related with CV outcomes in patients with AMI.

Multicenter Cohort Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Korea - Interim Analysis of the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health Registry.

The Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR)-National Institutes of Health (NIH) registry has the aim of evaluating the clinical characteristics, management, and long-term outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea.

Intracoronary nitroglycerin injection through a microcatheter for coronary no-reflow following percutaneous coronary intervention.

Two-Year Safety and Efficacy of Biodegradable Polymer Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Second-Generation Durable Polymer Drug-Eluting Stent in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR).

Despite improved long-term safety of biodegradable polymer (BP) drug-eluting stents (DES) compared to first-generation durable polymer (DP) DES, data on the safety and efficacy of BP-DES compared with second-generation (2G) DP-DES in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are limited.

Erratum to: Efficacy and Safety Study of Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy in Patients with Hypertension Not Controlled with Olmesartan Medoxomil and Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial.

Manual thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention: Impact of total ischemic time.

The benefit of manual thrombus aspiration (TA) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains uncertain, and the effect of TA in relation to total ischemic time has not been evaluated.

Incidence and Morphological Predictors of Intrastent Coronary Thrombus After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation (from a Multicenter Registry).

The mechanisms responsible for late and very late stent thrombosis remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and morphologic predictors of intrastent thrombus in patients after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A total of 208 patients with 262 DES who underwent follow-up OCT examination >6 months after DES implantation were included. The detailed vascular morphology including characteristics of neointima was analyzed. Thrombus was identified in 24 patients (11.5%) 11 months after DES implantation. Minimal lumen cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in the thrombus group than in the nonthrombus group (2.9 ± 1.7 vs 4.6 ± 2.0 mm(2); p <0.001). No difference was found in the frequency of uncovered or malapposed struts between the 2 groups. Thin-cap fibroatheroma (20.6% vs 0.1%; p <0.001) and heterogeneous neointima (22.2% vs 9.0%; p = 0.001) were more frequently detected in the thrombus group compared to the nonthrombus group. Second-generation DES showed lower incidence of thrombus, uncovered struts, and extrastent lumen compared with first-generation DES. In conclusion, the present OCT study revealed that smaller lumen cross-sectional area and neointimal morphology are important factors associated with intrastent thrombus. Second-generation DES demonstrated improved arterial healing and a lower incidence of intrastent thrombus compared with first-generation DES.

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers as a first choice in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have not been adequately evaluated in patients without left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Efficacy and Safety Study of Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy in Patients with Hypertension Not Controlled with Olmesartan Medoxomil and Hydrochlorothiazide Combination Therapy: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial.

This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 20 mg, amlodipine (AML) 5 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg (OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5) in Korean patients with moderate hypertension not controlled with dual FDC therapy (OM/HCTZ 20/12.5).

Benefit of statin therapy in patients with coronary spasm-induced acute myocardial infarction.

Coronary artery spasm is associated with vascular smooth muscle hyper-reactivity. Statins suppress coronary spasm by inhibiting the vascular smooth muscle contraction. However, it is unclear whether statin therapy benefits patients with coronary spasm-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Transradial intervention versus transfemoral intervention accompanied with vascular closure device in acute myocardial infarction.

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Younger Korean Adults.

This study aims to investigate the clinical features, angiographic findings, and outcomes of younger Korean ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Comparison of Resolute zotarolimus-eluting stents versus everolimus-eluting stents in patients with metabolic syndrome and acute myocardial infarction: propensity score-matched analysis.

Despite common use of second-generation drug-eluting stents in treating patients with coronary artery disease, there is lack of data comparing these stents exclusively in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), especially with metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is highly prevalent in AMI and potential to worsen clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and Resolute-zotarolimus-eluting stent (R-ZES) in AMI patients with MetS, in terms of stent-related and patient-related outcomes.

The Prognostic Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Dependent upon the Severity of Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

The prognostic value of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been questioned even though it is an accurate marker of left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the prognostic impact of LVEF in patients with AMI with or without high-grade mitral regurgitation (MR). A total of 15,097 patients with AMI who received echocardiography were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) between January 2005 and July 2011. Patients with low-grade MR (grades 0-2) and high-grade MR (grades 3-4) were divided into the following two sub-groups according to LVEF: LVEF ≤ 40% (n = 2,422 and 197, respectively) and LVEF > 40% (n = 12,252 and 226, respectively). The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), cardiac death, and all-cause death during the first year after registration. Independent predictors of mortality in the multivariate analysis in AMI patients with low-grade MR were age ≥ 75 yr, Killip class ≥ III, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide > 4,000 pg/mL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥ 2.59 mg/L, LVEF ≤ 40%, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, PCI was an independent predictor in AMI patients with high-grade MR. No differences in primary endpoints between AMI patients with high-grade MR (grades 3-4) and EF ≤ 40% or EF > 40% were noted. MR is a predictor of a poor outcome regardless of ejection fraction. LVEF is an inadequate method to evaluate contractile function of the ischemic heart in the face of significant MR.

Comparison of Neoatherosclerosis and Neovascularization Between Patients With and Without Diabetes: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of neoatherosclerosis (NA) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation using optical coherence tomography.

Comparison of clinical outcomes between culprit vessel only and multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with multivessel coronary diseases.

The clinical significance of complete revascularization for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients during admission is still debatable.