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Chong-Jin Kim - Top 30 Publications

Utility of GRACE and ACUITY-HORIZONS risk scores to guide dual antiplatelet therapy in Korean patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing drug-eluting stenting.

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is recommended in patients receiving drug-eluting stents (DES). However, bleeding risk should be weighed against ischemic risk. Utility of GRACE risk score and ACUITY-HORIZONS bleeding risk score was assessed in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) according to use of P2Y12 blocker.

Comparison of short-term clinical outcomes between Resolute Onyx zotarolimus-eluting stents and everolimus-eluting stent in patients with acute myocardial infarction: Results from the Korea Acute Myocardial infarction Registry (KAMIR).

There are few studies which compare the efficacy and safety of the Resolute Onyx zotarolimus-eluting stent (O-ZES) and everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Therefore, the present study aimed to compare clinical outcomes of O-ZES and EES in patients with AMI undergoing successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Predictors of decreased left ventricular function subsequent to follow-up echocardiography after percutaneous coronary intervention following acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

The preferred treatment for patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, not all patients improve or maintain heart function following primary PCI, and certain patients may experience decreased heart function. The present study investigated factors associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and improvement or deterioration of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at follow-up echocardiography following successful primary PCI. The clinical outcomes following primary PCI were also investigated. The present study assessed 4,044 patients who underwent primary PCI following a diagnosis of STEMI between January 2008 and March 2012. A total of 1,736 patients who underwent echocardiography between 30 days and 1 year after STEMI and PCI, and who had completed clinical follow-up, were included in the present study. A total of 243 patients (14.0%) demonstrated LV dysfunction at follow-up echocardiography. Multivariate analysis revealed that LV dysfunction (≤40%) at index STEMI, LVEF at index admission, renal insufficiency (creatinine ≥1.4 mg/dl), peak creatine kinase (CK) and peak CK MB isoenzyme (CKMB) were independent predictors of LV dysfunction at follow-up. Independent predictors for the deterioration of LVEF at follow-up were dyslipidemia, LVEF at index admission, LVEF ≤40% at index admission, peak CK and peak troponin-I. Furthermore, being male, having no history of coronary artery disease, pre-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow, LVEF at index admission, LVEF ≤40% at index admission, peak CKMB and peak troponin I were independent predictors of LVEF improvement at follow-up. One-year major adverse cardiac events were significantly increased in the LV dysfunction group compared with patients who did not exhibit LV dysfunction according to Cox regression analysis (13.6 vs. 20.4%; P=0.017). Therefore, the present study may provide valuable prognostic information for clinicians to advise patients who experience LV dysfunction despite having undergone successful primary PCI. Additional management is required in patients with these high-risk features following STEMI.

Circadian Distribution of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Different Age Groups.

Many epidemiologic studies reported a morning peak in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, clinical outcomes and the relation between age distribution and circadian pattern have not been fully investigated in a large number of patients. Our study aimed to clarify the impacts of onset time in circadian variation on incidence and clinical outcomes of AMI according to age. From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry, we gathered data of 20,685 patients from 53 centers in Republic of Korea. Data from a total of 19,915 patients (11,339 ST elevation myocardial infarction, 8,576 non-ST elevation myocardial infarction) were analyzed from the registry, after exclusion of diagnoses other than AMI. A morning-dominant incidence was shown by sinusoidal function, in all patients and in all separate age groups (age < 55, 55 ≤ age < 75, 75 ≤ age). In-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including cardiac deaths, noncardiac deaths, recurrent myocardial infarction, repeated percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft at 1, 12, and 24 months' follow-up, were compared in 4 periods (00:00~05:59, 06:00~11:59, 12:00~17:59, and 18:00~23:59), and no significant difference was noted. Kaplan-Meier curve was drawn for death and MACE-free survival, and no significant different event-free survival was depicted (p value = 0.31). In conclusion, the incidences of myocardial infarction by onset time were uneven in 24 hours, in all patients and age groups, by sinusoidal function. However, there were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality or MACEs in the 4 time periods during 24 months of follow-up.

Door-to-balloon time and cardiac mortality in acute myocardial infarction by total occlusion of the left circumflex artery.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) caused by total occlusion of the left circumflex artery (LCX) can present as non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We evaluate whether door-to-balloon time (DBT) is associated with cardiac mortality in patients with total occlusion of the LCX.

Effects of Statin Intensity on Clinical Outcome in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients.

There has been debate regarding the added benefit of high-intensity statins compared with low-moderate-intensity statins, especially in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods and Results:The Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health consecutively enrolled 13,104 AMI patients. Of these, a total of 12,182 patients, who completed 1-year follow-up, were included in this study, and all patients were classified into 3 groups (no statin; low-moderate-intensity statin; and high-intensity statin). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac event (MACE) including cardiac death, non-fatal MI, and repeat revascularization at 1 year. Both low-moderate-intensity and high-intensity statin significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; all P<0.001). Compared with the no statin group, both statin groups had significantly lower risk of MACE (low-moderate intensity: HR, 0.506; 95% CI: 0.413-0.619, P<0.001; high intensity: HR, 0.464; 95% CI: 0.352-0.611, P<0.001). The risk of MACE, however, was similar between the low-moderate- and high-intensity statin groups (HR, 0.917; 95% CI: 0.760-1.107, P=0.368). Multivariable adjustment, propensity score matching, and inverse probability weighted analysis also produced the same results.

Multivessel Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction With Cardiogenic Shock.

Recent trials demonstrated a benefit of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for noninfarct-related artery (non-IRA) stenosis over IRA-only PCI in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) multivessel disease. However, evidence is limited in patients with cardiogenic shock.

Long-term Prognosis and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Detected after First Acute Myocardial Infarction: from KAMIR-NIH Registry.

After the first acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a considerable proportion of patients are newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, in AMI, controversy remains regarding the disparity in prognosis between previously diagnosed DM (known-DM) and newly diagnosed DM (new-DM).

Clinical Outcomes of Elderly Patients with Non ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes of the elderly patients with Non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) compared to non-elderly patients. Patients with NSTEMI and undergoing CABG (n=451) who were registered in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry between December 2003 and August 2012 were divided into two groups.; the non-elderly group (<75 years, n=327) and the elderly group (≥75 years, n=124). In-hospital mortality was higher in the elderly group (4.9% vs. 11.3%, p=0.015), but cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, percutaneous revascularization, and redo-CABG after a one-year follow up were not different between the two groups. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with NSTEMI undergoing CABG were left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤40%) [hazard ratio (HR): 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-6.57, p=0.022] and age (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.10, p=0.047). So elderly NSTEMI patients should be considered for CABG if appropriate, but careful consideration for surgery is required, especially if the patients have severe LV systolic dysfunction.

A randomized trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab in South Korea and Taiwan (ODYSSEY KT).

Alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, has been shown to provide significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Data about its efficacy and safety in patients from South Korea and Taiwan are limited.

Clinical Predictors for Lack of Favorable Vascular Response to Statin Therapy in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Serial Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

Previous studies have demonstrated that statin therapy improves cardiac outcomes, probably by stabilizing thin-cap fibroatheroma in patients with coronary artery disease. However, major adverse cardiac events still occur in some patients, despite statin therapy. The aim of this study is to identify clinical predictors for the lack of a favorable vascular response to statin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease.

Benefit of Vasodilating β-Blockers in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Nationwide Multicenter Cohort Study.

Although current guidelines recommend β-blocker after acute myocardial infarction (MI), the role of β-blocker has not been well investigated in the modern reperfusion era. In particular, the benefit of vasodilating β-blocker over conventional β-blocker is still unexplored.

Comparison of effects between calcium channel blocker and diuretics in combination with angiotensin II receptor blocker on 24-h central blood pressure and vascular hemodynamic parameters in hypertensive patients: study design for a multicenter, double-blinded, active-controlled, phase 4, randomized trial.

Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke, and is one of the leading causes of death. Although over a billion people are affected worldwide, only half of them receive adequate treatment. Current guidelines on antihypertensive treatment recommend combination therapy for patients not responding to monotherapy, but as the number of pills increase, patient compliance tends to decrease. As a result, fixed-dose combination drugs with different antihypertensive agents have been developed and widely used in recent years. CCBs have been shown to be better at reducing central blood pressure and arterial stiffness than diuretics. Recent studies have reported that central blood pressure and arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular outcomes. This trial aims to compare the efficacy of combination of calcium channel blocker (CCB) or thiazide diuretic with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB).

Evaluation of the impact of statin therapy on the obesity paradox in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A propensity score matching analysis from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry.

The phenomenon of obesity paradox after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported under strong recommendation of statin therapy. However, the impact of statin therapy on this paradox has not been investigated. This study investigated the impact of statin therapy on 1-year mortality according to obesity after AMI. A total of 2745 AMI patients were included from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry after 1:4 propensity score matching analysis (n = 549 for nonstatin group and n = 2196 for statin group). Primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause and cardiac death, respectively. During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of all-cause (8.4% vs 3.7%) and cardiac (6.2% vs 2.3%) death was higher in nonstatin group than in statin (P < .001, respectively). In nonstatin group, the incidence of all-cause (7.2% vs 9.0%) and cardiac (5.5% vs 6.5%) death did not differ significantly between obese and nonobese patients. However, in statin group, obese patients had lower 1-year rate of all-cause (1.7% vs 4.8%) and cardiac (1.2% vs 2.9%) death (P < .05, respectively), and lower cumulative rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis of all-cause and cardiac death compared with nonobese patients (log-rank P < .05, respectively). The overall risk of all-cause death was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese patients only in statin group (hazard ratio: 0.35; P = .001). After adjusting for confounding factors, obesity was independently associated with decreased risk of all-cause death in statin group. In conclusion, the greater benefit of statin therapy for survival in obese patients is further confirmation of the obesity paradox after AMI.

SYNTAX Score and Pre- and Poststent Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris.

SYNTAX score (SS) has been reported to be an independent predictor of future cardiac events including target lesion revascularization. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between SS and plaque characteristics and poststent vascular response using optical coherence tomography in coronary artery tree and left anterior descending artery (LAD) in patients with stable angina. A total of 179 lesions among 165 patients, including 100 lesions in LAD, were analyzed. Patients were stratified into tertiles. In pre-percutaneous coronary intervention analysis of whole coronary tree and LAD, lesions of the third tertile had the highest prevalence of lipid-rich plaque. Compared with the first tertile, the third tertile had greater lipid index, thinner fibrous cap, and higher prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma. In poststent optical coherence tomography, the incidence of stent edge dissection and irregular protrusion was higher in the third tertile compared with the first tertile in coronary tree analysis. In LAD analysis, the prevalence of irregular protrusion was the highest in the third tertile. In conclusion, high SS may reflect higher plaque vulnerability. Stent edge dissection and irregular protrusion were more frequent in patients with higher SS, indicating poor vascular response to stenting. Our results may explain higher cardiac event rate and target lesion revascularization in patients with higher SS.

Efficacy and Tolerability of Combination Therapy Versus Monotherapy with Candesartan and/or Amlodipine for Dose Finding in Essential Hypertension: A Phase II Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial.

Intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering is important for the treatment of hypertension; however, it has been a challenge to achieve target BP in many patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the optimal dosage of a fixed-dose combination of candesartan cilexetil (CAN) and amlodipine besylate (AML), by examining the tolerability and efficacy of CAN/AML combination therapy compared with those of monotherapy with either drug in patients with essential hypertension.

Benefits of Statin Therapy in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction With Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol ≤ 50 mg/dl.

Previous trials have found that statin therapy reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level and the risk of cardiovascular events. However, the benefit of statin therapy in patients with baseline LDL-C levels ≤ 50 mg/dl is less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who have baseline LDL-C levels ≤ 50 mg/dl would benefit from statin therapy in real-world clinical practice. We analyzed the clinical data of 1,048 patients (67.3 ± 12.6 years, 69.6% men) with AMI, who had baseline LDL-C levels ≤ 50 mg/dl from the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry data between November 2005 and May 2014. They were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were prescribed statins or not at discharge (statin and nonstatin group, n = 738 and 310, respectively). The primary end point was the major adverse cardiac event (MACE), defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. MACE occurred in 9.2% of the statin group versus 19.6% in the nonstatin group during the 12-month follow-up. Statin therapy significantly reduced the risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94, p = 0.025) and coronary artery bypass grafting (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.96, p = 0.043). There was a trend of reduced cardiac death in the statin group compared with the nonstatin group (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.02, p = 0.059). Statin therapy for patients with AMI with LDL-C levels ≤ 50 mg/dl was associated with improved outcomes. Therefore, statin therapy is feasible and effective, even in AMI patients with extremely low levels of LDL-C.

Clinical Significance of Lipid-Rich Plaque Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography: A 4-Year Follow-Up Study.

Lipid-rich plaque (LRP) is thought to be a precursor to cardiac events. However, its clinical significance in coronary arteries has never been systematically investigated.

Increased interarm blood pressure difference is associated with autonomic dysfunction and atherosclerosis in patients with chest pain and no history of coronary artery disease.

Interarm blood pressure (BP) difference has been reported to be associated with atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular death. We were to investigate associations of interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference with heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise, an index of autonomic function, and carotid atherosclerotic markers, and to evaluate the association of interarm SBP difference with concurrent coronary artery disease (CAD).

The pharmacological stimulation of Nurr1 improves cognitive functions via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

The nuclear receptor related-1 (Nurr1) protein plays an important role in both the development of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and cognitive functions. Despite its relevance, the effects of Nurr1 on adult hippocampal neurogenesis have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we used RT-PCR, western blot, and immunocytochemistry to show that adult hippocampal NPCs abundantly express Nurr1. We then examined the effect of Nurr1 activation on adult hippocampal NPCs using amodiaquine (AQ), an anti-malarial drug that was recently discovered to be a Nurr1 agonist. Cell proliferation assay showed that AQ significantly increased cell proliferation. AQ-treated NPCs showed increased levels of phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 whereas AQ-treated Nurr1 siRNA-transfected NPCs showed no changes in those levels. Further immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the stimulating effect of Nurr1 agonist on the proliferation and differentiation of adult hippocampal NPCs both in vivo and in vitro. In addition to its effects on proliferation and differentiation of NPCs, AQ-treated mice showed a significant enhancement of both short- and long-term memory in the Y-maze and the novel object recognition test. These data suggest that activation of Nurr1 may enhance cognitive functions by increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis and also indicate that Nurr1 may be used as a therapeutic target for the treatment of memory disorders and cognitive impairment observed in neurodegenerative diseases.

Prevalence and Predictors of Multiple Coronary Plaque Ruptures: In Vivo 3-Vessel Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Study.

Plaque rupture may be the local expression of a widespread coronary instability. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of nonculprit plaque rupture; (2) the pancoronary atherosclerotic phenotype in patients with and without nonculprit plaque rupture; and (3) the prevalence and predictors of multiple plaque ruptures.

Relationship between time to treatment and mortality among patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention according to Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry.

Despite large reductions in door-to-balloon times over the period, several studies from regional and national data showed that annual mortality rates were not decreased among patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, these studies mostly focused on door-to-balloon time, and there was no consideration of total ischemic time in a trend of mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the annual trend between time to treatment and 1-month mortality among patients undergoing primary PCI.

Clinical outcome of statin plus ezetimibe versus high-intensity statin therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction propensity-score matching analysis.

It is unclear whether simvastatin-ezetimibe could be an alternative therapy to high-intensity statin therapy in high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of simvastatin-ezetimibe and high-intensity statin therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and especially in those with high-risk factor.

Comparative clinical implications of admission electrocardiographic findings for patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Early risk stratification is crucial for appropriate management using invasive strategies in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and electrocardiography (ECG) has been widely used for risk stratification. However, ECG findings in NSTEMI vary, and there is a need to define the clinical characteristics and outcomes according to ECG.We analyzed the admission ECGs of 345 NSTEMI patients who underwent coronary angiography from 2006 to 2013. Demographics, procedural characteristics, and clinical outcomes were analyzed.The ST-segment depression, T-wave inversion, and no ECG change groups included 114, 90, and 141 patients, respectively. The ST-segment depression group trended toward older, nonsmoking, and female, with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a higher incidence of comorbidities, than the no ECG change group. The ST-segment depression group also had a higher Killip class, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, a higher regional wall motion score index (RWMSI), and 3-vessel coronary artery disease angiographically, than the no ECG change group. Patients with T-wave inversion trended toward older, female, lower BMI, less smoking, lower creatine kinase MB, and more left anterior descending (LAD) artery involvement, than the no ECG change group. In clinical outcomes, the ST-segment depression group had a higher mortality rate at 30 days and 12 months after the index procedure than the no ECG change group, whereas the T-wave inversion group showed similar clinical outcomes.Patients with ST-segment depression have a greater burden of comorbidities with risk factors and worse clinical outcomes, whereas patients with T-wave inversion have an intermediate number of risk factors but similar outcomes, compared with the no ECG change group. Further study is necessary to evaluate the prognostic impact of the baseline ECG on admission.

Pharmacoinvasive Strategy Versus Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

The Strategic Reperfusion Early After Myocardial Infarction trial and the French Registry of Acute ST-elevation or Non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction 2015 suggested that pharmacoinvasive strategy compares favorably with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We sought to assess the clinical impact of pharmacoinvasive strategy compared with PPCI in real-world patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.

Clinical impact of immediate invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Immediate invasive approach for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) may permit treatment of the underlying plaque rupture as early as possible with subsequent reduction of death and myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to assess clinical impact of immediate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for NSTEMI.

Roles of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Many observational studies showed hogh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular (CV) outcome. However, recent large clinical trials evaluating therapies to raise HDL-C level in those already on statin therapy have been discouraging. This complexity is not well-known.A total of 28,357 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR), which was a prospective, multicenter, nationwide, web-based database of AMI in Korea. From this registry, we evaluated 3574 patients with AMI who have follow-up HDL-C level to investigate its association with clinical outcomes. The primary endpoint was the relationship between follow-up change in HDL-C and a 12-month composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs).Patients with initial HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL showed significantly lower rates of 12-month MACEs, especially cardiac and all-cause mortalities (P < 0.001). When patients were stratified into 4 groups according to the change of HDL-C, patients with decreasing HDL-C showed significantly higher rates of 12-month MACEs as comparable with patients with increasing HLD-C. A multivariate analysis indicated that HDL-C level was a significant predictor of CV events (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.71) after correcting for confounding variables.The follow-up change in HDL-C level was significantly related with CV outcomes in patients with AMI.

Multicenter Cohort Study of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Korea - Interim Analysis of the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health Registry.

The Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR)-National Institutes of Health (NIH) registry has the aim of evaluating the clinical characteristics, management, and long-term outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea.

Intracoronary nitroglycerin injection through a microcatheter for coronary no-reflow following percutaneous coronary intervention.

Two-Year Safety and Efficacy of Biodegradable Polymer Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Second-Generation Durable Polymer Drug-Eluting Stent in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR).

Despite improved long-term safety of biodegradable polymer (BP) drug-eluting stents (DES) compared to first-generation durable polymer (DP) DES, data on the safety and efficacy of BP-DES compared with second-generation (2G) DP-DES in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are limited.