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Christian Hametner - Top 30 Publications

Less-toxic rearrangement products of NX-toxins are formed during storage and food processing.

A new type A trichothecene mycotoxin, NX-2, was previously reported to be produced by North American isolates of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Here we describe the isolation and structural characterization of a rearrangement product, called NX2-M1, and related compounds with different acetylation patterns (NX3-M1 and NX4-M1). In the NX-M1 derivatives, the epoxide ring is opened, and a covalent bridge between C-10 and C-12 of the trichothecene backbone is formed. In vitro translation assays showed that NX3-M1 is less toxic for eukaryotic ribosomes than NX-3. NX3-M1 also has a greatly reduced cytotoxic potential on two tested human colon cell lines. Formation of NX3-M1 can therefore be regarded as a detoxification reaction. The related F. graminearum mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is frequently occurring worldwide, is very stable during food processing. Testing NX-3 at different pH-values and temperature conditions, as well as under conditions that simulate the storage of infected grains and bread-making process, revealed a strongly reduced stability of NX-3 and concurrent formation of NX3-M1. Although the NX-3 formed in planta is as toxic as DON, the extensive formation of the non-toxic rearrangement product should be taken into account for risk assessment of this emerging food contaminant.

Non-office-hours admission affects intravenous thrombolysis treatment times and clinical outcome.

Design and validation of a clinical scale for prehospital stroke recognition, severity grading and prediction of large vessel occlusion: the shortened NIH Stroke Scale for emergency medical services.

To develop an NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS)-compatible, all-in-one scale for rapid and comprehensive prehospital stroke assessment including stroke recognition, severity grading and progression monitoring as well as prediction of large vessel occlusion (LVO).

Glucuronidation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by different animal species: identification of iso-DON glucuronides and iso-deepoxy-DON glucuronides as novel DON metabolites in pigs, rats, mice, and cows.

The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereal-based food and feed. Mammals metabolize DON by conjugation to glucuronic acid (GlcAc), the extent and regioselectivity of which is species-dependent. So far, only DON-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcAc) and DON-15-GlcAc have been unequivocally identified as mammalian DON glucuronides, and DON-7-GlcAc has been proposed as further DON metabolite. In the present work, qualitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urine samples of animals treated with DON (rats: 2 mg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; mice: 1 mg/kg bw, single i.p. injection; pigs: 74 µg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; cows: 5.2 mg DON/kg dry mass, oral for 13 weeks) revealed additional DON and deepoxy-DON (DOM) glucuronides. To elucidate their structures, DON and DOM were incubated with human (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). Besides the expected DON/DOM-3- and 15-GlcAc, minor amounts of four DON- and four DOM glucuronides were formed. Isolation and enzymatic hydrolysis of four of these compounds yielded iso-DON and iso-DOM, the identities of which were eventually confirmed by NMR. Incubation of iso-DON and iso-DOM with RLM and HLM yielded two main glucuronides for each parent compound, which were isolated and identified as iso-DON/DOM-3-GlcAc and iso-DON/DOM-8-GlcAc by NMR. Iso-DON-3-GlcAc, most likely misidentified as DON-7-GlcAc in the literature, proved to be a major DON metabolite in rats and a minor metabolite in pigs. In addition, iso-DON-8-GlcAc turned out to be one of the major DON metabolites in mice. DOM-3-GlcAc was the dominant DON metabolite in urine of cows and an important DON metabolite in rat urine. Iso-DOM-3-GlcAc was detected in urine of DON-treated rats and cows. Finally, DON-8,15-hemiketal-8-glucuronide, a previously described by-product of DON-3-GlcAc production by RLM, was identified in urine of DON-exposed mice and rats. The discovery of several novel DON-derived glucuronides in animal urine requires adaptation of the currently used methods for DON-biomarker analysis.

Reciprocal Interaction of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability and Systolic Blood Pressure on Outcome in Stroke Thrombolysis.

Significance and management of blood pressure (BP) changes in acute stroke care are unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of 24-hour BP variability (BPV) on outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis.

A barley UDP-glucosyltransferase inactivates nivalenol and provides Fusarium Head Blight resistance in transgenic wheat.

Fusarium Head Blight is a disease of cereal crops that causes severe yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grain. The main causal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, produces the trichothecene toxins deoxynivalenol or nivalenol as virulence factors. Nivalenol-producing isolates are most prevalent in Asia but co-exist with deoxynivalenol producers in lower frequency in North America and Europe. Previous studies identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase, HvUGT13248, that efficiently detoxifies deoxynivalenol, and when expressed in transgenic wheat results in high levels of type II resistance against deoxynivalenol-producing F. graminearum. Here we show that HvUGT13248 is also capable of converting nivalenol into the non-toxic nivalenol-3-O-β-d-glucoside. We describe the enzymatic preparation of a nivalenol-glucoside standard and its use in development of an analytical method to detect the nivalenol-glucoside conjugate. Recombinant Escherichia coli expressing HvUGT13248 glycosylates nivalenol more efficiently than deoxynivalenol. Overexpression in yeast, Arabidopsis thaliana, and wheat leads to increased nivalenol resistance. Increased ability to convert nivalenol to nivalenol-glucoside was observed in transgenic wheat, which also exhibits type II resistance to a nivalenol-producing F. graminearum strain. Our results demonstrate the HvUGT13248 can act to detoxify deoxynivalenol and nivalenol and provide resistance to deoxynivalenol- and nivalenol-producing Fusarium.

Synthesis of Mono- and Di-Glucosides of Zearalenone and α-/β-Zearalenol by Recombinant Barley Glucosyltransferase HvUGT14077.

Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s-1·mM-1) with ZEN. It also efficiently glucosylates the phase-I ZEN-metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, with kcat/Km of 40 and 74 s-1·mM-1, respectively. HvUGT14077 catalyzes O-glucosylation at C-14 and C-16 with preference of 14-glucoside synthesis. Furthermore, relatively slow consecutive formation of 14,16-di-glucosides was observed; their structures were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry and for ZEN-14,16-di-glucoside confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recombinant HvUGT14077 allowed efficient preparative synthesis of ZEN-glucosides, yielding about 90% ZEN-14-glucoside and 10% ZEN-16-glucoside. The yield of ZEN-16-glucoside could be increased to 85% by co-incubation with a β-glucosidase highly selective for ZEN-14-glucoside. Depletion of the co-substrate UDP-glucose was counteracted by a sucrose synthase based regeneration system. This strategy could also be of interest to increase the yield of minor glucosides synthesized by other glucosyltransferases.

Sex Differences and Functional Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis.

Women have a worse outcome after stroke compared with men, although in intravenous thrombolysis (IVT)-treated patients, women seem to benefit more. Besides sex differences, age has also a possible effect on functional outcome. The interaction of sex on the functional outcome in IVT-treated patients in relation to age remains complex. The purpose of this study was to compare outcome after IVT between women and men with regard to age in a large multicenter European cohort reflecting daily clinical practice of acute stroke care.

Sex and Stroke in Thrombolyzed Patients and Controls.

We hypothesized that any sex-related difference in outcome poststroke is explained by other prognostic factors and that the response to intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) is equal in males and females after adjustment for such factors.

Color Fine-Tuning of Optical Materials Through Rational Design.

We report on the feasibility for color fine-tuning of optical materials using rational design principles based on chemical reasoning. For this purpose, a modular framework for the construction of symmetrical cap-linker-cap compounds, using triarylamine caps and oligothiophene linkers, is applied. The chosen structural scaffolds are heavily used in recent industrial applications and provide five possibilities for altering their electronic and steric properties: electron donor/acceptor groups, planarization/deplanarization, and modulation of the π-conjugation length. Permutation of the used building blocks leads to a set of 54 different molecules, out of which 32 are synthesized and characterized in solution as well as in example fabricated OLED devices. This setup allows for color fine-tuning in the range of 412 nm to 540 nm with typical steps of 4 nm. In addition, to further benefit from the large experimental data set the spectroscopic results are used to benchmark quantum chemical computations, which show excellent agreement thus highlighting the potential of these calculations to guide future syntheses.

Green and highly efficient synthesis of perylene and naphthalene bisimides in nothing but water.

High-purity, symmetrically substituted perylene and naphthalene bisimides were obtained by hydrothermal condensation of monoamines with the corresponding bisanhydride. The hydrothermal imidization proceeds quantitatively, without the need for organic solvents, catalysts or excess of the amines.

Efficient low-cost preparation of trans-cyclooctenes using a simplified flow setup for photoisomerization.

Bioorthogonal ligations have emerged as highly versatile chemical tools for biomedical research. The exceptionally fast reaction between 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and trans-cyclooctenes (TCOs), also known as tetrazine ligation, is frequently used in this regard. Growing numbers of applications for the tetrazine ligation led to an increased demand for TCO compounds, whose commercial availability is still very limited. Reported photochemical procedures for the preparation of TCOs using flow chemistry are straightforward and high yielding but require expensive equipment. Within this contribution, we present the construction and characterization of a low-cost flow photoreactor assembled from readily accessible components. Syntheses of all commonly used trans-cyclooctene derivatives were successfully carried out using the described system. We are convinced that the presented system for photoisomerization will promote access to bioorthogonally reactive TCO derivatives.

Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients Dependent on the Daily Help of Others Before Stroke.

We compared outcome and complications in patients with stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) who could not live alone without help of another person before stroke (dependent patients) versus independent ones.

Noninvasive cerebral oximetry during endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke: an observational study.

Implementing endovascular stroke care often impedes neurologic assessment in patients who need sedation or general anesthesia. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may help physicians monitor cerebral tissue viability, but data in hyperacute stroke patients receiving endovascular treatment are sparse. In this observational study, the NIRS index regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured noninvasively before, during, and after endovascular therapy via bilateral forehead NIRS optodes. During the study period, 63 patients were monitored with NIRS; 43 qualified for analysis. Before recanalization, 10 distinct rSO2 decreases occurred in 11 patients with respect to time to intubation. During recanalization, two kinds of unilateral rSO2 changes occurred in the affected hemisphere: small peaks throughout the treatment (n=14, 32.6%) and sustained increases immediately after recanalization (n=2, 4.7%). Lower area under the curve 10% below baseline was associated with better reperfusion status (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥ 2b, P=0.009). At the end of the intervention, lower interhemispheric rSO2 difference predicted death within 90 days (P=0.037). After the intervention, higher rSO2 variability predicted poor outcome (modified Rankin scale > 3, P=0.032). Our findings suggest that bi-channel rSO2-NIRS has potential for guiding neuroanesthesia and predicting outcome. To better monitor local revascularization, an improved stroke-specific set-up in future studies is necessary.

Sex and Hemisphere - A Neglected, Nature-Determined Relationship in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Sex differences in the structural connectome of the brain are clinically highly relevant, but they have mostly been neglected in stroke trials. We investigated the impact of the interaction sex-by-hemisphere on outcome in stroke patients after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT).

Impact of sex in stroke thrombolysis: a coarsened exact matching study.

It is not established whether sex influences outcome and safety following intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in acute stroke. As a significant imbalance exists between the baseline conditions of women and men, regression analysis alone may be subject to bias. Here we aimed to overcome this methodical shortcoming by balancing both groups using coarsened exact matching (CEM) before evaluating outcome.

Impact of fumaric acid esters on cardiovascular risk factors and depression in psoriasis: a prospective pilot study.

Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease that is partly attributable to chronic systemic inflammation. The aim of our prospective pilot study was to investigate the impact of fumaric acid esters (FAE), a first-line systemic antipsoriatic treatment in Germany, on cardiovascular risk parameters. Participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis from the University Medical Center Mannheim and the University Hospital Würzburg were treated with FAE for 16 weeks according to standard dosage recommendations. Disease severity, life quality and depression scores as well as biomarkers of inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed prior to initiation of FAE and after 16 weeks. Out of 39 participants recruited, 27 completed the study. 44% of all participants and 63% of those completing the 16-week treatment achieved PASI 50 response and 27 or 37% PASI 75 response. Clinical improvement was paralleled by significant improvement in quality of life, high treatment satisfaction and significant reduction of depressive symptoms. Adverse events, most frequently mild gastrointestinal complaints, flush and lymphocytopenia occurred in 89%. FAE did not modify glucose metabolism or inflammatory parameters substantially. However, a highly significant increase in serum levels of the atheroprotective cytokine adiponectin was noted after 16 weeks (median 4.7 vs. 8.9 µg/ml; p = 0.0002). Our study demonstrates a significant beneficial impact of FAE on adiponectin, indicating a potential cardioprotective effect. It will be interesting to verify this finding in larger cohorts and to assess the long-term influence of FAE on cardiovascular risk and disease.

Prognostic value of immune cell infiltration, tertiary lymphoid structures and PD-L1 expression in Merkel cell carcinomas.

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive, virus-associated, neuroendocrine tumor of the skin mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. Higher intratumoral infiltration with CD3 and CD8 positive T-cells is associated with a better prognosis, highlighting the relevance of the immune system for MCC development and progression. In this study 21 primary MCCs were stained with immune cell markers including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, CD20, and S100. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrating neutrophils, tertiary lymphoid structures and PD-L1 expression were analyzed and correlated with overall and recurrence free survival. All MCCs were Merkel Cell Polyomavirus positive. Overall and recurrence-free survival did not correlate with intra- and peritumoral CD3 and CD8 T-cell infiltration. In addition, no significant association regarding prognosis was found for tumor-associated neutrophils, tumor-associated macrophages or PD-L1 positivity in MCCs. Interestingly, the presence of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) in the tumor microenvironment significantly correlated with recurrence-free survival (P=0.025). In addition, TLS were significantly associated with a higher CD8/CD4 ratio in the tumor periphery (P=0.032), but not in the center of the tumor (P > 0.999). These results demonstrate for the first time that TLS, easily assessed in paraffin-embedded tissue in the tumor periphery of MCCs, may be a valuable prognostic factor indicating prolonged recurrence free survival.

Deoxynivalenol-sulfates: identification and quantification of novel conjugated (masked) mycotoxins in wheat.

We report the identification of deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate as two novel metabolites of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat. Wheat ears which were either artificially infected with Fusarium graminearum or directly treated with the major Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were sampled 96 h after treatment. Reference standards, which have been chemically synthesized and confirmed by NMR, were used to establish a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI)-MS/MS-based "dilute and shoot" method for the detection, unambiguous identification, and quantification of both sulfate conjugates in wheat extracts. Using this approach, detection limits of 0.003 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and 0.002 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate were achieved. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification of DON-sulfates in the investigated samples. In DON-treated samples, DON-3-sulfate was detected in the range of 0.29-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight while DON-15-sulfate concentrations were significantly lower (range 0.015-0.061 mg/kg fresh weight). In Fusarium-infected wheat samples, DON-3-sulfate was the only detected sulfate conjugate (range 0.022-0.059 mg/kg fresh weight). These results clearly demonstrate the potential of wheat to form sulfate conjugates of DON. In order to test whether sulfation is a detoxification reaction in planta, we determined the ability of the sulfated DON derivatives to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis of wheat ribosomes. The results demonstrate that both DON-sulfates can be regarded as detoxification products. DON-15-sulfate was about 44× less inhibitory than the native toxin, and no toxicity was observed for DON-3-sulfate in the tested range.

Comparison of stroke recognition and stroke severity scores for stroke detection in a single cohort.

First, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of six stroke recognition scores in a single cohort to improve interscore comparability. Second, to test four stroke severity scores repurposed to recognise stroke in parallel.

New tricks of an old enemy: isolates of Fusarium graminearum produce a type A trichothecene mycotoxin.

The ubiquitous filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes the important disease Fusarium head blight on various species of cereals, leading to contamination of grains with mycotoxins. In a survey of F. graminearum (sensu stricto) on wheat in North America several novel strains were isolated, which produced none of the known trichothecene mycotoxins despite causing normal disease symptoms. In rice cultures, a new trichothecene mycotoxin (named NX-2) was characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements identified NX-2 as 3α-acetoxy-7α,15-dihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene. Compared with the well-known 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), it lacks the keto group at C-8 and hence is a type A trichothecene. Wheat ears inoculated with the isolated strains revealed a 10-fold higher contamination with its deacetylated form, named NX-3, (up to 540 mg kg(-1) ) compared with NX-2. The toxicities of the novel mycotoxins were evaluated utilizing two in vitro translation assays and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NX-3 inhibits protein biosynthesis to almost the same extent as the prominent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, while NX-2 is far less toxic, similar to 3-ADON. Genetic analysis revealed a different TRI1 allele in the N-isolates, which was verified to be responsible for the difference in hydroxylation at C-8.

Rapid Induction of COOLing in Stroke Patients (iCOOL1): a randomised pilot study comparing cold infusions with nasopharyngeal cooling.

Induction methods for therapeutic cooling are under investigated. We compared the effectiveness and safety of cold infusions (CI) and nasopharyngeal cooling (NPC) for cooling induction in stroke patients.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) sulfonates as major DON metabolites in rats: from identification to biomarker method development, validation and application.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin regularly occurring in cereals. Rats are often used to study toxicokinetics of DON and related compounds, yet only about 30 % of the administered dose is typically recovered. Recently, it was reported that DON is partly metabolised to previously undetected DON- and deepoxy-DON (DOM) sulfonate in rats and tentative structures were proposed. The present work describes the production and characterisation of DON-, DOM- and DON-3-glucoside (D3G) sulfonates of three different series; the development and validation of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based methods for determination of DON, DOM, D3G and their sulfonates in rat faeces and urine; and application of the methods to samples from a DON and D3G feeding trial with rats. In addition to previously produced DON sulfonates (DONS) 1, 2 and 3, D3G sulfonates 1, 2 and 3; and DOM sulfonates (DOMS) 2 and 3 were synthesised, purified and characterised. The developed methods showed apparent recoveries of all investigated compounds between 68 and 151 % in faeces and between 48 and 113 % in urine. The recovery of DON, D3G and their metabolites from faeces and urine of rats (n = 6) administered in a single dose of 2.0 mg/kg b.w. DON or the equimolar amount of D3G was 75 ± 9 % for the DON group and 68 ± 8 % for the D3G group. DON-, DOM- and D3G sulfonates excreted in faeces accounted for 48 and 47 % of the total amount of administered DON and D3G. Urinary excretion of sulfonates was <1 %. In both treatment groups, DONS 2 was the major metabolite 0-24 h after treatment, whereas DOMS 2 was predominant thereafter. The developed methods can also be used for investigation of DON (conjugate) sulfonate formation in other animal species.

Sulfation of deoxynivalenol, its acetylated derivatives, and T2-toxin.

The synthesis of several sulfates of trichothecene mycotoxins is presented. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives were synthesized from 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and used as substrate for sulfation in order to reach a series of five different DON-based sulfates as well as T2-toxin-3-sulfate. These substances are suspected to be formed during phase-II metabolism in plants and humans. The sulfation was performed using a sulfuryl imidazolium salt, which was synthesized prior to use. All protected intermediates and final products were characterized via NMR and will serve as reference materials for further investigations in the fields of toxicology and bioanalytics of mycotoxins.

Synthesis of zearalenone-16-β,D-glucoside and zearalenone-16-sulfate: A tale of protecting resorcylic acid lactones for regiocontrolled conjugation.

The development of a reliable procedure for the synthesis of the 16-glucoside and 16-sulfate of the resorcylic acid lactone (RAL) type compound zearalenone is presented. Different protective group strategies were considered and applied to enable the preparation of glucosides and sulfates that are difficult to access up to now. Acetyl and p-methoxybenzyl protection led to undesired results and were shown to be inappropriate. Finally, triisopropylsilyl-protected zearalenone was successfully used as intermediate for the first synthesis of the corresponding mycotoxin glucoside and sulfate that are highly valuable as reference materials for further studies in the emerging field of masked mycotoxins. Furthermore, high stability was observed for aryl sulfates prepared as tetrabutylammonium salts. Overall, these findings should be applicable for the synthesis of similar RAL type and natural product conjugates.

Synthesis and application of monodisperse oligo(oxyethylene)-grafted polystyrene resins for solid-phase organic synthesis.

In a preliminary investigation by our group, we found that poly(styrene-oxyethylene) graft copolymers (PS-PEG), for example, TentaGel resins, are advantageous for gel-phase (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Because of the solution-like environment provided by the PS-PEG resins, good spectral quality of the attached moiety can be achieved, which is useful for nondestructive on-resin analysis. The general drawbacks of such resins are low loading capacities and the intense signal in the spectra resulting from the PEG linker (>50 units). Here, we describe the characterization of solvent-dependent swelling and reaction kinetics on a new type of resin for solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS) that allows an accurate monitoring by gel-phase NMR without the above disadvantages. A series of polystyrene-oligo(oxyethylene) graft copolymers containing monodisperse PEG units (n = 2-12) was synthesized. A strong correlation between the linker (PEG) length and the line widths in the (13)C gel-phase spectra was observed, with a grafted PEG chain of 8 units giving similar results in terms of reactivity and gel-phase NMR monitoring to TentaGel resin. Multistep on-resin reaction sequences were performed to prove the applicability of the resins in solid-phase organic synthesis.

Methylthiodeoxynivalenol (MTD): insight into the chemistry, structure and toxicity of thia-Michael adducts of trichothecenes.

Methylthiodeoxynivalenol (MTD), a novel derivative of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), was prepared by applying a reliable procedure for the formal Michael addition of methanethiol to the conjugated double bond of DON. Structure elucidation revealed the preferred formation of the hemiketal form of MTD by intramolecular cyclisation between C8 and C15. Computational investigations showed a negative total reaction energy for the hemiketalisation step and its decrease in comparison with theoretical model compounds. Therefore, this structural behaviour seems to be a general characteristic of thia-Michael adducts of type B trichothecenes. MTD was shown to be less inhibitory for a reticulocyte lysate based in vitro translation system than the parent compound DON, which supports the hypothesis that trichothecenes are detoxified through thia-adduct formation during xenobiotic metabolism.

DFT study of the Lewis acid mediated synthesis of 3-acyltetramic acids.

The synthesis of 3-acyltetramic acids by C-acylation of pyrrolidine-2,4-diones was studied by density functional theory (DFT). DFT was applied to the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid (TeA), an important representative of these bioactive natural compounds. Lewis acid mediated C-acylation in combination with previous pH-neutral domino N-acylation-Wittig cyclization can be used for the efficient preparation of 3-acyltetramic acids. Nevertheless, quite harsh conditions are still required to carry out this synthetic step, leading to unwanted isomerization of stereogenic centers in some cases. In the presented study, the reaction pathway for the C-acetylation of (5S,6S-5-s-butylpyrrolidine-2,4-dione was studied in terms of mechanism, solvent effects, and Lewis acid activation, in order to obtain an appropriate theoretical model for further investigations. Crucial steps were identified that showed rather high activation barriers and rationalized previously reported experimental discoveries. After in silico optimization, aluminum chlorides were found to be promising Lewis acids that promote the C-acylation of pyrrolidine-2,4-diones, whereas calculations performed in various organic solvents showed that the solvent had only a minor effect on the energy profiles of the considered mechanisms. This clearly indicates that further synthetic studies should focus on the Lewis-acidic mediator rather than other reaction parameters. Additionally, given the results obtained for different reaction routes, the stereochemistry of this C-acylation is discussed. It is assumed that the formation of Z-configured TeA is favored, in good agreement with our previous studies.

Stereoselective Luche reduction of deoxynivalenol and three of its acetylated derivatives at C8.

The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a well known and common contaminant in food and feed. Acetylated derivatives and other biosynthetic precursors can occur together with the main toxin. A key biosynthetic step towards DON involves an oxidation of the 8-OH group of 7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin. Since analytical standards for the intermediates are not available and these intermediates are therefore rarely studied, we aimed for a synthetic method to invert this reaction, making a series of calonectrin-derived precursors accessible. We did this by developing an efficient protocol for stereoselective Luche reduction at C8. This method was used to access 3,7,8,15-tetrahydroxyscirpene, 3-deacetyl-7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin, 15-deacetyl-7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin and 7,8-dihydroxycalonectrin, which were characterized using several NMR techniques. Beside the development of a method which could basically be used for all type B trichothecenes, we opened a synthetic route towards different acetylated calonectrins.

Zearalenone-16-O-glucoside: a new masked mycotoxin.

This paper reports the identification of a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase, HvUGT14077, which is able to convert the estrogenic Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone into a near-equimolar mixture of the known masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-O-β-glucoside and a new glucose conjugate, zearalenone-16-O-β-glucoside. Biocatalytical production using engineered yeast expressing the HvUGT14077 gene allowed structural elucidation of this compound. The purified zearalenone-16-O-β-glucoside was used as an analytical calibrant in zearalenone metabolization experiments. This study confirmed the formation of this new masked mycotoxin in barley seedlings as well as in wheat and Brachypodium distachyon cell suspension cultures. In barley roots, up to 18-fold higher levels of zearalenone-16-O-β-glucoside compared to the known zearalenone-14-O-β-glucoside were found. Incubation of zearalenone-16-O-β-glucoside with human fecal slurry showed that this conjugate can also be hydrolyzed rapidly by intestinal bacteria, converting the glucoside back to the parental mycotoxin. Consequently, it should be considered as an additional masked form of zearalenone with potential relevance for food safety.