PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

David Hui - Top 30 Publications

Differences in respiratory arousal threshold in Caucasian and Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

Ethnic differences in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) phenotype may not be limited to obesity and craniofacial factors. The aims of the study were to (i) compare the proportion of Caucasians and Chinese patients with a low respiratory arousal threshold (ArTH) and (ii) explore the influence of anatomical compromise on ArTH.

Testing the feasibility of using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) to assess caregiver symptom burden.

Caregiver symptom assessment is not part of regular clinical cancer care. The ESAS (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System) is a multidimensional tool regularly used to measure symptom burden in patients but not caregivers. The objectives of the present study were to determine the feasibility of the ESAS in caregiver completion (defined as ≥ 9 of 12 items) and determine its concurrent validity with the Zarit Burden Interview-12 (ZBI-12).

Novel role for Wnt inhibitor APCDD1 in adipocyte differentiation: implications for diet-induced obesity.

Impaired adipogenic differentiation during diet-induced obesity (DIO) promotes adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation, thereby contributing to metabolic disease. Adenomatosis polyposis coli downregulated 1 (APCDD1) has recently been identified as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, a key regulator of adipogenic differentiation. Here, we report a novel role for APCDD1 in adipogenic differentiation via repression of Wnt signaling, and an epigenetic linkage between miR-130 and APCDD1 in DIO. APCDD1 expression was significantly upregulated in mature adipocytes as compared to undifferentiated preadipocytes in both human and mouse subcutaneous adipose tissues. siRNA-based silencing of APCDD1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes markedly increased expression of Wnt signaling proteins (Wnt3a, Wnt5a, Wnt10b, LRP5, β-catenin), and inhibited expression of adipocyte differentiation markers (C/EBPα, PPARγ and lipid droplet accumulation, while adenovirus-mediated overexpression of APCDD1 enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Notably, DIO mice exhibited reduced APCDD1 expression and increased Wnt expression in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and impaired adipogenic differentiation in vitro. Mechanistically, we found that miR-130, whose expression is upregulated in adipose tissues of DIO mice, could directly target the 3'-untranslated region of the APCDD1 gene. Furthermore, transfection of a miR-130 inhibitor in preadipocytes enhanced, while a miR-130 mimic blunted, adipogenic differentiation, suggesting that miR-130 contributes to impaired adipogenic differentiation during DIO by repressing APCDD1 expression. Finally, human subcutaneous adipose tissues isolated from obese individuals exhibited reduced expression of APCDD1, C/EBPα and PPARγ as compared to those from non-obese subjects. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that APCDD1 positively regulates adipogenic differentiation, and that its downregulation by miR-130 during DIO may contribute to impaired adipogenic differentiation and obesity-related metabolic disease.

Clinical and socio-demographic predictors of home hospice patients dying at home: A retrospective analysis of Hospice Care Association's database in Singapore.

Hospice care can be delivered in different settings but many patients choose to receive it at home because of familiar surroundings. Despite their preferences, not every home hospice patient manages to die at home.

Epidemic and Emerging Coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome).

Bats are the natural reservoirs of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses (CoVs) and likely the reservoir of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. The clinical features of SARS-CoV infection and MERS-CoV infection are similar but MERS-CoV infection progresses to respiratory failure more rapidly. Although the estimated pandemic potential of MERS-CoV is lower than that of SARS-CoV, the case fatality rate of MERS is higher. The transmission route and the possibility of other intermediary animal sources remain uncertain among many sporadic primary cases. Clinical trial options for MERS-CoV infection include monotherapy and combination therapy.

Long-term retention in Office Based Opioid Treatment with buprenorphine.

Guidelines recommend long-term treatment for opioid use disorder with buprenorphine; however, little is known about patients in long-term treatment. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and patient characteristics of long-term treatment retention (≥1year) in an Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) program with buprenorphine.

The Evolving Approach to Management of Cancer Cachexia.

Weight loss is distressing to cancer patients and caregivers. Anorexia/cachexia syndrome is characterized by lipolysis and the loss of lean body mass, and is not reversible by increasing caloric intake. The pathophysiology of cancer cachexia is complex and includes symptoms that impact caloric intake, as well as chronic inflammation, hypermetabolism, and hormonal alterations. Cancer patients require routine screening for cachexia and, ideally, interventions should be initiated in the early stages of weight loss. No guidelines exist for the treatment of cancer cachexia. Appetite stimulants, such as megestrol acetate and glucocorticoids, have been shown to increase appetite and weight; however, single pharmaceutical interventions alone for cachexia do not result in meaningful functional outcomes. In the future, clinicians should consider multimodality treatment that is personalized for each patient. These interventions would include nutritional counseling, assessing and treating symptoms that have an impact on caloric intake, and a rational combination of pharmacologic approaches directed at underlying pathophysiology. Use of an appetite stimulant could be considered for patients who exhibit decreased appetite. Treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent should be considered for patients with elevated C-reactive protein, and hormonal alterations resulting from anti-cachexia therapy should be thoughtfully addressed.

Could Objective Tests Be Used to Measure Fatigue in Patients With Advanced Cancer?

Assessment of cancer-related fatigue is currently based on patient-reported outcomes. We asked whether objective assessments, such as muscle strength and nutritional markers, can be used as surrogate measures of cancer-related fatigue.

Association Between Multi-frequency Phase Angle and Survival in Patients With Advanced Cancer.

The ability to predict survival accurately has implications in clinical decision making.

The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System 25 Years Later: Past, Present, and Future Developments.

Routine symptom assessment represents the cornerstone of symptom management. Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is one of the first quantitative symptom assessment batteries that allows for simple and rapid documentation of multiple patient-reported symptoms at the same time.

Effects of CPAP therapy on visceral fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness and adipokines in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This study explores the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with OSA on visceral and mesenteric fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adipokines.

Referral criteria for outpatient specialty palliative cancer care: an international consensus.

Although outpatient specialty palliative-care clinics improve outcomes, there is no consensus on who should be referred or the optimal timing for referral. In response to this issue, we did a Delphi study to develop consensus on a list of criteria for referral of patients with advanced cancer at secondary or tertiary care hospitals to outpatient palliative care. 60 international experts (26 from North America, 19 from Asia and Australia, and 11 from Europe) on palliative cancer care rated 39 needs-based criteria and 22 time-based criteria in three iterative rounds. Nearly all experts responded in each round. Consensus was defined by an a-priori agreement of 70% or more. Panellists reached consensus on 11 major criteria for referral: severe physical symptoms, severe emotional symptoms, request for hastened death, spiritual or existential crisis, assistance with decision making or care planning, patient request for referral, delirium, spinal cord compression, brain or leptomeningeal metastases, within 3 months of advanced cancer diagnosis for patients with median survival of 1 year or less, and progressive disease despite second-line therapy. Consensus was also reached on 36 minor criteria for specialist palliative-care referral. These criteria, if validated, could provide guidance for identification of patients suitable for outpatient specialty palliative care.

Psychoactive medications and disengagement from office based opioid treatment (obot) with buprenorphine.

The prevalence of psychoactive medications (PAMs) use in patients enrolled in Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) and its association with engagement in this care is largely unknown.

Cancer Cachexia: It Takes a Team to Fix the Complex Machinery.

Neuroleptics in the management of delirium in patients with advanced cancer.

Delirium is the most common and distressing neuropsychiatric syndrome in cancer patients. Few evidence-based treatment options are available due to the paucity of high quality of studies. In this review, we shall examine the literature on the use of neuroleptics to treat delirium in patients with advanced cancer. Specifically, we will discuss the randomized controlled trials that examined neuroleptics in the front line setting, and studies that explore second-line options for patients with persistent agitation.

A Prospective Study of Hypodermoclysis Performed by Caregivers in the Home Setting.

Decreased oral intake is very common at the end of life. Dehydration can aggravate symptoms, such as fatigue, myoclonus, and confusion. Intravenous hydration at home can be logistically difficult and expensive. Hypodermoclysis is easy to provide and inexpensive; however, it is rarely used to provide hydration at the end of life in the home setting.

Impact of Prophylactic Fentanyl Pectin Nasal Spray on Exercise-Induced Episodic Dyspnea in Cancer Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

Episodic breathlessness is common and debilitating in cancer patients.

Impact of outpatient palliative care (PC) on symptom burden in patients with advanced cancer at a tertiary cancer center in Jordan.

Outpatient palliative care clinics are essential for early symptom management in patients with advanced cancer. Few outpatient programs are available in the Middle East. In this prospective study, we examined the symptom changes among cancer patients seen at a palliative care clinic in Jordan.

Frequency, predictors, and outcomes of urine drug testing among patients with advanced cancer on chronic opioid therapy at an outpatient supportive care clinic.

Data are limited on the use and outcomes of urine drug tests (UDTs) among patients with advanced cancer. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with UDT ordering and results in outpatients with advanced cancer.

The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale remains useful for depression screening.

Comprehensive care programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial.

There have been no randomised controlled trials that specifically evaluate the effect of a comprehensive programme with multidisciplinary input on patients who have just been discharged from hospital after treatment of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). The aim of this study was to assess whether a comprehensive care programme would decrease hospital readmissions and length of hospital stay (LOS) for patients with COPD.

Intestinal phospholipid and lysophospholipid metabolism in cardiometabolic disease.

Phospholipids are major constituents in the intestinal lumen after meal consumption. This article highlights current literature suggesting the contributory role of intestinal phospholipid metabolism toward cardiometabolic disease manifestation.

Impact of Oncologists' Attitudes Toward End-of-Life Care on Patients' Access to Palliative Care.

It is unclear how oncologists' attitudes toward end-of-life (EOL) care affect the delivery of care. The present study examined the association between oncologists' EOL care attitudes and (a) timely specialist palliative care referral, (b) provision of supportive care, and (c) EOL cancer treatment decisions.

Super-spreading events of MERS-CoV infection.

Clinician prediction of survival versus the Palliative Prognostic Score: Which approach is more accurate?

Clinician prediction of survival (CPS) has low accuracy in the advanced cancer setting, raising the need for prediction models such as the palliative prognostic (PaP) score that includes a transformed CPS (PaP-CPS) and five clinical/laboratory variables (PaP-without CPS). However, it is unclear if the PaP score is more accurate than PaP-CPS, and whether PaP-CPS helps to improve the accuracy of PaP score. We compared the accuracy among PaP-CPS, PaP-without CPS and PaP-total score in patients with advanced cancer.

Dexamethasone for Dyspnea in Cancer Patients: A Pilot Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

Dexamethasone is often used to treat dyspnea in cancer patients, but evidence is lacking.

LRP1 Protein Deficiency Exacerbates Palmitate-induced Steatosis and Toxicity in Hepatocytes.

LRP1 (LDL receptor-related protein-1) is a ubiquitous receptor with both cell signaling and ligand endocytosis properties. In the liver, LRP1 serves as a chylomicron remnant receptor and also participates in the transport of extracellular cathepsin D to the lysosome for prosaposin activation. The current study showed that in comparison with wild type mice, hepatocyte-specific LRP1 knock-out (hLrp1(-/-)) mice were more susceptible to fasting-induced lipid accumulation in the liver. Primary hepatocytes isolated from hLrp1(-/-) mice also accumulated more intracellular lipids and experienced higher levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after palmitate treatment compared with similarly treated hLrp1(+/+) hepatocytes. Palmitate-treated hLrp1(-/-) hepatocytes displayed similar LC3-II levels, but the levels of p62 were elevated in comparison with palmitate-treated hLrp1(+/+) hepatocytes, suggesting that the elevated lipid accumulation in LRP1-defective hepatocytes was not due to defects in autophagosome formation but was due to impairment of lipophagic lipid hydrolysis in the lysosome. Additional studies showed increased palmitate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial and lysosomal permeability, and cell death in hLrp1(-/-) hepatocytes. Importantly, the elevated cell death and ER stress observed in hLrp1(-/-) hepatocytes were abrogated by E64D treatment, whereas inhibiting ER stress diminished cell death but not lysosomal permeabilization. Taken together, these results documented that LRP1 deficiency in hepatocytes promotes lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity through lysosomal-mitochondrial permeabilization and ER stress that ultimately result in cell death. Hence, LRP1 dysfunction may be a major risk factor in fatty liver disease progression.

Chinese Herbal Medicine and Salmeterol and Fluticasone Propionate for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Among Chinese populations worldwide, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are often used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relative performance among different CHM is unknown.The aim of this study was to evaluate comparative effectiveness of different CHM when used with salmeterol and fluticasone propionate (SFP), compared with SFP alone.This study is a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with network meta-analyses (NMAs).Eight electronic databases were searched. Data from RCTs were extracted for random effect pairwise meta-analyses. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the impact of CHM and SFP on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scoring, and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). NMA was used to explore the most effective CHM when used with SFP.Eleven RCTs (n = 925) assessing 11 different CHM were included. Result from pairwise meta-analyses indicated favorable, clinically relevant benefit of CHM and SFP on FEV1 [7 studies, pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.20 L, 95% CI: 0.06-0.34 L], SGRQ scoring (5 studies, pooled WMD = -4.99, 95% CI: -7.73 to -2.24), and 6MWT (3 studies, pooled WMD = 32.84 m, 95% CI: 18.26-47.42). Results from NMA showed no differences on the comparative effectiveness among CHM formulations for improving FEV1. For SGRQ, NMA suggested that Runfeijianpibushen decoction and Renshenbufei pills performed best. Use of CHM on top of SFP can provide clinically relevant benefit for COPD patients on FEV1 and SGRQ. Additional use of Runfeijianpibushen decoction and Renshenbufei pills showed better effect on improving SGRQ.Use of CHM and SFP may provide clinically relevant benefit for COPD patients on FEV1, SGRQ, and 6MWT. Use of different CHM formulae included in this NMA showed similar effect for increasing FEV1, while the additional use of Runfeijianpibushen formula and Renshenbufei Pills showed better effect on improving SGRQ. Well conducted, adequately powered trials are needed to confirm their effectiveness in the future.

Referral Criteria for Outpatient Palliative Cancer Care: A Systematic Review.

Outpatient palliative care clinics facilitate early referral and are associated with improved outcomes in cancer patients. However, appropriate candidates for outpatient palliative care referral and optimal timing remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify criteria that are considered when an outpatient palliative cancer care referral is initiated.

Aberrant Opioid Use and Urine Drug Testing in Outpatient Palliative Care.

Aberrant opioid use is a public health issue, which has not been adequately described in the palliative care literature. With the increasing integration of palliative care into oncologic care, palliative care clinicians are seeing patients earlier in the disease trajectory, and therefore, more outpatients with chronic pain requiring chronic opioid therapy. This may have resulted in a concomitant rise in the number of patients with aberrant opioid use. In this article, we report on two patients with aberrant opioid-related behavior seen at our palliative care clinic. A high suspicion of opioid abuse, misuse, or diversion based on certain behavioral cues necessitated the ordering of a urine drug test (UDT). The tests helped the medical team to confirm an already existing pattern of maladaptive opioid use. In both cases, we provided ample opioid education and implemented effective strategies to address their aberrant opioid use. These cases suggest the need for palliative care clinicians to develop strategies to effectively address this issue in our field of medicine. It also highlights the usefulness of UDT in the outpatient palliative care setting.