PubTransformer

A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

David Hui - Top 30 Publications

Role of fomites in SARS transmission during the largest hospital outbreak in Hong Kong.

The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) had a significant effect on global society in the early 2000s and the potential of its resurgence exists. Studies on the modes of transmission of SARS are limited though a number of outbreak studies have revealed the possible airborne route. To develop more specific and effective control strategies, we conducted a detailed mechanism-based investigation that explored the role of fomite transmission in the well-known Ward 8A outbreak. We considered three hypothetical transmission routes, i.e., the long-range airborne, fomite and combined routes, in 1,744 scenarios with combinations of some important parameters. A multi-agent model was used to predict the infection risk distributions of the three hypothetical routes. Model selection was carried out for different scenarios to compare the distributions of infection risk with that of the reported attack rates and select the hypotheses with the best fitness. Our results reveal that under the assumed conditions, the SARS coronavirus was most possible to have spread via the combined long-range airborne and fomite routes, and that the fomite route played a non-negligible role in the transmission.

Automatic referral to standardize palliative care access: an international Delphi survey.

Palliative care referral is primarily based on clinician judgment, contributing to highly variable access. Standardized criteria to trigger automatic referral have been proposed, but it remains unclear how best to apply them in practice. We conducted a Delphi study of international experts to identify a consensus for the use of standardized criteria to trigger automatic referral.

A clinical approach to the threat of emerging influenza viruses in the Asia-Pacific region.

Seasonal influenza epidemics and periodic pandemics are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Patients with chronic co-morbid illness, those at the extremes of age and pregnant women are at higher risks of complications requiring hospitalization, whereas young adults and obese individuals were also at increased risk during the A(H1N1) pandemic in 2009. Avian influenza A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) viruses have continued to circulate widely in some poultry populations and infect humans sporadically since 1997 and 2013, respectively. The recent upsurge in human cases of A(H7N9) infections in Mainland China is of great concern. Sporadic human cases of avian A(H5N6), A(H10N8) and A(H6N1) have also emerged in recent years while there are also widespread poultry outbreaks due to A(H5N8) in many countries. Observational studies have shown that treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) for adults hospitalized with severe influenza is associated with lower mortality and better clinical outcomes, especially when administered early in the course of illness. Whether higher than standard doses of NAI would provide greater antiviral effects in such patients will require further investigation. High-dose systemic corticosteroids were associated with worse outcomes in patients with severe influenza. There is an urgent need for developing more effective antiviral therapies for treatment of influenza infections.

Very early disengagement and subsequent re-engagement in primary care Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) with buprenorphine.

Patients with opioid use disorder often require multiple treatment attempts before achieving stable recovery. Rates of disengagement from buprenorphine are highest in the first month of treatment and termination of buprenorphine therapy results in return to use rates as high as 90%. To better characterize these at-risk patients, this study aims to describe: 1) the frequency and characteristics of patients with very early disengagement (≤1month) from Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) with buprenorphine and 2) the frequency and characteristics of patients who re-engage in care at this same OBOT clinic within 2years, among the subset of very early disengagers.

Neuroleptics for Delirium: More Research Is Needed.

A Unified Framework for Complex Networks with Degree Trichotomy Based on Markov Chains.

This paper establishes a Markov chain model as a unified framework for describing the evolution processes in complex networks. The unique feature of the proposed model is its capability in addressing the formation mechanism that can reflect the "trichotomy" observed in degree distributions, based on which closed-form solutions can be derived. Important special cases of the proposed unified framework are those classical models, including Poisson, Exponential, Power-law distributed networks. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate a good match of the proposed model with real datasets, showing its superiority over the classical models. Implications of the model to various applications including citation analysis, online social networks, and vehicular networks design, are also discussed in the paper.

Anti-inflammatory effects of adjunctive macrolide treatment in adults hospitalized with influenza: A randomized controlled trial.

- Macrolides can ameliorate inflammation in respiratory diseases, providing clinical benefits. Data in influenza is lacking.

Off-Label Medication Use in the Inpatient Palliative Care Unit.

Although off-label medications are frequently prescribed in palliative care, there are no published studies examining their use in the U.S.

Implementation of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System for Symptom Distress Screening at a Community Cancer Center: A Pilot Program.

Distress screening is mandated by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer; however, there is limited literature on its impact in actual practice. We examined the impact of a pilot distress screening program on access to psychosocial care.

Deficiency of LRP1 in Mature Adipocytes Promotes Diet-Induced Inflammation and Atherosclerosis-Brief Report.

Mice with adipocyte-specific inactivation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia because of compensatory thermogenic response by muscle. However, the physiological function of LRP1 in mature adipocytes and its role in cardiovascular disease modulation are unknown. This study compared perivascular adipose tissues (PVAT) from wild-type (adLrp1(+/+)) and adipocyte-specific LRP1 knockout (adLrp1(-/-)) mice in modulation of atherosclerosis progression.

Precision-Trimming 2D Inverse-Opal Lattice on Elastomer to Ordered Nanostructures with Variable Size and Morphology.

A low-cost and scalable method is developed for producing large-area elastomer surfaces having ordered nanostructures with a variety of lattice features controllable to nanometer precision. The method adopts the known technique of molding a PDMS precursor film with a close-packed monolayer of monodisperse submicron polystyrene beads on water to form an inverse-opal dimple lattice with the dimple size controlled by the bead selection and the dimple depth by the molding condition. The subsequent novel precision engineering of the inverse-opal lattice comprises trimming the PDMS precursor by a combination of polymer curing temperature/time and polymer dissolution parameters. The resultant ordered surface nanostructures, fabricated with an increasing degree of trimming, include (a) submicron hemispherical dimples with nanothin interdimple rims and walls; (b) nanocones with variable degrees of tip-sharpness by trimming off the top part of the nanothin interdimple walls; and (c) soup-plate-like submicron shallow dimples with interdimple rims and walls by anisotropically trimming off the nanocones and forming close-packed shallow dimples. As exemplars of industrial relevance of these lattice features, tunable Young's modulus and wettability are demonstrated.

Bispectral Index monitoring in cancer patients undergoing palliative sedation: a preliminary report.

Continuous palliative sedation (PS) is currently titrated based on clinical observation; however, it is often unclear if patients are still aware of their suffering. The aim of this prospective study is to characterize the level of consciousness in patients undergoing PS using Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring.

A randomized controlled trial of an ambulatory approach versus the hospital-based approach in managing suspected obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Comparisons of home-based versus hospital-based approach in managing patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome(OSAS). A prospective, controlled CPAP parallel study of new referrals with suspected OSAS randomized into group A) home-based or B) hospital-based approach. Following detection of AHI ≥ 15/hr by Embletta sleep study (group A) or polysomnography (group B), patients received CPAP for 3 months after an overnight autoCPAP titration at home or in hospital respectively. Modified intention-to-treat analysis of those with AHI ≥ 15/hr on CPAP (n = 86 vs 86) showed no difference in Epworth sleepiness score, the primary endpoint, but greater improvement in Sleep-Apnoea-Quality-of-Life-Index[difference 0.3,(95%CI 0.02, 0.6), p = 0.033] at 3 months in group A. The mean costs for the patients in group A and group B were HK$8479(989) and HK$22,248(2407) respectively. The mean difference between groups was HK$-13,769(USD 1770 equivalent) per patient with 95% CI. (-14324, -13213), p < 0.001. The waiting time of patients with AHI ≥ 15/hr who were started on CPAP treatment from the first clinic consultation to the diagnostic sleep test, autoCPAP titration, and CPAP treatment was 189.6, 148.8 and 145.0 days shorter in group A than group B respectively. Home-based approach is non-inferior to hospital-based approach in managing patients with suspected OSAS, with shorter waiting time, and substantial cost savings.

Waste Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Recycling Techniques.

With the development of technologies and the change of consumer attitudes, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is increasing annually. As the core part of WEEE, the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) is a dangerous waste but at the same time a rich resource for various kinds of materials. In this work, various WPCB treatment methods as well as WPCB recycling techniques divided into direct treatment (landfill and incineration), primitive recycling technology (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and primitive full recovery of NMF-non metallic fraction), and advanced recycling technology (mechanical separation, direct use and modification of NMF) are reviewed and analyzed based on their advantages and disadvantages. Also, the evaluation criteria are discussed including economic, environmental, and gate-to-market ability. This review indicates the future research direction of WPCB recycling should focus on a combination of several techniques or in series recycling to maximize the benefits of process.

Differences in respiratory arousal threshold in Caucasian and Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

Ethnic differences in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) phenotype may not be limited to obesity and craniofacial factors. The aims of the study were to (i) compare the proportion of Caucasians and Chinese patients with a low respiratory arousal threshold (ArTH) and (ii) explore the influence of anatomical compromise on ArTH.

Testing the feasibility of using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) to assess caregiver symptom burden.

Caregiver symptom assessment is not part of regular clinical cancer care. The ESAS (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System) is a multidimensional tool regularly used to measure symptom burden in patients but not caregivers. The objectives of the present study were to determine the feasibility of the ESAS in caregiver completion (defined as ≥ 9 of 12 items) and determine its concurrent validity with the Zarit Burden Interview-12 (ZBI-12).

A novel role for the Wnt inhibitor APCDD1 in adipocyte differentiation: Implications for diet-induced obesity.

Impaired adipogenic differentiation during diet-induced obesity (DIO) promotes adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation, thereby contributing to metabolic disease. Adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1 (APCDD1) has recently been identified as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, a key regulator of adipogenic differentiation. Here we report a novel role for APCDD1 in adipogenic differentiation via repression of Wnt signaling and an epigenetic linkage between miR-130 and APCDD1 in DIO. APCDD1 expression was significantly up-regulated in mature adipocytes compared with undifferentiated preadipocytes in both human and mouse subcutaneous adipose tissues. siRNA-based silencing of APCDD1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes markedly increased the expression of Wnt signaling proteins (Wnt3a, Wnt5a, Wnt10b, LRP5, and β-catenin) and inhibited the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)) and lipid droplet accumulation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of APCDD1 enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Notably, DIO mice exhibited reduced APCDD1 expression and increased Wnt expression in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and impaired adipogenic differentiation in vitro Mechanistically, we found that miR-130, whose expression is up-regulated in adipose tissues of DIO mice, could directly target the 3'-untranslated region of the APCDD1 gene. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-130 inhibitor in preadipocytes enhanced, whereas an miR-130 mimic blunted, adipogenic differentiation, suggesting that miR-130 contributes to impaired adipogenic differentiation during DIO by repressing APCDD1 expression. Finally, human subcutaneous adipose tissues isolated from obese individuals exhibited reduced expression of APCDD1, C/EBPα, and PPARγ compared with those from non-obese subjects. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that APCDD1 positively regulates adipogenic differentiation and that its down-regulation by miR-130 during DIO may contribute to impaired adipogenic differentiation and obesity-related metabolic disease.

Clinical and Socio-Demographic Predictors of Home Hospice Patients Dying at Home: A Retrospective Analysis of Hospice Care Association's Database in Singapore.

Hospice care can be delivered in different settings, but many patients choose to receive it at home because of familiar surroundings. Despite their preferences, not every home hospice patient manages to die at home.

Epidemic and Emerging Coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome).

Bats are the natural reservoirs of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses (CoVs) and likely the reservoir of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. The clinical features of SARS-CoV infection and MERS-CoV infection are similar but MERS-CoV infection progresses to respiratory failure more rapidly. Although the estimated pandemic potential of MERS-CoV is lower than that of SARS-CoV, the case fatality rate of MERS is higher. The transmission route and the possibility of other intermediary animal sources remain uncertain among many sporadic primary cases. Clinical trial options for MERS-CoV infection include monotherapy and combination therapy.

Long-term retention in Office Based Opioid Treatment with buprenorphine.

Guidelines recommend long-term treatment for opioid use disorder with buprenorphine; however, little is known about patients in long-term treatment. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and patient characteristics of long-term treatment retention (≥1year) in an Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) program with buprenorphine.

The Evolving Approach to Management of Cancer Cachexia.

Weight loss is distressing to cancer patients and caregivers. Anorexia/cachexia syndrome is characterized by lipolysis and the loss of lean body mass, and is not reversible by increasing caloric intake. The pathophysiology of cancer cachexia is complex and includes symptoms that impact caloric intake, as well as chronic inflammation, hypermetabolism, and hormonal alterations. Cancer patients require routine screening for cachexia and, ideally, interventions should be initiated in the early stages of weight loss. No guidelines exist for the treatment of cancer cachexia. Appetite stimulants, such as megestrol acetate and glucocorticoids, have been shown to increase appetite and weight; however, single pharmaceutical interventions alone for cachexia do not result in meaningful functional outcomes. In the future, clinicians should consider multimodality treatment that is personalized for each patient. These interventions would include nutritional counseling, assessing and treating symptoms that have an impact on caloric intake, and a rational combination of pharmacologic approaches directed at underlying pathophysiology. Use of an appetite stimulant could be considered for patients who exhibit decreased appetite. Treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent should be considered for patients with elevated C-reactive protein, and hormonal alterations resulting from anti-cachexia therapy should be thoughtfully addressed.

Could Objective Tests Be Used to Measure Fatigue in Patients With Advanced Cancer?

Assessment of cancer-related fatigue is currently based on patient-reported outcomes. We asked whether objective assessments, such as muscle strength and nutritional markers, can be used as surrogate measures of cancer-related fatigue.

Association Between Multi-frequency Phase Angle and Survival in Patients With Advanced Cancer.

The ability to predict survival accurately has implications in clinical decision making.

The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System 25 Years Later: Past, Present, and Future Developments.

Routine symptom assessment represents the cornerstone of symptom management. Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) is one of the first quantitative symptom assessment batteries that allows for simple and rapid documentation of multiple patient-reported symptoms at the same time.

Effects of CPAP therapy on visceral fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness and adipokines in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This study explores the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with OSA on visceral and mesenteric fat thickness, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adipokines.

Referral criteria for outpatient specialty palliative cancer care: an international consensus.

Although outpatient specialty palliative-care clinics improve outcomes, there is no consensus on who should be referred or the optimal timing for referral. In response to this issue, we did a Delphi study to develop consensus on a list of criteria for referral of patients with advanced cancer at secondary or tertiary care hospitals to outpatient palliative care. 60 international experts (26 from North America, 19 from Asia and Australia, and 11 from Europe) on palliative cancer care rated 39 needs-based criteria and 22 time-based criteria in three iterative rounds. Nearly all experts responded in each round. Consensus was defined by an a-priori agreement of 70% or more. Panellists reached consensus on 11 major criteria for referral: severe physical symptoms, severe emotional symptoms, request for hastened death, spiritual or existential crisis, assistance with decision making or care planning, patient request for referral, delirium, spinal cord compression, brain or leptomeningeal metastases, within 3 months of advanced cancer diagnosis for patients with median survival of 1 year or less, and progressive disease despite second-line therapy. Consensus was also reached on 36 minor criteria for specialist palliative-care referral. These criteria, if validated, could provide guidance for identification of patients suitable for outpatient specialty palliative care.

Psychoactive medications and disengagement from office based opioid treatment (obot) with buprenorphine.

The prevalence of psychoactive medications (PAMs) use in patients enrolled in Office Based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) and its association with engagement in this care is largely unknown.

Cancer Cachexia: It Takes a Team to Fix the Complex Machinery.

Neuroleptics in the management of delirium in patients with advanced cancer.

Delirium is the most common and distressing neuropsychiatric syndrome in cancer patients. Few evidence-based treatment options are available due to the paucity of high quality of studies. In this review, we shall examine the literature on the use of neuroleptics to treat delirium in patients with advanced cancer. Specifically, we will discuss the randomized controlled trials that examined neuroleptics in the front line setting, and studies that explore second-line options for patients with persistent agitation.

A Prospective Study of Hypodermoclysis Performed by Caregivers in the Home Setting.

Decreased oral intake is very common at the end of life. Dehydration can aggravate symptoms, such as fatigue, myoclonus, and confusion. Intravenous hydration at home can be logistically difficult and expensive. Hypodermoclysis is easy to provide and inexpensive; however, it is rarely used to provide hydration at the end of life in the home setting.