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Ellie Edlmann - Top 30 Publications

The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic subdural haematoma.

Pathophysiology of chronic subdural haematoma: inflammation, angiogenesis and implications for pharmacotherapy.

Chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is an encapsulated collection of blood and fluid on the surface of the brain. Historically considered a result of head trauma, recent evidence suggests there are more complex processes involved. Trauma may be absent or very minor and does not explain the progressive, chronic course of the condition. This review focuses on several key processes involved in CSDH development: angiogenesis, fibrinolysis and inflammation. The characteristic membrane surrounding the CSDH has been identified as a source of fluid exudation and haemorrhage. Angiogenic stimuli lead to the creation of fragile blood vessels within membrane walls, whilst fibrinolytic processes prevent clot formation resulting in continued haemorrhage. An abundance of inflammatory cells and markers have been identified within the membranes and subdural fluid and are likely to contribute to propagating an inflammatory response which stimulates ongoing membrane growth and fluid accumulation. Currently, the mainstay of treatment for CSDH is surgical drainage, which has associated risks of recurrence requiring repeat surgery. Understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes has been applied to developing potential drug treatments. Ongoing research is needed to identify if these therapies are successful in controlling the inflammatory and angiogenic disease processes leading to control and resolution of CSDH.

Core Outcomes and Common Data Elements in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review of the Literature Focusing on Baseline and Peri-Operative Care Data Elements.

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is an increasingly common subtype of head injury, especially in the elderly population. The optimization of treatment strategies has been hampered by the collection of heterogeneous outcome measures and data elements, precluding cross-study comparisons. This study aimed to quantify the heterogeneity of data elements in the pre-operative, operative, and post-operative phases of care, and build the basis for the development of a set of common data elements (CDEs) for CSDH. This systematic review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and was registered with the PROSPERO register of systematic reviews (CRD42014007266). All full-text English studies with more than 10 patients (prospective) or more than 100 patients (retrospective) published after 1990 examining clinical outcomes in CSDH were eligible for inclusion. One hundred two eligible studies were found. Only 40 studies (39.2%) reported the main presenting symptom/feature and 24 (23.5%) reported additional symptoms/features. Admitting neurological/functional status was classified by the Glasgow Coma Scale (25 studies; 24.5%), the Markwalder Score (26 studies; 25.5%) and the modified Rankin Scale (three studies; 2.9%). Fifty-four studies (52.9%) made some mention of patient comorbidities and 58 studies (56.9%) reported the proportion or excluded patients on anticoagulant medication. Eighteen studies (17.6%) reported baseline coagulation status. Sixty-four studies (62.7%) stratified or assessed severity based on radiological findings, although the methods used varied widely. There was variable reporting of surgical technique and post-operative care; 32 studies (31.4%) made no mention of whether the operations were performed under general or local anesthetic. This study, a part of the Core Outcomes and Common Data Elements in CSDH (CODE-CSDH) project, confirms and quantifies the heterogeneity of data elements collected and reported in CSDH studies to date. It establishes the basis for the consensus-based development of a set of common data elements, facilitating robust cross-study comparisons and resulting improvements in patient outcomes.