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Esaú Custódio João - Top 30 Publications

Zika Virus Infection Associated With Congenital Birth Defects in a HIV-infected Pregnant Woman.

We describe a case of Zika virus infection acquired during the first trimester in a HIV-infected pregnant woman that led to multiple fetal malformations and fetal demise in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Incidence of antiretroviral adverse drug reactions in pregnant women in two referral centers for HIV prevention of mother-to-child-transmission care and research in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important cause of new HIV infections worldwide, especially in low and middle-resource limited countries. Safety data from studies involving pregnant women and prenatal antiretroviral (ARV) exposure are still needed once these studies are often small and with a limited duration to assess adverse drug reactions (ADR). The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of ADR related to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnant women in two referral centers in Rio de Janeiro State. A prospective study was carried out from February 2005 to May 2006. Women were classified according to their ART status during pregnancy diagnosis: ARV-experienced (ARTexp) or ARV-naïve (ARTn). Two hundred fourteen HIV-infected pregnant women were included: 36 ARTexp and 178 ARTn. ARTexp women have not experienced ADR. Among ARTn, 20.2% presented ADR. Incidence rate of ADR was 70.8 per 1000 person-months and the most common ADRs observed were: gastrointestinal (belly or abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea and vomit) in 16.3%, cutaneous (pruritus and rash) in 6.2%, anemia (2.2%) and hepatitis (1.7%). The frequency of obstetrical complications, pre-term delivery, low birth weight and birth abnormalities was low in this population. ADRs ranged from mild to moderate intensity, none of them being potentially fatal. Only in a few cases it was necessary to discontinue ART. In conclusion, the high effectiveness of ARV for HIV prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) overcomes the risk of ADR.

Randomized clinical trial comparing the pharmacokinetics of standard- and increased-dosage lopinavir-ritonavir coformulation tablets in HIV-positive pregnant women.

A lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r)-based regimen is recommended during pregnancy to reduce the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission, but the appropriate dose is controversial. We compared the pharmacokinetics of standard and increased LPV/r doses during pregnancy. This randomized, open-label prospective study enrolled 60 pregnant women between gestational weeks 14 and 30. The participants received either the standard dose (400/100 mg twice a day [BID]) or increased dose (600/150 mg BID) of LPV/r tablets during pregnancy and the standard dose for 6 weeks after childbirth. Pharmacokinetics analysis was performed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Adherent participants who received the standard dose presented minimum LPV concentrations of 4.4, 4.3, and 6.1 μg/ml in the second and third trimesters and postpartum, respectively. The increased-dose group exhibited values of 7.9, 6.9, and 9.2 μg/ml at the same three time points. Although LPV exposure was significantly higher in the increased-dose group, the standard dose produced therapeutic levels of LPV against wild-type virus in all adherent participants, except one patient in the third trimester; 50%, 37.5%, and 25%, and 0%, 15%, and 0% of the participants in the standard- and increased-dose groups failed to achieve therapeutic levels against resistant viruses during the second and third trimesters and after childbirth, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment and after childbirth, all adherent participants achieved undetectable HIV viral loads, and their babies (49/54) were uninfected. No serious drug-related adverse events were observed. We conclude that the standard dose is appropriate for use during pregnancy and that an increased dose may be necessary for women harboring resistant HIV. (This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT00605098.).

Lopinavir/ritonavir dosing during pregnancy in Brazil and maternal/infant laboratory abnormalities.

To describe laboratory abnormalities among HIV-infected women and their infants with standard and increased lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) dosing during the third trimester of pregnancy.

HIV rapid testing as a key strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Brazil.

To assess the feasibility of HIV rapid testing for pregnant women at maternity hospital admission and of subsequent interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission.

Missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Latin America and the Caribbean: the NISDI perinatal study.

Cases of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a prospective cohort study in Latin America and the Caribbean were analyzed. Eight of 820 eligible infants became infected [transmission rate, 0.98% (95% CI = 0.45-1.96%)]. Five cases (62%) represented missed opportunities for prevention of MTCT of HIV-1, suggesting the need for ongoing training and education of clinicians regarding prevention of MTCT of HIV-1.

Nevirapine toxicity in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

The purpose of this study was to complete an evaluation of nevirapine (NVP) toxicity in a cohort of HIV+ pregnant women.

Vertical transmission of HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

A cohort of 297 HIV-infected pregnant women was followed from January 1996 to December 2001. The overall transmission rate was 3.57% and remained constant over time. Low birth-weight was independently associated with a higher risk of vertical transmission (P=0.0072), whereas a longer duration of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy was independently associated with a lower risk of transmission (P=0.0084). Further decreases in transmission should be obtained by initiating prophylaxis earlier in pregnancy.