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Author Correction: Tunable two-dimensional interfacial coupling in molecular heterostructures.

We regretfully omitted to give credit to a previous figure upon which the surface-tension scheme in Fig. 1b is based. The caption to Fig. 1 should have included the following: "The surface-tension scheme in Fig. 1b is adapted from Fig. 1a in Noh, J., Jeong, S. & Lee, J.-Y. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate. Nat. Commun. 7, 12374 (2016)."

Author Correction: Two-magnon scattering in the 5d all-in-all-out pyrochlore magnet Cd2Os2O7.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this article.

Still Bay and Howiesons Poort sites (South Africa) are consistent with the risk hypothesis.

Lessons From History: Parents Anonymous and Child Abuse Prevention Policy.

Are the estrogenic hormonal effects of environmental toxins affecting small intestinal bacterial and microfilaria overgrowth?

The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct. A study of rifaximin failures in SIBO positive individuals finds biomarkers of decreased Free Androgen Index (FAI), high incidence of autoimmune disease and elevated Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG). The author hypothesizes that the underlying pathophysiology is increased exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) which hormonally act as xeno-estrogens. These xeno-estrogens increase the host production of SHBG, reduce pituitary stimulation of androgen product and result in a shift to estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance is associated with autoimmune diseases and catabolic states. Treatment with a mixture of anabolic steroids that raises the FAI and lowers SHBG results in dramatic improvement in the signs and symptoms and recovery of the vast percentage of severe SIBO sufferers the author has treated. Similar results have been seen in severe pre-surgical cases of IBD whom fail all pharmaceutical interventions. Based on the recent recognition of the biological importance of Wolbachia in the occurrence of major diseases in the underdeveloped countries such as onchocerciasis, and the sexual nature of Wolbachia's role in helminths reproduction, the author hypothesizes that the EDCs are shifting the host's hormonal milieu in a more estrogenic direction and increasing reproduction of helminths changing the gastrointestinal microbiota. Present allopathic treatment of onchocerciasis utilizes albendazole and avermectin as therapy against the microfilaria larvae and doxycycline as bactericidal for Wolbachia. The allopathic treatments are unacceptable for pregnancy and children. Both naturopathic and allopathic treatments share a common focus on the suppression of the underlying bacterium Wolbachia infestation. The author hypothesizes that treatment of these two very different gastrointestinal diseases involves first establishing a normal, anabolic hormonal milieu and concurrently controlling an underlying yet unrecognized microfilaria overgrowth through naturopathic and allopathic treatments prescribed to the host. A case report of one such critically ill individual is noted. A thorough case controlled observation of symptoms matched with biological culture colony count and concentration of microfilaria in disease before and after the aforementioned anabolic treatment may answer the hypothesis.

Temozolomide and Reirradiation in Recurrent Grade II Brain Glioma.

This phase II trial was designed to assess the response rate, survival benefits and toxicity profile of temozolomide, and brain reirradiation using conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for recurrent grade II brain glioma. Between February 2006 and June 2009, 18 patients with recurrent low grade glioma, and two with recurrent ependymoma were enrolled in the study. Patients had to show unequivocal evidence of tumor recurrence on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after failing conventional radiotherapy for initial disease.

Clinicopathological Characteristics of Four Cases of Adrenal Myelolipomas: A Rare Surgical Entity.

Myelolipomas are unusual benign tumors or tumor-like lesions, composed of hematopoietic cells and mature adipose tissue. They usually are asymptomatic and behave as non-functioning, unilateral, small adrenal tumors often found incidentally on imaging studies. We report the clinicopathological characteristics of four cases of adrenal myelolipomas treated in our hospital, worth to mention because of their rarity and their significant size. Myelolipomas were first described by Gierke in 1905, and the term myelolipoma was coined by Oberling in 1929. The adrenal gland is the most common site, but myelolipomas are also rarely present in extra-adrenal sites, including the pelvis, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and paravertebral region, as an isolated soft tissue mass. These tumors account for 2.6% of the primary adrenal masses with equal sex distribution and in our reviewed material of a decade they constitute about 5% in a series of surgically treated adrenals for various neoplastic processes of the adrenals. Although usually small in size, in our series a remarkable large size of the tumors examined was observed, ranging from 7 - 15 cm. Adrenal myelolipoma is often an "incidentaloma", since its diagnosis is frequently based on autoptic findings or made during surgical interventions and imaging procedures performed for other purposes, as happened in our cases.

Angiogenesis in Malignant Thyroid Tumors.

It is well known that radiation significantly impacts the morbidity of thyroid cancer and that is why Belarus has the highest incidence of the malignancy. Author describes statistical data, classification of angiogenesis, and typical pathological features of malignant thyroid diseases with regard to the vascular network.

Scholarly Merit in a Global Context: The Nation Gap in Psychological Science.

Psychologists from the United States are extremely prominent in psychological science, publishing more articles and receiving more citations than researchers from other nations. In this brief article, I review some previous research on this "nation gap" in psychology and highlight relevant data from journals published by the Association for Psychological Science. I then discuss some possible explanations for the nation gap and touch on some of its implications for thinking about scholarly merit and scientific eminence. I hope that the research and data discussed here will stimulate further consideration of the role of author nationality for both judgments of scholarly merit and psychological science more generally.

Central CNS and Peripheral Gastric Tissue Selective Monitoring of Somatostatin (SRIF) with Micro-Sensor and Voltammetry in Rats: Influence of Growth Factors (GH, EGF).

Somatostatin (SRIF) is widely distributed throughout the body, and regulates the endocrine system via interactions with various hormones, including the pituitary growth hormone, the thyroid stimulating hormone and the majority of the hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. SRIF is present in the central nervous system (CNS), where it affects rates of neurotransmission, and is also reported to be active in the intestinal tract, with evidence that stressed rats present a significant decrease in antral somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI). Analysis of SRIF has mainly been carried out by means of radioimmunoassay methods. Here, we propose the use of an electrochemical method, such as voltammetry, applied with carbon-based sensors and, in particular, the combination of differential pulse voltammetry with treated carbon fiber micro electrodes (DPV-µCFE) to facilitate the analysis of such peptidergic electro active hormones in the rat striatum and gastric tissue; the effect of growth hormone (GH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), in particular, upon the SRIF signal has been studied in such tissues.

Pyogenic Brain Abscess Caused by Peptostreptococcus in a Patient with HIV-1 Infection.

In the setting of HIV, cerebral lesions are usually secondary to lymphoma and opportunistic infections; however, in patients with CD4 counts above 200 cells/uL, other pathologies such as pyogenic brain abscess could gain importance. The microbiology of pyogenic brain abscess has Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as the leading etiologic pathogens in immunocompetent individuals. Peptostreptococcus is also recognized as a common cause of brain abscess in this patient population. In HIV-infected individuals, there have been sporadic reports of Peptostreptococcus infections but none of brain abscess. We describe the case of a 43-years-old HIV-infected patient with a CD4 count of 350 cells/uL that developed a Peptostreptococcus brain abscess presumably from hematogenous spread of an odontogenic source. Treatment with stereotactic needle aspiration in two opportunities and four weeks of intravenous antibiotics led to a complete resolution of this infection. This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for an effective treatment of pyogenic brain abscess in HIV-1 patients.

The author replies.

The author replies.


Yao H, Lu H, Zhao H, et al. Open reduction assisted with an external fixator and internal fixation with calcaneal locking plate for intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Foot Ankle Int. 2017;38(10):1107-1114. (Original DOI: 10.1177/1071100717715908) The above article appeared with the incorrect corresponding author. The correct corresponding author is Huading Lu, PhD. The corrected corresponding author information is below: Corresponding Author: Huading Lu, PhD, Department of Orthopaedics, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, NO. 52 Meihuadong Road, Zhuhai 519000, China. Email: [email protected]

Factors that influence the provision of intrapartum and postnatal care by skilled birth attendants in low- and middle-income countries: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

In many low- and middle-income countries women are encouraged to give birth in clinics and hospitals so that they can receive care from skilled birth attendants. A skilled birth attendant (SBA) is a health worker such as a midwife, doctor, or nurse who is trained to manage normal pregnancy and childbirth. (S)he is also trained to identify, manage, and refer any health problems that arise for mother and baby. The skills, attitudes and behaviour of SBAs, and the extent to which they work in an enabling working environment, impact on the quality of care provided. If any of these factors are missing, mothers and babies are likely to receive suboptimal care.

Correction to: Characterization of trabecular bone microstructure in premenopausal women with distal radius fractures.

Owing to an oversight by the corresponding author, the name of the third author of this article was rendered wrongly. His correct name is Kempland C. Walley.

Characteristics of Very Young Hispanic Children Referred for Obesity Management.

Information on risks associated with obesity during infancy specific to Hispanic children is scarce. This retrospective medical record review describes characteristics and parenting practices of Hispanic children age <2 years referred for obesity care at a tertiary hospital over a 6-year period. Data on 29 Hispanic children collected from parent-completed assessment forms and clinician documentation were analyzed. Children were of mean age 16.2 ± 4.9 months; body mass index z scores ranged from 1.5 to 9.4 (mean 4.5 ± 1.7); 45% were male; 97% received public insurance; 38% were breastfed ≥6 months; and 93% had a parent who was overweight or obese. Parenting practices included bottle feeding in bed (50%), regularly drinking sweetened beverages (33%), ≥2 hours of screen time (60%), and having a TV in child's bedroom (55%). Better understanding of factors that contribute to the development of rapid weight gain of Hispanic children can inform future clinical and public health interventions.

Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease in St. Vincent and the Grenadines: Results of a Pilot Newborn Screening Program.

Objective: To pilot a newborn screening program for sickle cell disease (SCD) in St. Vincent and the Grenadines using a novel partnership method to determine the feasibility of a universal newborn screening program in this country. Methods: A prospective study of mothers and their newborns was conducted between January 1, 2015, and November 1, 2015, at the country's main hospital. Mothers of infants born at this hospital were offered screening for SCD for their infants. If accepted, the newborn's heel-stick blood specimen was obtained and mailed to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Newborn Screening Laboratory for testing. Samples were analyzed for variant hemoglobins using standard laboratory techniques and results were communicated to local physicians. Feasibility was determined by a benchmark of having >50% of SCD patients receive the diagnosis and initiate disease-specific care by 3 months of age. Descriptive statistics were completed using SAS 9.4. Results: There were 1147 newborn infants screened for SCD. Of these, 123 (10.7%) had results indicative of sickle trait and 3 patients (0.3%) were diagnosed with SCD: 1 with HbSS and 2 with HbSC. All 3 patients with SCD received treatment before 3 months of age. Conclusions: A newborn screening program is feasible in this population when partnered with an established newborn screening laboratory.

Pediatric Otogenic Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis: Case Report and Literature Reappraisal.

The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a single case of mastoiditis associated with sigmoid sinus thrombosis and increased intracranial pressure, and to review the experience of others through prior publications. We reviewed a case of a 6-year-old boy with an acute otitis media and mastoiditis, with associated ipsilateral sigmoid sinus and contralateral distal transverse sinus thrombosis. Based on the literature and our own experience, we conclude that most children with dural sinus thrombosis from acute otitis media and mastoiditis, in the setting of increased intracranial pressure, attain a good neurological outcome with a conservative neurosurgical approach. The mainstay of treatment seems to be appropriate antibiotic coverage and anticoagulation. Surgeries such as external ventricular drain, serial lumbar punctures, intracranial pressure monitor, and endovascular thrombectomy are reserved for patients with neurological deterioration despite maximal medical treatment.

The regulation of snail: on the ubiquitin edge.

Metastasis accounts for a majority of cancer death. One key feature during metastasis is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by transcription factors such as Snail and Twist. In non-malignant cells, Snail has a short half-life and is degraded via ubiquitination, but its stability is increased in cancer cell. However, the mechanism by which Snail escapes ubiquitination and degradation remains unknown. Recently, we found that Dub3 is a deubiquinase of Snail. Most importantly, we determined that Dub3 responded to extracellular signals such as IL-6, and that the resultant signaling prevented Snail degradation, and promoted cancer growth, invasion, and migration. In this highlight, we present a concise picture of how the transcription factor Snail is regulated by ubiquitination in cancer cells, the role of Dub3 in this process, and its potential use as a treatment target.

Metastasectomy of Solitary Adrenal Metastasis From Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Most extensive-stage small cell lung cancers have disseminated disease at diagnosis, and solitary adrenal metastasis from small cell lung cancer is rare. We report the case of a 51-year-old man with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer with solitary right adrenal metastasis (T2N0M1), who was cured with resection of primary tumor, chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide), adrenalectomy, consolidative thoracic radiotherapy, and prophylactic cranial irradiation. He remained cancer free, 7.5 years since diagnosis. For small cell lung cancer with solitary adrenal gland metastasis, metastasectomy combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be curative and enable long-term survival. This treatment approach should be further studied, and similar cases should be reported.

Erlotinib intercalating pemetrexed/cisplatin versus erlotinib alone in Chinese patients with brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma: a prospective, non-randomised, concurrent controlled trial (NCT01578668).

Erlotinib has a synergistic effect with pemetrexed for treating non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. We investigated the efficacy and safety of erlotinib (E) in combination with pemetrexed/cisplatin (E-P) in Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma with brain metastases.

Association of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio With Inflammation and Erythropoietin Resistance in Chronic Dialysis Patients.

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was widely studied as a prognostic marker in various medical and surgical specialties, but its significance in nephrology is not yet established.

Leriche syndrome: The inferior mesenteric artery saves the lower extremity.

Leriche syndrome presents as a triad of claudication, erectile dysfunction, and decreased distal pulses. This syndrome is a well-recognized entity in the current literature; however, our case report illustrates that even with a severe ostial lesion of the inferior mesenteric artery, the vessel was able to provide perfusion to bilateral lower extremities. The patient presented with symptoms of progressive pain in his right leg that limited his physical activity and he also complained of paresthesia, pallor, and cold skin with black discoloration of his toes bilaterally. Diagnostic testing confirmed Leriche syndrome and he successfully underwent surgical revascularization.

Diagnosis of stenosis within the popliteal-femoral venous segment upon clinical presentation with a venous ulcer and subsequent successful treatment with venoplasty.

This case study reports the diagnosis and treatment of a lower limb venous ulcer with abnormal underlying venous pathology. One male patient presented with bilateral varicose veins and a right lower limb ulcer. Upon investigation, full-leg duplex ultrasonography revealed total incompetence of the great saphenous vein in the left leg. In the right leg, duplex ultrasonography showed proximal incompetence of the small saphenous vein, and dilation of the anterior accessory saphenous vein, which remained competent. Incidentally, two venous collaterals connected onto the distal region of both these segments, emerging from a scarred, atrophic popliteal-femoral segment. An interventional radiologist performed venoplasty to this popliteal-femoral venous segment. Intervention was successful and 10 weeks post procedure ulceration healed. Popliteal-femoral venous stenosis may be associated with venous ulceration in some cases and may be successfully treated with balloon venoplasty intervention.

Operating room central serous chorioretinopathy.

The operating room is a place of surgical intervention with its accompanying bodily and cognitive strain on the performers. Stress in the operating room may lead to the onset of central serous chorioretinopathy as reported hereby in a retina surgeon and is labeled as operating room central serous chorioretinopathy.

A review of orexin's unprecedented potential as a novel, highly-specific treatment for various localized and metastatic cancers.

A systematic review was conducted to categorize the types of cancerous tissues that express orexin receptors and also to examine the effect of in vitro administration of orexin A or B to corresponding cell samples. Comprehensive literature analyses of primary experimental studies were performed. The results of the review included an increased frequency of orexin receptor expression in many colon and prostate cancer tissues and an upward trend of pro-apoptotic activity in these aggressive cell types.

Bioresorbable vascular scaffold versus metallic stent in percutaneous coronary intervention: results of the AIDA trial.

Drug-eluting stents have significantly improved the long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by decreasing the excessive growth of neointima. However, conventional stents have some limitations. PCI with a bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) has emerged as an alternative since the presence of the prosthesis in the coronary artery is transient. A US Food and Drug Administration advisory panel of experts recommended approval of BVS based on the analysis of its risks and rewards in July 2016. In June 2017, the preliminary results of the Amsterdam Investigator-initiateD Absorb Strategy All-comers (AIDA) trial were released. This randomized controlled trial compared an everolimus-eluting BVS with an everolimus-eluting metallic stent in the context of routine clinical practice. The preliminary results revealed no significant difference in target-vessel failure when BVS was compared with metallic stenting. However, during the 2 years of follow-up, BVS was associated with a higher rate of device thrombosis. This is seen as an important development in the trial. There are some concerns regarding stent thrombosis and the restoration of real vessel functionality in the long term. For these reasons, for now, metallic stents remain the treatment of choice for PCI.

Use of dictation as a tool to decrease documentation errors in electronic health records.

Background: Use of Electronic Health Records is increasing. Copy-and-paste function is frequently used with higher rates of documentation errors. Studies to determine the nature of such errors are needed.Objectives: Determination of the effect of implementing a dictation system for completing notes on the quality of clinical documentation. We hypothesized that implementation of the dictation system for note writing would decrease the rate of errors in the progress notes as well as decrease the rate of copying and pasting. Design/Methods: A prospective interventional study in inpatient medical service for six months' duration starting in July 2016. Resident physicians' charts were reviewed by the attending physician on a daily basis. This study was done in a community based hospital affiliated to a university program. Residents' physicians included Internal Medicine, Transitional year and Combined Internal Medicine Pediatrics residents. Charts reviewed for hospitalized patients. A total of 54 residents were offered a pre-intervention survey indicating their subjective use of copy/paste function. Response rate of 85.18%. Progress notes were reviewed on a daily basis for residents on their inpatient rotation. A total of 621 notes were reviewed. Results: Percentage of notes copied prior to the intervention was 92.73% which decreased to 49.71% post-intervention (RR of 0.54, 95% CI 0.48 0.60 Z statistic 11.005 with p-value &lt;0.0001). Of the copied notes percentage of errors pre-intervention was 58% with no errors identified post-intervention (RR of 0.005, 95% CI 0.0003 0.0795 Z statistic 3.752 with p-value 0.0002). Most of the errors are from notes copied by the same author (85.8%). The most common documentation error was in the physical examination section. Conclusion: Implementing a dictation system eliminated documentation errors over our six months' study. Further studies are needed to check long effects of using such systems on documentation errors.

Impact of Pathology Review for Decision Therapy in Localized Prostate Cancer.

The Gleason score is an essential tool in the decision to treat localized prostate cancer. However, experienced pathologists can classify Gleason score differently than do low-volume pathologists, and this may affect the treatment decision. This study sought to assess the impact of pathology review of external biopsy specimens from 23 men with a recent diagnosis of localized prostate cancer.