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H Peter Lorenz - Top 30 Publications

Teaching Palatoplasty Using a High-Fidelity Cleft Palate Simulator.

Cleft palate repair is a challenging procedure for cleft surgeons to teach. A novel high-fidelity cleft palate simulator has been described for surgeon training. This study evaluates the simulator's effect on surgeon procedural confidence and palatoplasty knowledge among learners.

Delivery of monocyte lineage cells in a biomimetic scaffold enhances tissue repair.

The monocyte lineage is essential to normal wound healing. Macrophage inhibition or knockout in mice results in impaired wound healing through reduced neovascularization, granulation tissue formation, and reepithelialization. Numerous studies have either depleted macrophages or reduced their activity in the context of wound healing. Here, we demonstrate that by increasing the number of macrophages or monocytes in the wound site above physiologic levels via pullulan-collagen composite dermal hydrogel scaffold delivery, the rate of wound healing can be significantly accelerated in both wild-type and diabetic mice, with no adverse effect on the quality of repair. Macrophages transplanted onto wounds differentiate into M1 and M2 phenotypes of different proportions at various time points, ultimately increasing angiogenesis. Given that monocytes can be readily isolated from peripheral blood without in vitro manipulation, these findings hold promise for translational medicine aimed at accelerating wound healing across a broad spectrum of diseases.

Discussion: Toward Microsurgical Correction of Cleft Lip Ex Utero through Restoration of Craniofacial Developmental Programs.

Rapid Isolation of BMPR-IB+ Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for Use in a Calvarial Defect Healing Model.

Invasive cancers, major injuries, and infection can cause bone defects that are too large to be reconstructed with preexisting bone from the patient's own body. The ability to grow bone de novo using a patient's own cells would allow bony defects to be filled with adequate tissue without the morbidity of harvesting native bone. There is interest in the use of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) as a source for tissue engineering because these are obtained from an abundant source: the patient's own adipose tissue. However, ASCs are a heterogeneous population and some subpopulations may be more effective in this application than others. Isolation of the most osteogenic population of ASCs could improve the efficiency and effectiveness of a bone engineering process. In this protocol, ASCs are obtained from subcutaneous fat tissue from a human donor. The subpopulation of ASCs expressing the marker BMPR-IB is isolated using FACS. These cells are then applied to an in vivo calvarial defect healing assay and are found to have improved osteogenic regenerative potential compared with unsorted cells.

Excess Dermal Tissue Remodeling In Vivo: Does It Settle?

Surgical manipulation of skin may result in undesired puckering of excess tissue, which is generally assumed to settle over time. In this article, the authors address the novel question of how this excess tissue remodels.

Sanativo Wound Healing Product Does Not Accelerate Reepithelialization in a Mouse Cutaneous Wound Healing Model.

Sanativo is an over-the-counter Brazilian product derived from Amazon rainforest plant extract that is purported to improve the healing of skin wounds. Two experimental studies have shown accelerated closure of nonsplinted excisional wounds in rat models. However, these models allow for significant contraction of the wound and do not approximate healing in the tight skin of humans.

Safety and Wound Outcomes Following Genetically Corrected Autologous Epidermal Grafts in Patients With Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a devastating, often fatal, inherited blistering disorder caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene encoding type VII collagen. Support and palliation are the only current therapies.

Creation of Abdominal Adhesions in Mice.

Abdominal adhesions consist of fibrotic tissue that forms in the peritoneal space in response to an inflammatory insult, typically surgery or intraabdominal infection. The precise mechanisms underlying adhesion formation are poorly understood. Many compounds and physical barriers have been tested for their ability to prevent adhesions after surgery with varying levels of success. The mouse and rat are important models for the study of abdominal adhesions. Several different techniques for the creation of adhesions in the mouse and rat exist in the literature. Here we describe a protocol utilizing abrasion of the cecum with sandpaper and sutures placed in the right abdominal sidewall. The mouse is anesthetized and the abdomen is prepped. A midline laparotomy is created and the cecum is identified. Sandpaper is used to gently abrade the surface of the cecum. Next, several figure-of-eight sutures are placed into the peritoneum of the right abdominal sidewall. The abdominal cavity is irrigated, a small amount of starch is applied, and the incision is closed. We have found that this technique produces the most consistent adhesions with the lowest mortality rate.

Scarless wound healing: finding the right cells and signals.

From the moment we are born, every injury to the skin has the potential to form a scar, many of which can impair form and/or function. As such, scar management constitutes a billion-dollar industry. However, effectively promoting scarless wound healing remains an elusive goal. The complex interactions of wound healing contribute to our inability to recapitulate scarless wound repair as it occurs in nature, such as in fetal skin and the oral mucosa. However, many new advances have occurred in recent years, some of which have translated scientific findings from bench to bedside. In vivo lineage tracing has helped establish a variety of novel cellular culprits that may act as key drivers of the fibrotic response. These newly characterized cell populations present further targets for therapeutic intervention, some of which have previously demonstrated promising results in animal models. Here, we discuss several recent studies that identify exciting approaches for diminishing scar formation. Particular attention will also be paid to the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which plays an important role in both embryogenesis and tissue repair. New insights into the differential effects of Wnt signaling on heterogeneous fibroblast and keratinocyte populations within the skin further demonstrate methods by which wound healing can be re-directed to a more fetal scarless phenotype. Graphical abstract Recent approaches to reducing scar formation. Representation showing novel scientific approaches for decreasing scar formation, including the targeting of pro-fibrotic cell populations based on surface molecule expression (e.g. DPP4(+) fibroblasts, ADAM12(+) pericytes). Modulation of cellular mechanotransduction pathways are another means to reduce scar formation, both at the molecular level or, macroscopically with dressings designed to offload tension, at cutaneous wound sites (ADAM12 a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, FAK focal adhesion kinase).

Expansion and Hepatic Differentiation of Adult Blood-Derived CD34+ Progenitor Cells and Promotion of Liver Regeneration After Acute Injury.

The low availability of functional hepatocytes has been an unmet demand for basic scientific research, new drug development, and cell-based clinical applications for decades. Because of the inability to expand hepatocytes in vitro, alternative sources of hepatocytes are a focus of liver regenerative medicine. We report a new group of blood-derived CD34(+) progenitor cells (BDPCs) that have the ability to expand and differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells and promote liver regeneration. BDPCs were obtained from the peripheral blood of an adult mouse with expression of surface markers CD34, CD45, Sca-1, c-kit, and Thy1.1. BDPCs can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells expressing hepatocyte markers, including CK8, CK18, CK19, α-fetoprotein, integrin-β1, and A6. The differentiated BDPCs (dBDPCs) also display liver-specific functional activities, such as glycogen storage, urea production, and albumin secretion. dBDPCs have cytochrome P450 activity and express specific hepatic transcription factors, such as hepatic nuclear factor 1α. To demonstrate liver regenerative activity, dBDPCs were injected into mice with severe acute liver damage caused by a high-dose injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). dBDPC treatment rescued the mice from severe acute liver injury, increased survival, and induced liver regeneration. Because of their ease of access and application through peripheral blood and their capability of rapid expansion and hepatic differentiation, BDPCs have great potential as a cell-based therapy for liver disease.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Cell-Based Therapeutics for Wound Healing.

Chronic wounds are a source of substantial morbidity for patients and are a major financial burden for the healthcare system. There are no current therapies that reliably improve nonhealing wounds or reverse pathological scarring. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising source of novel cell-based therapies due to the ease of their harvest and their integral role in the native wound repair process. Recent work has addressed the problems of loss of plasticity and off-target delivery through use of modern bioengineering techniques. Here we describe the applications of MSCs harvested from different sources to the wound healing process and recent advances in delivery of MSCs to targeted sites of injury.

Discussion: Transplantation of an LGR6+ Epithelial Stem Cell-Enriched Scaffold for Repair of Full-Thickness Soft-Tissue Defects: The In Vitro Development of Polarized Hair-Bearing Skin.

Murine Dermal Fibroblast Isolation by FACS.

Fibroblasts are the principle cell type responsible for secreting extracellular matrix and are a critical component of many organs and tissues. Fibroblast physiology and pathology underlie a spectrum of clinical entities, including fibroses in multiple organs, hypertrophic scarring following burns, loss of cardiac function following ischemia, and the formation of cancer stroma. However, fibroblasts remain a poorly characterized type of cell, largely due to their inherent heterogeneity. Existing methods for the isolation of fibroblasts require time in cell culture that profoundly influences cell phenotype and behavior. Consequently, many studies investigating fibroblast biology rely upon in vitro manipulation and do not accurately capture fibroblast behavior in vivo. To overcome this problem, we developed a FACS-based protocol for the isolation of fibroblasts from the dorsal skin of adult mice that does not require cell culture, thereby preserving the physiologic transcriptional and proteomic profile of each cell. Our strategy allows for exclusion of non-mesenchymal lineages via a lineage negative gate (Lin(-)) rather than a positive selection strategy to avoid pre-selection or enrichment of a subpopulation of fibroblasts expressing specific surface markers and be as inclusive as possible across this heterogeneous cell type.

Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics to Improve Wound Healing.

Issues surrounding wound healing have garnered deep scientific interest as well as booming financial markets invested in novel wound therapies. Much progress has been made in the field, but it is unsurprising to find that recent successes reveal new challenges to be addressed. With regard to wound healing, large tissue deficits, recalcitrant wounds, and pathological scar formation remain but a few of our most pressing challenges. Stem cell-based therapies have been heralded as a promising means by which to surpass current limitations in wound management. The wide differentiation potential of stem cells allows for the possibility of restoring lost or damaged tissue, while their ability to immunomodulate the wound bed from afar suggests that their clinical applications need not be restricted to direct tissue formation. The clinical utility of stem cells has been demonstrated across dozens of clinical trials in chronic wound therapy, but there is hope that other aspects of wound care will inherit similar benefit. Scientific inquiry into stem cell-based wound therapy abounds in research labs around the world. While their clinical applications remain in their infancy, the heavy investment in their potential makes it a worthwhile subject to review for plastic surgeons, in terms of both their current and future applications.

Surveillance of Stem Cell Fate and Function: A System for Assessing Cell Survival and Collagen Expression In Situ.

Cell-based therapy is an emerging paradigm in skeletal regenerative medicine. However, the primary means by which transplanted cells contribute to bone repair and regeneration remain controversial. To gain an insight into the mechanisms of how both transplanted and endogenous cells mediate skeletal healing, we used a transgenic mouse strain expressing both the topaz variant of green fluorescent protein under the control of the collagen, type I, alpha 1 promoter/enhancer sequence (Col1a1(GFP)) and membrane-bound tomato red fluorescent protein constitutively in all cell types (R26(mTmG)). A comparison of healing in parietal versus frontal calvarial defects in these mice revealed that frontal osteoblasts express Col1a1 to a greater degree than parietal osteoblasts. Furthermore, the scaffold-based application of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and osteoblasts derived from these mice to critical-sized calvarial defects allowed for investigation of cell survival and function following transplantation. We found that ASCs led to significantly faster rates of bone healing in comparison to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts. ASCs displayed both increased survival and increased Col1a1 expression compared to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts following calvarial defect transplantation, which may explain their superior regenerative capacity in the context of bone healing. Using this novel reporter system, we were able to elucidate how cell-based therapies impact bone healing and identify ASCs as an attractive candidate for cell-based skeletal regenerative therapy. These insights potentially influence stem cell selection in translational clinical trials evaluating cell-based therapeutics for osseous repair and regeneration.

Skin fibrosis. Identification and isolation of a dermal lineage with intrinsic fibrogenic potential.

Dermal fibroblasts represent a heterogeneous population of cells with diverse features that remain largely undefined. We reveal the presence of at least two fibroblast lineages in murine dorsal skin. Lineage tracing and transplantation assays demonstrate that a single fibroblast lineage is responsible for the bulk of connective tissue deposition during embryonic development, cutaneous wound healing, radiation fibrosis, and cancer stroma formation. Lineage-specific cell ablation leads to diminished connective tissue deposition in wounds and reduces melanoma growth. Using flow cytometry, we identify CD26/DPP4 as a surface marker that allows isolation of this lineage. Small molecule-based inhibition of CD26/DPP4 enzymatic activity during wound healing results in diminished cutaneous scarring. Identification and isolation of these lineages hold promise for translational medicine aimed at in vivo modulation of fibrogenic behavior.

Peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells: candidate cells responsible for healing critical-sized calvarial bone defects.

Postnatal tissue-specific stem/progenitor cells hold great promise to enhance repair of damaged tissues. Many of these cells are retrieved from bone marrow or adipose tissue via invasive procedures. Peripheral blood is an ideal alternative source for the stem/progenitor cells because of its ease of retrieval. We present a coculture system that routinely produces a group of cells from adult peripheral blood. Treatment with these cells enhanced healing of critical-size bone defects in the mouse calvarium, a proof of principle that peripheral blood-derived cells can be used to heal bone defects. From these cells, we isolated a subset of CD45(-) cells with a fibroblastic morphology. The CD45(-) cells were responsible for most of the differentiation-induced calcification activity and were most likely responsible for the enhanced healing process. These CD45(-) fibroblastic cells are plastic-adherent and exhibit a surface marker profile negative for CD34, CD19, CD11b, lineage, and c-kit and positive for stem cell antigen 1, CD73, CD44, CD90.1, CD29, CD105, CD106, and CD140α. Furthermore, these cells exhibited osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis capabilities. The CD45(-) fibroblastic cells are the first peripheral blood-derived cells that fulfill the criteria of mesenchymal stem cells as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. We have named these cells "blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells."

Scarless wound healing: chasing the holy grail.

Over 100 million patients acquire scars in the industrialized world each year, primarily as a result of elective operations. Although undefined, the global incidence of scarring is even larger, extending to significant numbers of burn and other trauma-related wounds. Scars have the potential to exert a profound psychological and physical impact on the individual. Beyond aesthetic considerations and potential disfigurement, scarring can result in restriction of movement and reduced quality of life. The formation of a scar following skin injury is a consequence of wound healing occurring through reparative rather than regenerative mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the basic stages of wound healing; differences between adult and fetal wound healing; various mechanical, genetic, and pharmacologic strategies to reduce scarring; and the biology of skin stem/progenitor cells that may hold the key to scarless regeneration.

Emerging drugs for the treatment of wound healing.

Wound healing can be characterized as underhealing, as in the setting of chronic wounds, or overhealing, occurring with hypertrophic scar formation after burn injury. Topical therapies targeting specific biochemical and molecular pathways represent a promising avenue for improving and, in some cases normalizing, the healing process.

Evolution of cranioplasty techniques in neurosurgery: historical review, pediatric considerations, and current trends.

Cranial bone repair is one of the oldest neurosurgical practices. Reconstructing the natural contours of the skull has challenged the ingenuity of surgeons from antiquity to the present day. Given the continuous improvement of neurosurgical and emergency care over the past century, more patients survive such head injuries, thus necessitating more than ever before a simple, safe, and durable means of correcting skull defects. In response, numerous techniques and materials have been devised as the art of cranioplasty has progressed. Although the goals of cranioplasty remain the same, the evolution of techniques and diversity of materials used serves as testimony to the complexity of this task. This paper highlights the evolution of these materials and techniques, with a particular focus on the implications for managing pediatric calvarial repair and emerging trends within the field.

A mouse fetal skin model of scarless wound repair.

Early in utero, but not in postnatal life, cutaneous wounds undergo regeneration and heal without formation of a scar. Scarless fetal wound healing occurs across species but is age dependent. The transition from a scarless to scarring phenotype occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy in humans and around embryonic day 18 (E18) in mice. However, this varies with the size of the wound with larger defects generating a scar at an earlier gestational age. The emergence of lineage tracing and other genetic tools in the mouse has opened promising new avenues for investigation of fetal scarless wound healing. However, given the inherently high rates of morbidity and premature uterine contraction associated with fetal surgery, investigations of fetal scarless wound healing in vivo require a precise and reproducible surgical model. Here we detail a reliable model of fetal scarless wound healing in the dorsum of E16.5 (scarless) and E18.5 (scarring) mouse embryos.

The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Wound Healing.

Significance: Poor wound healing remains a significant health issue for a large number of patients in the United States. The physiologic response to local wound hypoxia plays a critical role in determining the success of the normal healing process. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), as the master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is an important determinant of healing outcomes. HIF-1 contributes to all stages of wound healing through its role in cell migration, cell survival under hypoxic conditions, cell division, growth factor release, and matrix synthesis throughout the healing process. Recent Advances: Positive regulators of HIF-1, such as prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitors, have been shown to be beneficial in enhancing diabetic ischemic wound closure and are currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of several human-ischemia-based conditions. Critical Issues: HIF-1 deficiency and subsequent failure to respond to hypoxic stimuli leads to chronic hypoxia, which has been shown to contribute to the formation of nonhealing ulcers. In contrast, overexpression of HIF-1 has been implicated in fibrotic disease through its role in increasing myofibroblast differentiation leading to excessive matrix production and deposition. Both positive and negative regulators of HIF-1 therefore provide important therapeutic targets that can be used to manipulate HIF-1 expression where an excess or deficiency in HIF-1 is known to correlate with pathogenesis. Future Directions: Targeting HIF-1 during wound healing has many important clinical implications for tissue repair. Counteracting the detrimental effects of excessive or deficient HIF-1 signaling by modulating HIF-1 expression may improve future management of poorly healing wounds.

Tissue engineering and regenerative repair in wound healing.

Wound healing is a highly evolved defense mechanism against infection and further injury. It is a complex process involving multiple cell types and biological pathways. Mammalian adult cutaneous wound healing is mediated by a fibroproliferative response leading to scar formation. In contrast, early to mid-gestational fetal cutaneous wound healing is more akin to regeneration and occurs without scar formation. This early observation has led to extensive research seeking to unlock the mechanism underlying fetal scarless regenerative repair. Building upon recent advances in biomaterials and stem cell applications, tissue engineering approaches are working towards a recapitulation of this phenomenon. In this review, we describe the elements that distinguish fetal scarless and adult scarring wound healing, and discuss current trends in tissue engineering aimed at achieving scarless tissue regeneration.

The Role of Stem Cells During Scarless Skin Wound Healing.

Significance: In early gestation, fetal skin wounds undergo regeneration and healing without a scar. This phenomenon is intrinsic to early fetal skin but disappears during late gestation. Adult wounds undergo repair via a fibroproliferative response that leads to incomplete regeneration of the original tissue and a resultant scar. This outcome can have devastating effects for patients and is a significant financial burden to the healthcare system. Recent Advances: Studies have demonstrated the possible role of several stem cells in wound healing. In particular, epidermal stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells have been implicated in wound repair and regeneration. Recently, stem cells with adult epidermal stem cell markers have been found in fetal skin dermis. These cells are thought to play a role in scarless fetal wound healing. Critical Issues: Despite numerous studies on scarless fetal wound healing, the exact mechanism is still largely unknown. Although inflammation is greatly reduced, the stem cell profile of regenerating fetal skin wounds remains unknown. Without a detailed understanding of stem cell differences between fetal and adult wounds, the ability to prevent or treat both normal and pathologic excessive scarring, in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars, is limited. Future Directions: Further studies on differences between fetal and adult skin-specific stem cells may elucidate the mechanism of scarless wound healing in the early fetus. With this knowledge, the potential to reduce scarring in adult wounds may be achieved.

Chondromyxoid fibroma of the mandible in an adolescent: case report and microsurgical reconstructive option.

Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare bony tumor that usually presents in the lower extremities of middle-aged adults. Involvement of the craniofacial skeleton is extremely rare. We present the unique case of an adolescent boy with a chondromyxoid fibroma of the mandible. The chondromyxoid fibroma in this patient recurred after initial treatment with curettage. We treated the recurrence with resection of the involved mandible and immediate reconstruction using a vascularized musculo-osseus seventh rib flap ("Eve procedure"). Despite complex reconstruction in adolescents due to skeletal immaturity, the rib flap has successfully grown with the patient up to 3 years postoperatively. Therefore, we believe the musculo-osseus rib flap is a feasible solution for complex ramus and condyle reconstruction of the growing mandible in the adolescent patient.

Abstract 135: improved engraftment of autologous skin grafts in diabetic mice with adipose-derived stem cells.

Scarless fetal skin wound healing update.

Scar formation, a physiologic process in adult wound healing, can have devastating effects for patients; a multitude of pathologic outcomes, affecting all organ systems, stems from an amplification of this process. In contrast to adult wound repair, the early-gestation fetal skin wound heals without scar formation, a phenomenon that appears to be intrinsic to fetal skin. An intensive research effort has focused on unraveling the mechanisms that underlie scarless fetal wound healing in an attempt to improve the quality of healing in both children and adults. Unique properties of fetal cells, extracellular matrix, cytokine profile, and gene expression contribute to this scarless repair. Despite the great increase in knowledge gained over the past decades, the precise mechanisms regulating scarless fetal healing remain unknown. Herein, we describe the current proposed mechanisms underlying fetal scarless wound healing in an effort to recapitulate the fetal phenotype in the postnatal environment.

Using bioabsorbable fixation systems in the treatment of pediatric skull deformities leads to good outcomes and low morbidity.

Bioabsorbable fixation systems have been widely employed in pediatric patients for cranial reconstruction, obviating the complications of hardware migration and imaging artifact occurring with metallic implants. Recent concern over complications unique to bioabsorbable materials, such as inflammatory reaction and incomplete resorption, necessitates additional conclusive studies to further validate their use in pediatric neurosurgery and craniofacial surgery. Likewise, long-term follow-up in this clinical cohort has not previously been described.

Calcium-based nanoparticles accelerate skin wound healing.

Nanoparticles (NPs) are small entities that consist of a hydroxyapatite core, which can bind ions, proteins, and other organic molecules from the surrounding environment. These small conglomerations can influence environmental calcium levels and have the potential to modulate calcium homeostasis in vivo. Nanoparticles have been associated with various calcium-mediated disease processes, such as atherosclerosis and kidney stone formation. We hypothesized that nanoparticles could have an effect on other calcium-regulated processes, such as wound healing. In the present study, we synthesized pH-sensitive calcium-based nanoparticles and investigated their ability to enhance cutaneous wound repair.

Fetal mouse skin heals scarlessly in a chick chorioallantoic membrane model system.

In mammals, the early-gestation fetus has the regenerative ability to heal skin wounds without scar formation. This observation was first reported more than 3 decades ago, and has been confirmed in a number of in vivo animal models. Although an intensive research effort has focused on unraveling the mechanisms underlying scarless fetal wound repair, no suitable model of in vitro fetal skin healing has been developed. In this article, we report a novel model for the study of fetal wound healing. Fetal skin from gestational day 16.5 Balb/c mice (total gestation, 20 days) was grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of 12-day-old chicken embryos and cultured for up to 7 days. At 48 hours postengraftment, circular wounds (diameter = 1 mm) were made in the fetal skin using a rotating titanium sapphire laser (N = 45). The tissue was examined daily by visual inspection to look for signs of infection and ischemia. The grafts and the surrounding host tissue were examined histologically. In all fetal skin grafts, the wounds completely reepithelialized by postinjury day 7, with regeneration of the dermis. Fetal mouse skin xenografts transplanted onto the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs provides a useful model for the study of fetal wound healing. This model can be used as an adjunct to traditional in vivo mammalian models of fetal repair.