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Hideya Yamazaki - Top 30 Publications

A Case of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: Remarkable Decrease in Multiple Lung Metastases within 40 Years after a Single Administration of Radioiodine without Thyroidectomy and with Later Anaplastic Transformation.

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy of childhood and adolescence that is unique because it has an overall favorable prognosis despite its relatively high rate of nodal and distant metastases. Total thyroidectomy and positive 131I therapy are recommended for cases with pulmonary metastases. In contrast, anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most aggressive malignancies that have an unfavorable and miserable prognosis. We report a case with an impressively long history. The patient had multiple pulmonary metastases that had been diagnosed by 131I administration when he was 14 years old, about 45 years before he underwent thyroidectomy. He had been kept unaware of his disease by his family and received no treatment for most of his life. Pulmonary nodules were noted at several medical checkups and showed a remarkable decrease in size during the untreated 44-year period after the 131I administration. At age 58, his thyroid cancer was first detected and total thyroidectomy was performed, with subsequent radioiodine therapy for pulmonary metastases. Unfortunately, anaplastic carcinoma developed and he died of disseminated tumors later.

Long-term Outcomes of a Dose-reduction Trial to Decrease Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Receiving Soft Tissue-matched Image-guided Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy.

We experienced an unexpected high incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients undergoing image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) using helical tomotherapy in our initial 2.2 Gy/fraction schedule for prostate cancer; hence, a dose-reduction trial from 2.2 Gy to 2 Gy/fraction was conducted using modified planning target volume (PTV) contouring.

Palliative Reirradiation for Painful Bone Metastases: Clinical Cases and Literature Review.

Reirradiation to previously irradiated peripheral bone metastases for pain has been shown to be safe and effective, but no specific trial has been completed to define the indications for reirradiation of patients with recurrent symptoms of metastatic bone disease. Thus, we aimed to assess the effectiveness and prognostic factors of reirradiation for painful bone metastases. To do so, we reviewed the cases of 14 patients with painful bone metastases who had undergone reirradiation at our hospital. A favorable pain response after reirradiation wasachieved in 50% (7/14) of the patients. An interval from initial radiotherapy >6 months was a significant prognostic factor for pain response (p = 0.03). Performance status was correlated with pain response, with borderline significance (p = 0.06). No severe adverse events were reported. We conclude that reirradiation of painful bone metastases is effective in providing pain relief, especially for patients with a long interval from initial radiation and good performance status.

Radiotherapy for locally advanced resectable T3-T4 laryngeal cancer-does laryngeal preservation strategy compromise survival?

With the advancement of chemotherapy, a laryngeal preservation (LP) strategy was explored with the aim of improving maintenance of quality of life. Induction chemotherapy (ICT) following radiotherapy (RT) was considered a viable option because of its high initial response rate without hampering of overall survival (OS). Subsequently, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using CDDP became the standard of care for LP, showing the best LP ratio. For enhancing treatment intensity, ICT with taxan + CDDP + 5-FU (TPF-ICT) followed by RT showed superiority over ICT with CDDP + 5-FU (PF-ICT) followed by RT. Given that almost all randomized controlled trials investigating ICT include not only operable (endpoint, LP) but also inoperable (endpoint, OS) cases, physicians are faced with a dilemma regarding application in daily practice. In addition, increased treatment intensity causes augmentation of adverse events, which might reduce compliance. Thereafter, cetuximab, an effective drug with fewer adverse effects [bioradiotherapy (BRT)], emerged as another option. However, little evidence has confirmed its superiority over RT (or CCRT) in laryngeal cancer subpopulations. In spite of these developments, the OS of patients with laryngeal cancer has not improved for several decades. In fact, several studies indicated a decrease in OS during the 1990s, probably due to overuse of CCRT. Fortunately, the latter was not the case in most institutions. Currently, no other treatment has better OS than surgery. The eligibility criteria for LP and/or surgery largely depend upon the available expertise and experience, which differ from one institution to another. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team is required for the treatment of LP.

Brachytherapy for Buccal Cancer: From Conventional Low Dose Rate (LDR) or Mold Technique to High Dose Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT).

To examine the effectiveness of newly-installed high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for buccal cancer.

Clinical Usefulness of the Platelet-to Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Angiosarcoma of the Face and Scalp.

Angiosarcoma of the face and scalp (ASFS) is an extremely aggressive tumor that frequently metastasizes, often leading to death. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) are inflammatory markers that predict outcome of various cancers. We aimed to examine the relationship between pretreatment inflammatory markers and ASFS outcome. We included 17 patients with ASFS and a control group of 56 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. Total white blood counts, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet counts were recorded; NLR, PLR, and LMR were calculated. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to calculate overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Optimal cut-off values for each inflammatory marker were calculated using receiver operating curve analysis. Median follow-up was 22 months (range, 6-75). There was a statistically significant difference in absolute neutrophil counts and NLR between patient and control groups. Two-year OS and DMFS rates were 41% and 35%, respectively. In patients with tumors < 10 cm, PLR was highly correlated with DMFS, with the 2-year DMFS for those with a high PLR being 50% compared with 100% for those with a low PLR (p = 0.06). This study suggests that PLR is superior to NLR and LMR, and is a clinically useful marker in patients with ASFS with small tumors.

Long-term Tumor Control and Late Toxicity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Receiving Hypofractionated (2.2 Gy) Soft-tissue-matched Image-guided Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy.

We report the long-term tumor control and toxicity outcomes of patients undergoing hypofractionated (2.2 Gy) image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) using tomotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

Interfractional Rectal Displacement Requiring Repeated Precaution Did Not Correlate to Biochemical Control and Rectal Toxicity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Treated with Image-guided Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy.

To investigate the correlation between frequency of action level of interfractional rectal displacement requiring repeated precaution in patients with prostate cancer and late toxicity from image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) using helical tomotherapy.

Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide and serum surfactant protein D levels for monitoring radiation pneumonitis following thoracic radiotherapy.

The present study aimed to examine the role of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and serum surfactant protein D (SP-D) level in the determination of radiation pneumonitis (RP) after thoracic radiotherapy (RT). The study included 34 treatments for 33 patients, including 16 three-dimensional conformal and 18 stereotactic body RT treatments. eNO levels were measured prior to RT, immediately subsequent to RT, every week during the RT course and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following the treatment. The therapy reduced the eNO from 24.3±12.8 ppb prior to RT to 19.0±10.4 ppb immediately subsequent to RT (P=0.04). A total of 5 patients (14%) developed symptomatic RP of grade 2 or higher 3-5 months later, and exhibited an eNO elevation of 2.1±0.68-fold the minimum value, whereas the RP- group exhibited 1.4±0.6-fold elevation (P=0.02). The sensitivity of a cut-off of a 1.4-fold increase in the eNO ratio at the onset of RP was 100%; however, the specificity was 52%, and no predictive alterations to eNO levels were observed prior to the onset of RP. RT was associated with an elevated serum SP-D level at 3-6 months after RT. There was a statistically significant difference in the initial serum SP-D level between RP+ and RP- patients. In conclusion, obtaining the eNO ratio was a useful RP monitoring tool but did not predict RP occurrence in the present setting, whereas serum SP-D level may be a potential predictor for the detection of RP risk.

Local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer.

Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer; however, the optimal treatment field remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer.

Radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer-technical aspects and alternate fractionation.

Early laryngeal, especially glottic, cancer is a good candidate for radiotherapy because obvious early symptoms (e.g. hoarseness) make earlier treatment possible and with highly successful localized control. This type of cancer is also a good model for exploring the basic principles of radiation oncology and several key findings (e.g. dose, fractionation, field size, patient fixation, and overall treatment time) have been noted. For example, unintended poor outcomes have been reported during transition from 60Cobalt to linear accelerator installation in the 1960s, with usage of higher energy photons causing poor dose distribution. In addition, shell fixation made precise dose delivery possible, but simultaneously elevated toxicity if a larger treatment field was necessary. Of particular interest to the radiation therapy community was altered fractionation gain as a way to improve local tumor control and survival rate. Unfortunately, this interest ceased with advancements in chemotherapeutic agents because alternate fractionation could not improve outcomes in chemoradiotherapy settings. At present, no form of acceleration can potentially compensate fully for the lack of concurrent chemotherapy. In addition, the substantial workload associated with this technique made it difficult to add extra fractionation routinely in busy clinical hospitals. Hypofractionation, on the other hand, uses a larger single fractionation dose (2-3 Gy), making it a reasonable and attractive option for T1-T2 early glottic cancer because it can improve local control without the additional workload. Recently, Japan Clinical Oncology Group study 0701 reprised its role in early T1-T2 glottic cancer research, demonstrating that this strategy could be an optional standard therapy. Herein, we review radiotherapy history from 60Cobalt to modern linear accelerator, with special focus on the role of alternate fractionation.

Effect of intratumoral abscess/necrosis on the outcome for head and neck cancer patients treated by hypofractionated stereotactic re-irradiation using CyberKnife®.

The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of intratumoral abscess/necrosis (AN) on the outcome of patients with recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC) treated by stereotactic radiotherapy. The records of 67 patients treated with CyberKnife® in four institutes between August 2000 and July 2010 were reviewed. The frequency of AN appeared to be increased in younger postoperative patients with large ulcerative tumors. The AN+ group exhibited a better initial response rate compared with the AN- group (64 vs. 33%, respectively; P=0.04). The 1-year local control rate was 51 and 75% in the AN+ and AN- groups, respectively (P=0.01), while the respective 1-year overall survival rates were 53 and and 71% (P=0.0004). A total of 21 patients (31%) experienced grade ≥3 toxicities, and carotid blowout syndrome (CBOS) was found in 11 patients, resulting in 8 deaths. A significantly larger proportion of patients in the AN+ group developed CBOS (8/18; 44%) compared with the AN- group (3/49; 6%) (P=0.001). Therefore, AN may be an important prognostic factor for patients with recurrent HNC, as well as a predictor of lethal toxicity due to CBOS.

Role of radiotherapy fractionation in head and neck cancers (MARCH): an updated meta-analysis.

The Meta-Analysis of Radiotherapy in squamous cell Carcinomas of Head and neck (MARCH) showed that altered fractionation radiotherapy is associated with improved overall and progression-free survival compared with conventional radiotherapy, with hyperfractionated radiotherapy showing the greatest benefit. This update aims to confirm and explain the superiority of hyperfractionated radiotherapy over other altered fractionation radiotherapy regimens and to assess the benefit of altered fractionation within the context of concomitant chemotherapy with the inclusion of new trials.

Clinical outcome of patients treated with re-irradiation for spine or pelvic bone metastasis: A multi-institutional analysis of 98 patients.

The present study aimed to describe the clinical results of re-irradiation (Re-RT) for spine or pelvic bone metastasis at the same initial irradiated area. Between April 2010 and March 2014, cases involving 98 patients with spine or pelvic bone metastasis who had undergone Re-RT at five institutions were reviewed. The clinical outcomes following Re-RT were evaluated, including overall survival (OS) and severe adverse events. The median time interval from initial radiation therapy (RT) to Re-RT was 439 days (range, 23-4,993 days), and the median duration of patient follow-up was 256 days (range, 11-2,284 days). The median biological effective dose for the Re-RT was 150 Gy2 (range, 17-240 Gy2; α/β = 2). Severe late adverse events occurred in two patients who underwent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for lumbar spine or pelvic bone metastases, which may be associated with tumor progression. The median survival time following Re-RT was 255 days, and the actuarial OS rate at 1 year was 36%. The interval between initial RT and Re-RT, and their performance statuses (PS) were significant independent prognostic factors for OS rates in multivariate analysis. Re-RT for spine or pelvic bone metastases is a relatively acceptable option with low risk of anticipated severe adverse events, particularly for patients with good PS following a long disease-free interval.

Palliative Radiotherapy in the Local Management of Stage IVB Esophageal Cancer: Factors Affecting Swallowing and Survival.

To clarify the role of external-beam radiotherapy in the local management of state IVB esophageal cancer.

Reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancers using charged particle or photon radiotherapy.

To examine the outcomes of reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancers using different modalities.

Edema worsens target coverage in high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy of mobile tongue cancer: a report of two cases.

We report our study on two patients to highlight the risk of underdosage of the clinical target volume (CTV) due to edema during high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) of mobile tongue cancer.

In Regard to Phan et al.

Comment on "Effect of tumor dose, volume and overall treatment time on local control after radiochemotherapy including MRI guided brachytherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer" Kari Tanderup et al.

Survey of current practices from the International Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Consortium (ISBRTC) for head and neck cancers.

To provide a multi-institutional description of current practices of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for head and neck cancer.

Definitive Radiation Therapy for Angiosarcoma of the Face and Scalp.

To examine the role of radiation therapy (RT) and factors' influence on tumor control for angiosarcoma of the face and scalp (AS-FS).

Comparison of Re-irradiation Outcomes for Charged Particle Radiotherapy and Robotic Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using CyberKnife for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancers: A Multi-institutional Matched-cohort Analysis.

To compare survival outcomes for charged particle radiotherapy (CP) and stereotactic body radiotherapy using CyberKnife (CK) in patients who had undergone re-irradiation for head and neck cancers.

Salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for isolated vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer.

We have retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a salvage therapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer.

A surveillance study of the current status of reirradiation and patterns of practice.

The aim of this study was to survey the current status of reirradiation (Re-RT) and patterns of practice in Japan. An email questionnaire was sent to Kansai Cancer Therapist Group partner institutions, using questions similar to those in the Canadian radiation oncologist (RO) survey (2008). A total of 34 ROs from 28 institutions returned the survey. All 28 institutions experienced Re-RT cases in 2014. However, 26 of the 28 institutions (93%) reported difficulty in obtaining Re-RT case information from their respective databases. Responses from 19 institutions included the number of Re-RT cases; this rose from 183 in the period 2005-2009 (institution median = 4; 2-12.9) to 562 in the period 2010-2014 (institution median = 26; 2-225). Important considerations for indication of Re-RT were age (65%), performance status (83%), life expectancy (70%), absence of distant metastases (67%), and interval since previous treatment (73%). Previous total radiation dose (48%), volume of tissue irradiated (72%), and the biologically equivalent dose (BED; 68.5%) were taken into account during Re-RT planning. These factors were similar to those considered in the Canadian survey; however, the present study did not consider age. In eight site-specific scenarios, barring central nervous system recurrence, more than 90% of ROs agreed to perform Re-RT, which was higher than the percentage observed in the Canadian survey. Re-RT cases have increased in number and aroused interest among ROs in this decade of advanced technology. However, consensus building to establish guidelines for the practice and prospective evaluation of Re-RT is required.

Evaluation of tracking accuracy of the CyberKnife system using a webcam and printed calibrated grid.

Tracking accuracy for the CyberKnife's Synchrony system is commonly evaluated using a film-based verification method. We have evaluated a verification system that uses a webcam and a printed calibrated grid to verify tracking accuracy over three different motion patterns. A box with an attached printed calibrated grid and four fiducial markers was attached to the motion phantom. A target marker was positioned at the grid's center. The box was set up using the other three markers. Target tracking accuracy was evaluated under three conditions: 1) stationary; 2) sinusoidal motion with different amplitudes of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm for the same cycle of 4 s and different cycles of 2, 4, 6, and 8 s with the same amplitude of 15 mm; and 3) irregular breathing patterns in six human volunteers breathing normally. Infrared markers were placed on the volunteers' abdomens, and their trajectories were used to simulate the target motion. All tests were performed with one-dimensional motion in craniocaudal direction. The webcam captured the grid's motion and a laser beam was used to simulate the CyberKnife's beam. Tracking error was defined as the difference between the grid's center and the laser beam. With a stationary target, mean tracking error was measured at 0.4 mm. For sinusoidal motion, tracking error was less than 2 mm for any amplitude and breathing cycle. For the volunteers' breathing patterns, the mean tracking error range was 0.78-1.67 mm. Therefore, accurate lesion targeting requires individual quality assurance for each patient.

Reirradiation using robotic image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy of recurrent head and neck cancer.

The purpose of this study was to examine the prognosis for patients with head and neck cancer after reirradiation using Cyberknife stereotactic body irradiation with special focus on mucosal ulceration. We conducted a retrospective multi-institutional review of 107 patients with previously irradiated head and neck cancer. The median follow-up time for all patients was 15 months, and the 2-year overall survival rate was 35%. Significant prognostic factors for overall survival were primary site (nasopharynx versus other sites), presence of ulceration, and PTV volume. Detailed analysis of ulceration showed a lower response rate (28%) in the ulceration (+) group than the ulceration (-) group (63%; P = 0.0045). The 2-year overall survival rates were 8% in the ulceration (+) group and 42.7% (P = 0.0001) in the ulceration (-) group, respectively. We recorded 22 severe toxicities, including 11 patients with carotid blow-out syndrome (CBOS), which was fatal in 9 patients. CBOS occurred in 6 patients with ulceration (6/25; 24%), and 5 patients experienced CBOS without ulceration (5/82; 6%; P=0.027). In conclusion, ulceration is an important prognostic factor, not only for adverse events but also for survival after reirradiation using CyberKnife.

Simulation analysis of optimized brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer: Can we select the best brachytherapy modality depending on tumor size?

To choose the optimal brachytherapeutic modality for uterine cervical cancer, we performed simulation analysis.

Superiority of charged particle therapy in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (Regarding Qi W.X. et al. charged particle therapy versus photon therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis).

Postoperative External Irradiation of Patients with Primary Biliary Tract Cancer: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

The aim of the present study was to assess clinical outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy for biliary tract cancer patients.

Predictive value of skin invasion in recurrent head and neck cancer patients treated by hypofractionated stereotactic re-irradiation using a cyberknife.

This study aimed to elucidate the influence of skin invasion in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer treated with re-irradiation using stereotactic radiotherapy.