PubTransformer

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Jian Wang - Top 30 Publications

High-velocity projectile impact induced 9R phase in ultrafine-grained aluminium.

Aluminium typically deforms via full dislocations due to its high stacking fault energy. Twinning in aluminium, although difficult, may occur at low temperature and high strain rate. However, the 9R phase rarely occurs in aluminium simply because of its giant stacking fault energy. Here, by using a laser-induced projectile impact testing technique, we discover a deformation-induced 9R phase with tens of nm in width in ultrafine-grained aluminium with an average grain size of 140 nm, as confirmed by extensive post-impact microscopy analyses. The stability of the 9R phase is related to the existence of sessile Frank loops. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the formation mechanisms of the 9R phase in aluminium. This study sheds lights on a deformation mechanism in metals with high stacking fault energies.

Whole-exome sequencing reveals novel mutations and epigenetic regulation in hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

Hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) frequently presents at an advanced stage, resulting in poor prognosis. Although combined surgical therapy and chemoradiotherapy have improved the survival for patients with HPC over the past 3 decades, the mortality rate in late-stage diagnosis of HPC is unsatisfactory. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 23 hypopharyngeal tumor and paired adjacent normal tissue to identify novel candidate driver genes associated with hypopharyngeal carcinoma. We identified several copy number variants (CNVs) and 15 somatic mutation genes that were associated with hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Mutations in nine new genes (PRB4, NSD1, REC8, ZNF772, ZNF69, EI24, CYFIP2, NEFH, KRTAP4-5) were also indentified. PRB4 and NSD1 expression were significantly upregulated in hypopharyngeal carcinoma, which was confirmed in an independent cohort using IHC. There was a positive relationship between PRB4 and NSD1. Downregulation of PRB4 by siRNA could inhibit cell growth, colony formation and cell invasion. Notably, we here demonstrate that NSD1 could bind to the promoter regions of PRB4 and activate promoter activity by reducing the binding of H3K27me2 and increasing the binding of H3K36me2 on PRB4 promoter. In summary, we pinpoint the predominant mutations in hypopharyngeal carcinoma by WES, highlighting the substantial genetic alterations contributing to hypopharyngeal carcinoma tumorigenesis. We also indentify a novel epigenetically regulatory between PRB4 and NSD1 that contribute to hypopharyngeal carcinoma tumorigenesis. They may become potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic target for hypopharyngeal carcinoma treatment.

Limax extract ameliorates cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in mice.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive and lethal lung disease with few treatments. Limax, a mollusk with lung, has been widely used to control phlegm and cough in China, yet whether Limax has a positive effect on COPD is unknown. This study investigated the effects of water-soluble extract from Limax on COPD development and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that Limax extract improved lung function, relieved emphysema and suppressed the inflammation in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by diminished release of IL-6, KC, TNF-α, IFN-γ, Muc5AC, IL-17 and diminished mRNA expression of Muc5B. Moreover, Limax extract also inhibited phosphorylation of P38 and ERK and increased the expression of PPARγ. More interestingly, Limax extract (0.1μg/ml) inhibited CSE-induced release of IL-6 in vitro, which was substantially abrogated by heat treatment, and filtrate obtained from the deproteinized Limax extract with the 100KD ultrafiltration membrane, inhibited the secretion of IL-6. Taken together, these results suggest that, Limax extract prevents COPD development via inhibition of inflammation and mucus production, thus has a potential preventive and therapeutic application in COPD.

Microbial production of branched-chain dicarboxylate 2-methylsuccinic acid via enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction.

2-Methylsuccinic acid (2-MSA) is a C5 branched-chain dicarboxylate that serves as an attractive synthon for the synthesis of polymers with extensive applications in coatings, cosmetic solvents and bioplastics. However, the lack of natural pathways for 2-MSA biosynthesis has limited its application as a promising bio-replacement. Herein, we conceived a non-natural three-step biosynthetic route for 2-MSA, via employing the citramalate pathway in combination with enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction of the pathway intermediate citraconate. First, over-expression of codon-optimized citramalate synthase variant CimA⁎ from Methanococcus jannaschii, endogenous isopropylmalate isomerase EcLeuCD and enoate reductase YqjM from Bacillus subtilis allowed the production of 2-MSA in Escherichia coli for the first time, with a titer of 0.35g/L in shake flask experiments. Subsequent screening of YqjM-like enoate reductases of different bacterial origins enabled identification and characterization of a new NAD(P)H-dependent enoate reductase KpnER from Klebsiella pneumoniae, which exhibited higher activity towards citraconate than YqjM. Incorporation of KpnER into the 2-MSA biosynthetic pathway led to 2-MSA production improvement to a titer of 0.96g/L in aerobic condition. Subsequent optimizations including cofactor regeneration, microaerobic cultivation and host strain engineering, boosted 2-MSA titer to 3.61g/L with a molar yield of 0.36 in shake flask experiments. This work established a promising platform for 2-MSA bioproduction, which enabled the highest titer of 2-MSA production in microbial hosts so far.

Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicts infarct volume and mortality in ischemic stroke patients.

The aim of this study is to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels in serum, and investigate their associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or all-cause mortality in a 1-year follow-up study in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke.

Salinity reduces 2,4-D efficacy in Echinochloa crusgalli by affecting redox balance, nutrient acquisition, and hormonal regulation.

Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H2O2, O2(·-)) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes. Further analysis of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts indicated that 2,4-D induced severe damage to the ultrastructure of chloroplasts and thylakoids. Severe saline stress (8 dS m(-1)) followed by mild saline stress treatments (4 dS m(-1)) also reduced the E. crusgalli growth, but had the least impact as compared to the 2,4-D alone treatment. Surprisingly, under combined treatments (salinity + 2,4-D), the phytotoxic effect of 2,4-D was reduced on saline-stressed E. crusgalli plants, especially under mild saline + 2,4-D treatment. This stimulated growth of E. crusgalli is related to the higher activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and dynamic regulation of IAA, ABA under mild saline + 2,4-D treatment. This shows that 2,4-D efficacy was affected by salinity in a stress intensity-dependent manner, which may result in the need for greater herbicide application rates, additional application times, or more weed control operations required for controlling salt-affected weed.

Risk factors for recurrent intussusception in children: a retrospective cohort study.

The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of clinical features and pathological lead points in recurrent intussusception, with a special focus on the risk factors that lead to recurrent intussusception.

Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cell in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have important effect in tissue repair in ischemic organs. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the mobilization of EPCs and its possible mechanism after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A total of 148 individuals were examined, including 106 patients with ischemic stroke and 42 healthy controls. Seventy-one patients with imaging-confirmed AIS were examined at days 1, 7, 14, and 21 after stroke onset. Circulating EPCs were quantified by flow cytometry using CD133 and KDR surface markers. Serum stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with AIS had significantly lower EPC level than that in the controls (0.022 ± 0.013 vs 0.051 ± 0.020; p < 0.01). This difference did not remain significant after adjusting for risk factors at multivariate analysis. Blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and fasting blood sugar were inversely correlated with EPC levels (p < 0.01). Systolic blood pressure and LDL remained independent predictors of baseline EPC levels. The number of circulating EPCs increased on day 7 after AIS, reached a peak on day 14, and decreased on day 21. The concentration of SDF-1 had similar changes. The increment of EPCs was correlated with the infarct volume (r = 0.708; p = 0.006) and SDF-1 concentration on day 14 (r = 0.714; p < 0.001). Baseline EPC level in patients with AIS reflects the cumulative vascular endothelial damage. EPCs could be mobilized into peripheral circulation in response to stroke stress. This mobilization was associated with the increased expression of SDF-1.

Ice Squeezing Induced Multicolor Fluorescence Emissions from Polyacrylamide Cryogels.

Being short of conventional chromophores, polyacrylamide is generally not regarded as a fluorescent material. Exactly the polymerization of dilute solutions of acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide led to thick liquids at 60 °C, showing no fluorescence. Things changed when the phase transition of water was involved. The squeezing effect of ice crystals not only created polymeric solids (cryogels) at - 20 °C, but also endowed them unexpected fluorescence emissions. The macroporous cryogels are mainly blue fluorescent polymers. However yellow and red fluorescence were also achieved by changing the ingredient ratios. A series of instrumental detections revealed that the multicolor fluorescence were based on exquisite amido stacking induced from ice squeezing. If people make good use of the squeezing effect of the heaven-sent molecule to manipulate the interactions of monomer functionalities, cryogenic polymerization can be a promising method to produce diverse polymeric materials.

Chiral nanoprobes for targeting and long-term imaging of the Golgi apparatus.

The Golgi apparatus is an essential subcellular organelle. Targeting and monitoring the Golgi change at the single-cell level over a long time scale are critical but are challenges that have not yet been tackled. Inspired by the precise Golgi positioning ability of galactosyltransferase and protein kinase D, due to their cysteine residues, we developed a method for long-term Golgi imaging. Fluorescent molecules, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and silica nanoparticles could target the Golgi when they are modified with l-cysteine. l-Cysteine-rich chiral carbon quantum dots (LC-CQDs), which have the benefits of a high Golgi specificity from l-cysteine and excellent photostability and biocompatibility from the CQDs, are proven to be highly suitable for long-term in situ imaging of the Golgi. Investigation of the mechanism showed that free thiol groups and the l-type stereo configuration of LC-CQDs are essential for specific targeting of the Golgi. With the aid of the as-prepared LC-CQDs, the dynamic changes of the Golgi in the early stage of viral infection were visualized. The Golgi targeting and imaging strategy used in this work is beneficial for Golgi-targeted drug delivery and early diagnosis and therapy of Golgi diseases.

Transcriptional profiling provides new insights into the role of nitric oxide in enhancing Ganoderma oregonense resistance to heat stress.

Ganoderma is well known for its use in traditional Chinese medicine and is widely cultivated in China, Korea, and Japan. Increased temperatures associated with global warming are negatively influencing the growth and development of Ganoderma. Nitric oxide is reported to play an important role in alleviating fungal heat stress (HS). However, the transcriptional profiling of Ganoderma oregonense in response to HS, as well as the transcriptional response regulated by NO to cope with HS has not been reported. We used RNA-Seq technology to generate large-scale transcriptome data from G. oregonense mycelia subjected to HS (32 °C) and exposed to concentrations of exogenous NO. The results showed that heat shock proteins (HSPs), "probable stress-induced proteins", and unigenes involved in "D-amino-acid oxidase activity" and "oxidoreductase activity" were significantly up-regulated in G. oregonense subjected to HS (P < 0.05). The significantly up-regulated HSPs, "monooxygenases", "alcohol dehydrogenase", and "FAD/NAD(P)-binding domain-containing proteins" (P < 0.05) regulated by exogenous NO may play important roles in the enhanced HS tolerance of G. oregonense. These results provide insights into the transcriptional response of G. oregonense to HS and the mechanism by which NO enhances the HS tolerance of fungi at the gene expression level.

Old drug new tricks: Chlorhexidine acts as a potential allosteric inhibitor toward PAK1.

This paper describes the identification of chlorhexidine, an agent commonly used in clinical as a novel potential allosteric inhibitor of PAK1. In cellular assays, chlorhexidine showed a good inhibitory profile, and its inhibitory profile was even better than IPA-3, a well-known allosteric inhibitor. In pharmacology experiments, chlorhexidine successfully inhibited the relief of PAK1 dimer and inhibited the activation of PAK1. Our findings offer an insight for the new drug development of PAK1 inhibitor. We also provide a possible explanation for the phenomenon that the application of the chlorhexidine in peritoneal lavage inhibited the development of tumor.

Biosimilars: State of Clinical and Regulatory Science.

On May 12, 2017, various issues and challenges associated with biologics were discussed during a session of the annual joint conference of Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences and Canadian Chapter of Controlled Release Society at Hyatt Regency Hotel, Montréal, QC, Canada.  An update on the Canadian regulatory guidelines for biosimilars was given, followed by viewpoints expressed by regulatory, academic and industry scientists.  Topics of discussion included: reference biologic drug, clinical considerations, immunogenicity, extrapolation and clarification of terminology, product monograph, international collaboration, switching and interchangeability, naming conventions, clinical and non-clinical evaluation, authorization of indications, statistical equivalence, the nor-switch study and biologics marketplace.

TGF-β2 initiates autophagy via Smad and non-Smad pathway to promote glioma cells' invasion.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by lethal aggressiveness and patients with GBM are in urgent need for new therapeutic avenues to improve quality of life. Current studies on tumor invasion focused on roles of cytokines in tumor microenvironment and numerous evidence suggests that TGF-β2 is abundant in glioma microenvironment and vital for glioma invasion. Autopagy is also emerging as a critical factor in aggressive behaviors of cancer cells; however, the relationship between TGF-β2 and autophagy in glioma has been poorly understood.

Atropoenantioselective Redox-Neutral Amination of Biaryls Via Borrowing Hydrogen and Dynamic Kinetic Resolution.

We report here a novel atropoenantioselective redox-neutral amination of biaryls triggered by a cascade of borrowing hydrogen and DKR strategy under the co-catalysis of chiral Ir-complex and achiral Brønsted acid. This protocol features broad substrate scope and good functional group tolerance, and allows the rapid assembly of axially chiral biaryls in good to high yields and with high to excellent enantioselectivities.

An All-Zirconia Crown Discovered 2 Years Following Aspiration.

Accidental aspiration or ingestion can occur in dental treatment, as most procedures are performed with the patient in a supine position or semi-recumbent position. Aspiration of foreign bodies commonly causes acute symptoms such as violent coughing, choking, and dyspnea; however, if foreign bodies are stuck distally to the lower lobe bronchi or the bronchus intermedius, acute presentation can be rare. This clinical report documents a 68-year-old male patient who accidentally aspirated an all-zirconia crown during the try-in procedure. The case was initially surmised as ingestion. The crown remained in the lower lobe of the left lung for about 2 years without any significant symptoms. This report cautions the importance of airway protection during dental procedures.

Clinical and molecular genetic characterization of familial MECP2 duplication syndrome in a Chinese family.

Chromosomal duplication at the Xq28 region including the MECP2 gene, share consistent clinical phenotypes and a distinct facial phenotype known as MECP2 duplication syndrome. The typical clinical features include infantile hypotonia , mild dysmorphic features, a broad range of neurodevelopmental disorders, recurrent infections, and progressive spasticity.

Performance evaluation of underwater optical communications using spatial modes subjected to bubbles and obstructions.

Spatial modes have attracted increasing interest in free-space and fiber-based optical communications. Underwater wireless optical communication is becoming a promising technique in marine exploration. Here we investigate the underwater wireless optical communications using different spatial modes, i.e., traditional Gaussian modes, orbital angular momentum modes having helical phase fronts, and diffraction-free and obstruction-tolerant Bessel modes. We evaluate the underwater transmission performance of three spatial modes subjected to dynamic bubbles, which cause similar power fluctuations, regardless of spatial modes. We also demonstrate an underwater transmission link subjected to static obstructions using three spatial modes carrying 1.4 Gbaud orthogonal frequency division multiplexing 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signals. The Bessel mode shows the best performance against obstructions.

Impact of VEGFA polymorphisms on glioma risk in Chinese.

Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) gene have been previously reported to be associated with glioma susceptibility, but individual studies have demonstrated inconclusive results. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation of the involvement of VEGFA polymorphisms in glioma development. A comprehensive literature search conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and OVID databases through February 25, 2017 yielded 4 eligible studies consisting of 2,275 cases and 2,475 controls. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated under allele contrast, dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous models. In general, minor alleles of polymorphisms rs3025039, rs2010963, and rs3025030 were associated with increased glioma risk. In contrast, a significant correlation was found between the minor allele of polymorphism rs3024994 and decreased susceptibility to glioma. Moreover, statistically significant associations with glioma risk were observed for polymorphisms rs1413711 and rs3025035 in the meta-analysis although positive associations were not observed in any of the included studies individually. No significant correlations with glioma susceptibility were identified for polymorphisms rs3025010 or rs833069 except in the recessive model. Finally, stratified analysis on the basis of genotyping method and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls revealed no significant difference between subgroups. Our results indicated that several VEGFA polymorphisms might be risk factors for glioma in Chinese. More studies with larger sample sizes using different ethnicities are needed to provide additional evidence.

Expression of BC1 Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease Via APP Translation.

Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are the cleavage products of amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a major pathological hallmark in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Now, we know little about the roles of APP translation in the disease progression of AD. Here, we show that BC1, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), is expressed in the brain of AD mice. BC1 induces APP mRNA translation via association with a fragile X syndrome protein (FMRP). Inhibition of BC1 or BC1-FMRP association in AD mice blocks aggregation of Aβ in the brain and protects against the spatial learning and memory deficits. Expression of exogenous BC1 in excitatory pyramidal neurons of mice induces Aβ peptides accumulation and the spatial learning and memory impairments. This study provides a novel mechanism underlying aggregation of Aβ peptides via BC1 induction of APP mRNA translation and hence warrants a promising target for AD therapy.

Comparison and evaluation of two different methods to establish the cigarette smoke exposure mouse model of COPD.

Animal model of cigarette smoke (CS) -induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the primary testing methodology for drug therapies and studies on pathogenic mechanisms of disease. However, researchers have rarely run simultaneous or side-by-side tests of whole-body and nose-only CS exposure in building their mouse models of COPD. We compared and evaluated these two different methods of CS exposure, plus airway Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) inhalation, in building our COPD mouse model. Compared with the control group, CS exposed mice showed significant increased inspiratory resistance, functional residual capacity, right ventricular hypertrophy index, and total cell count in BALF. Moreover, histological staining exhibited goblet cell hyperplasia, lung inflammation, thickening of smooth muscle layer on bronchia, and lung angiogenesis in both methods of CS exposure. Our data indicated that a viable mouse model of COPD can be established by combining the results from whole-body CS exposure, nose-only CS exposure, and airway LPS inhalation testing. However, in our study, we also found that, given the same amount of particulate intake, changes in right ventricular pressure and intimal thickening of pulmonary small artery are a little more serious in nose-only CS exposure method than changes in the whole-body CS exposure method.

Characterization of Pb51 in Plasmodium berghei as a malaria vaccine candidate targeting both asexual erythrocytic proliferation and transmission.

A vaccine that targets multiple developmental stages of malaria parasites would be an effective tool for malaria control and elimination.

miR-19a and miR-424 target TGFBR3 to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells.

Previous studies indicate that TGFBR3 (transforming growth factor type III receptor, also known as betaglycan), a novel suppressor of progression in certain cancers, is down-regulated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). However, the role of this factor as an upstream regulator in TSCC cells remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to elucidate whether TGFBR3 gene expression is regulated by two microRNA molecules, miR-19a and miR-424. The study also aimed to determine if these microRNAs promote migration of CAL-27 human oral squamous cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analyses demonstrated that TGFBR3 protein levels were dramatically down-regulated in clinical TSCC specimens. Conversely, bioinformatics analyses and qRT-PCR results confirmed that both miR-19a and miR-424 were markedly up-regulated in clinical TSCC specimens. In this study, we observed that transfection of a TGFBR3-containing plasmid dramatically inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in CAL-27 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses also revealed that TGFBR3 forms a complex with the β-arrestin 2 scaffolding protein and IκBα. Furthermore, overexpression of TGFBR3 decreased p-p65 expression and increased IκBα expression; these effects were subsequently abolished following knockdown of β-arrestin 2. Moreover, over-expression of miR-19a and miR-424 promoted migration and EMT in CAL-27 cells. We also observed that the promotion of EMT by miR-19a and miR-424 was mediated by the inhibition of TGFBR3. Our study provides evidence that miR-19a and miR-424 play important roles in the development of TSCC. These results expand our understanding of TGFBR3 gene expression and regulatory mechanisms pertaining to miRNAs.

SENP1 attenuates the liver fibrosis through down-regulating the expression of SMAD2.

To investigate whether SENP1 could play a regulating role in the liver fibrosis process, the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the liver fibrosis rat models by intraperitoneally injecting with 1 ml/kg of 10% CCl4, while the control normal rats were injected with olive oil. Then confirmation experiments to verify the successful establishment of these models were conducted by detecting the cellular and lobular architecture, and liver function indexes using hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining and microplate method, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of fibrosis markers including collagen I, collagen III, α-SMA and TGF-β1 were inspected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), as well as SMAD2. Subsequently, the relative mRNA and protein level of SENP1 was also determined via qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Next, the HSC-T6 cells of SENP1 knock-down were constructed and used to test the relative protein expression levels of α-SMA and SMAD2 in these cells. The results of hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining and microplate method turned out that the rat liver fibrosis models were constructed successfully, which was further confirmed by the increased expression of collagen I, collagen III, α-SMA and TGF-β1 in mRNA and protein level, as well as SMAD2. Then the expression of SENP1 was overexpressed in the rat liver fibrosis models induced by CCl4 and the TGF-β1 treatment could increase the protein expression level of collagen I, collagen III and α-SMA. Lastly, the SENP1 knockdown HSC-T6 cells were successfully constructed, while the silence of SENP1 down-regulated the protein expression of α-SMA and SMAD2. In conclusion, this study provided a new regulation mechanism about the liver fibrosis process.

A genotype-phenotype study of hereditary multiple exostoses in forty-six Chinese patients.

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disorder that can cause a variety of clinical manifestations. We aimed to evaluate the general clinical phenotypic severity of HME by using a scoring system and correlate the genotypes with different clinical phenotypes in Chinese patients.

Correction to: Relative abundance of β-thalassemia-related mutations in southern China correlates with geographical coordinates.

Figure 1c. is with numeric error. The error can not result in any change of discussion and conclusion. The proper figures corresponding to Fig 1c are in supplement file, see figure 5 and 6.

miR19b-3p promotes the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer via directly targeting ITGB8.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely up-regulated or down-regulated in a variety of tumors, including lung cancer, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Furthermore, miRNAs can function as tumor suppressors or proto-oncogenes by controlling the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. In the present study, we found a significant increase in miR19b-3p levels in CRC compared to tumor tissue and revealed the role of miR19b-3p in CRC growth and metastasis. The exogenous overexpression of miR19b-3p induced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells in vitro. In addition, the nude mouse xenograft model showed that miR19b-3p overexpression promoted CRC growth and lung metastasis in vivo, whereas silencing miR19b-3p showed opposite results. Mechanistic studies have shown that the integrin beta-8 (ITGB8) transcript is one of the direct targets of miR19b-3p, and the expression of ITGB8 in CRC specimens was positively correlated with miR19b-3p. Finally, ectopic expression of ITGB8 rescued cell proliferation and invasion, which was inhibited by down-regulation of miR19b-3p. In addition, knockdown of ITGB8 neutralized the effects of miR19b-3p overexpression on cell growth and metastasis in CRC cells. Together, these results suggest that the miR19b-3p/ITGB8 axis plays an important role in the growth and metastasis of CRC.

Juvenile hormone and 20-hydroxyecdysone coordinately control the developmental timing of matrix metalloproteinase-induced fat body cell dissociation.

Tissue remodeling is a crucial process in animal development and disease progression. Coordinately controlled by the two main insect hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), tissues are remodeled context-specifically during insect metamorphosis. We previously discovered that two matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) cooperatively induce fat body cell dissociation in Drosophila. However, the molecular events involved in this Mmps-mediated dissociation are unclear. Here we report that JH and 20E coordinately and precisely control the developmental timing of Mmps-induced fat body cell dissociation. We found that during the larval-prepupal transition, the anti-metamorphic factor Kr-h1 transduces JH signaling, which directly inhibited Mmps expression and activated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloprteinases (timp), and thereby suppressed Mmps-induced fat body cell dissociation. We also noted that upon a decline in the JH titer, a prepupal peak of 20E suppresses Mmps-induced fat body cell dissociation through the 20E primary-response genes, E75 and Blimp-1, which inhibited expression of the nuclear receptor and competence factor βftz-F1. Moreover, upon a decline in the 20E titer, βftz-F1 expression was induced by the 20E early-late response gene DHR3, and then βftz-F1 directly activated Mmps expression and inhibited timp expression, causing Mmps-induced fat body cell dissociation during 6-12 hrs after puparium formation. In conclusion, coordinated signaling via JH and 20E finely tunes the developmental timing of Mmps-induced fat body cell dissociation. Our findings shed critical light on hormonal regulation of insect metamorphosis.

Isopsoralen regulates PPAR‑γ/WNT to inhibit oxidative stress in osteoporosis.

The present study aimed to examine the effects of isopsoralen against postmenopausal osteoporosis in an ovariectomized rat model. The ovariectomized rats were treated with three days 10 mg/kg isopsoralen or with three days 20 mg/kg isopsoralen. Alkaline phosphatase, the oxidative stress indicators and caspase‑3/9 were measured using ELISA assay kits. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure collagen type I (Col I), osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA levels. Wnt, β‑catenin and peroxisome proliferators‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ) were analyzed using western blot analysis. Isopsoralen suppressed mature adipocyte differentiation of C2C12 cells, inhibited serum calcium and urinary calcium levels, and reduced the structural scores of articular cartilage and cancellous bone in the proximal tibia metaphysis of mice with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Isopsoralen also promoted the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the mRNA expression levels of Col 1, osterix and osteopontin in mice with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Oxidative stress and activities of caspase‑3/9 in the mice with postmenopausal osteoporosis were effectively suppressed by isopsoralen treatment, which upregulated the protein expression of Wnt/β‑catenin and downregulated the protein expression of PPAR‑γ. These findings demonstrated that isopsoralen prevented osteoporosis through the regulation of PPAR‑γ/WNT, inhibiting oxidative stress by targeting the PPAR‑γ/WNT pathway. These results provide evidence of the potential targeted therapy for isopsoralen in the clinical treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

HuR induces inflammatory responses in HUVECs and murine sepsis via binding to HMGB1.

The aim of the present study was to explore the roles of human antigen R (HuR) in sepsis. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses demonstrated that overexpression of HuR increased the expression of high‑mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HMGB1 was investigated as a potential target of HuR through bioinformatics and RNA‑immunoprecipitation assays. Furthermore, treatment with HuR small interfering (si)RNA suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑mediated release of HMGB1 and reduced HMGB1‑mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in HUVECs and in septic mice. In addition, HuR‑siRNA injection reduced cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)‑induced HMGB1 release, reduced production of interleukin 6 and lowered mortality rates. Notably, the promotive effects of HuR overexpression on the inflammatory response were attenuated when HUVECs were co‑treated with HMGB1 short hairpin RNA. Therefore, the present results indicated that the ectopic expression of HuR may induce inflammatory responses and thus sepsis by activating the HMGB1 signaling pathway.