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Jian-Jun Wu - Top 30 Publications

Evaluation of PDQ-8 and its relationship with PDQ-39 in China: a three-year longitudinal study.

Parkinson's disease is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms with wide ranging impacts on the health-related quality of life. The 39-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) is the most widely used PD-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire. The short-form 8-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) was found to produce results similar to that of the PDQ-39 cross-culturally. However, there is no evaluation of the PDQ-8 in the mainland of China.

A homozygous missense variant in HSD17B4 identified in a consanguineous Chinese Han family with type II Perrault syndrome.

Perrault syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder that manifests with sensorineural hearing loss in both sexes, primary ovarian insufficiency in females and neurological features. The syndrome is heterogeneous both genetically and phenotypically.

Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy and Foraminoplasty after Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery.

The most common causes of pain following lumbar spinal fusions are residual herniation, or foraminal fibrosis and foraminal stenosis that is ignored, untreated, or undertreated. The original surgeon may advise his patient that nothing more can be done in his opinion that the nerve was visually decompressed by the original surgery. Post-operative imaging or electrophysiological assessment may be inadequate to explain all the reasons for residual or recurrent symptoms. Treatment of failed lumbar spinal fusions by repeat traditional open revision surgery usually incorporates more extensive decompression causing increased instability and back pain. The authors, having limited their practice to endoscopic surgery over the last 10 years, report on their experience gained during that period to relieve pain by transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic revision of lumbar spinal fusions.

Associations between cognitive impairment and motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

Numerous studies have been carried out to explore the potential association between neurologic deficits and variable clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our study was to investigate the association between cognitive performance and motor dysfunction in Chinese patients with PD.

Clinical and molecular genetic features of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients in Chinese families.

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid-storage disease caused by mutations in CYP27A1. Current publications of Chinese CTX were mainly based on case reports. Here we investigated the clinical manifestations, genetic features in Chinese CTX patients. The clinical materials of 4 Chinese CTX pedigrees were collected. The genetic testing was done by polymerase chain reaction plus Sanger sequencing. The features of Chinese CTX patients reported previously were also reviewed. Three novel mutations of p.Arg513Cys, c.1477-2A > C in family 1 and p.Arg188Stop in family 4 (NM 000784.3) in CYP27A1 were found. The probands in our study manifested cerebellar ataxia, tendon xanthoma and spastic paresis in family 1 and 4, tendon xanthoma plus spastic paraparesis in family 2, asymptomatic tendon xanthoma in family 3. Three known mutations of p.Arg137Gln, p.Arg127Trp and p.Arg405Gln were found respectively in Family 2, 3 and 4. For the Chinese patients reviewed, the most common findings were xanthomatosis (100%), pyramidal signs (100%), cerebellar ataxia (66.7%), cognitive impairment (66.7%), cataracts (50.0%), and peripheral neuropathy (33.3%). Chronic diarrhea was infrequently seen (5.6%). No mutation was found associated with any given clinical features. We identified 3 novel mutations in CYP27A1. In Chinese CTX patients, xanthomatosis was the most common symptom while cataracts and chronic diarrhea were less frequent. The special features in Chinese CTX patients might caused by the lack of serum cholestanol test and should be confirmed in larger number of patients in the future.

Olfaction in Parkin carriers in Chinese patients with Parkinson disease.

Olfactory identification was reported to be better among PD (Parkinson disease) patients with Parkin mutations, but previous studies didn't eliminate the interference of other PD related genes on olfaction, and whether olfaction of Parkin mutations patients was better in Chinese population was still unknown.

The heterozygous R1441C mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene in a Chinese patient with Parkinson disease: A five-year follow-up and literatures review.

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) was recognized associated with both familial and sporadic Parkinson Disease (PD). Seven missense mutations (G2019S, R1441C, R1441G, R1441H, Y1699C, I2020T, N1437H) of it have been confirmed disease- causing. They were common among Caucasian PD patients, but rarely reported in Asian, especially in Chinese Han population.

Odor Identification Test in Idiopathic REM-Behavior Disorder and Parkinson's Disease in China.

Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), which is a risk factor in the development of PD. However, a few studies have conflicting results when comparing dysosmia in the patients with iRBD and PD. There is no study investigating the olfactory function in Chinese patients with iRBD. Additionally, the Sniffin' Sticks screening 12 test (SS-12) contains several odors that are not familiar to people in different cultures.

The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review.

The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients.

Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

The present study used comparative proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in order to identify proteins that may act as diagnostic biomarkers and indicators of the pathogenesis of ALS. This analysis was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology, coupled with 2-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery software was utilized for bioinformatic analysis of the data. Following this, western blotting was performed in order to examine the expression of 3 candidate proteins in ALS patients compared with healthy individuals [as a normal control (NC) group] or patients with other neurological disease (OND); these proteins were insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-2), glutamate receptor 4 (GRIA4) and leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1). Clinical data, including gender, age, disease duration and ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) score, were also collected in the ALS patients. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed between the clinical data and the results of western blot analysis. A total of 248 distinct proteins were identified in the ALS and NC groups, amongst which a significant difference could be identified in 35 proteins; of these, 21 proteins were downregulated and 14 were upregulated. These differentially-expressed proteins were thus revealed to be associated with ALS. The western blot analysis confirmed a proportion of the data attained in the iTRAQ analysis, revealing the differential protein expression of IGF-2 and GRIA4 between the ALS and NC groups. IGF-2 was significantly downregulated in ALS patients (P=0.017) and GRIA4 was significantly upregulated (P=0.016). These results were subsequently validated in the 35-patient ALS and OND groups (P=0.002), but no significant difference was identified in LRG1 expression between these groups. GRIA4 protein expression was higher in male than female patients and was positively correlated with the ALSFRS-R score, meaning that GRIA4 expression was negatively correlated with the severity of ALS, while IGF-2 and LRG1 expression did not correlate with any clinical data. The present study thus demonstrated that GRIA4 expression levels, as a marker of severity, may be used as a reference for the timing of treatment, and that IGF-2 may serve as an effective biomarker of ALS progression.

Objective and quantitative assessment of motor function in Parkinson's disease-from the perspective of practical applications.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with high morbidity because of the coming aged society. Currently, disease management and the development of new treatment strategies mainly depend on the clinical information derived from rating scales and patients' diaries, which have various limitations with regard to validity, inter-rater variability and continuous monitoring. Recently the prevalence of mobile medical equipment has made it possible to develop an objective, accurate, remote monitoring system for motor function assessment, playing an important role in disease diagnosis, home-monitoring, and severity evaluation. This review discusses the recent development in sensor technology, which may be a promising replacement of the current rating scales in the assessment of motor function of PD.

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Inhibitor of cGAS (KicGAS), Encoded by ORF52, Is an Abundant Tegument Protein and Is Required for Production of Infectious Progeny Viruses.

Although Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF52 (also known as KSHV inhibitor of cGAS [KicGAS]) has been detected in purified virions, the roles of this protein during KSHV replication have not been characterized. Using specific monoclonal antibodies, we revealed that ORF52 displays true late gene expression kinetics and confirmed its cytoplasmic localization in both transfected and KSHV-infected cells. We demonstrated that ORF52 comigrates with other known virion proteins following sucrose gradient centrifugation. We also determined that ORF52 resides inside the viral envelope and remains partially associated with capsid when extracellular virions are treated with various detergents and/or salts. There results indicate that ORF52 is a tegument protein abundantly present in extracellular virions. To characterize the roles of ORF52 in the KSHV life cycle, we engineered a recombinant KSHV ORF52-null mutant virus and found that loss of ORF52 results in reduced virion production and a further defect in infectivity. Upon analysis of the virion composition of ORF52-null viral particles, we observed a decrease in the incorporation of ORF45, as well as other tegument proteins, suggesting that ORF52 is important for the packaging of other virion proteins. In summary, our results indicate that, in addition to its immune evasion function, KSHV ORF52 is required for the optimal production of infectious virions, likely due to its roles in virion assembly as a tegument protein.

Heparanase mRNA and Protein Expression Correlates with Clinicopathologic Features of Gastric Cancer Patients: a Meta- analysis.

Heparanase is believed to be involved in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer with high heparanase expression remain unclear.

Fasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor, promotes the autophagic degradation of A53T α-synuclein by activating the JNK 1/Bcl-2/beclin 1 pathway.

Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) is pivotally implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson׳s disease (PD), and enhancing its clearance might be a promising strategy in PD treatment. It has recently been shown that Rho kinase (ROCK) activation is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases, and some ROCK inhibitors might promote the degradation of abnormal protein aggregates. However, it is not known if fasudil, the only ROCK inhibitor available in clinical setting, could promote the degradation of α-syn, and ameliorate the α-syn induced neurotoxicity. In this regard, we investigated the effect of fasudil on neurite injury caused by A53T α-syn overexpression and the implicated pathway it might mediate. In the current study, we found that under the condition of A53T α-syn overexpression, the neurite outgrowth decreased significantly with the increasing expression of ROCK2. Fasudil, the ROCK inhibitor, ameliorated such neurotoxicity and promoted the clearance of A53T α-syn. Its underlying mechanism was supported by that fasudil could increase the macroautophagy activation via JNK 1 and Bcl-2 phosphorylation and beclin 1/Vps34 complex formation. Taken together, fasudil might be able to provide a novel and promising strategy for PD treatment by enhancing α-syn clearance and activating the JNK 1/Bcl-2/beclin 1 pathway.

ORF33 and ORF38 of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Interact and Are Required for Optimal Production of Infectious Progeny Viruses.

We recently showed that the interaction between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) tegument proteins ORF33 and ORF45 is crucial for progeny virion production, but the exact functions of KSHV ORF33 during lytic replication were unknown (J. Gillen, W. Li, Q. Liang, D. Avey, J. Wu, F. Wu, J. Myoung, and F. Zhu, J Virol 89:4918-4931, 2015, Therefore, here we investigated the relationship between ORF33 and ORF38, whose counterparts in both alpha- and betaherpesviruses interact with each other. Using specific monoclonal antibodies, we found that both proteins are expressed during the late lytic cycle with similar kinetics and that both are present in mature virions as components of the tegument. Furthermore, we confirmed that ORF33 interacts with ORF38. Interestingly, we observed that ORF33 tightly associates with the capsid, whereas ORF38 associates with the envelope. We generated ORF33-null, ORF38-null, and double-null mutants and found that these mutants apparently have identical phenotypes: the mutations caused no apparent effect on viral gene expression but reduced the yield of progeny virion by about 10-fold. The progeny virions also lack certain virion component proteins, including ORF45. During viral lytic replication, the virions associate with cytoplasmic vesicles. We also observed that ORF38 associates with the membranes of vesicles and colocalizes with the Golgi membrane or early endosome membrane. Further analyses of ORF33/ORF38 mutants revealed the reduced production of virion-containing vesicles, suggesting that ORF33 and ORF38 are involved in the transport of newly assembled viral particles into cytoplasmic vesicles, a process important for viral maturation and egress.

Onset-related subtypes of Parkinson's disease differ in the patterns of striatal dopaminergic dysfunction: A positron emission tomography study.

The young-onset subtype of Parkinson's disease (YOPD) differs from the late-onset subtype (LOPD) in drug responsiveness, incidence of motor complications, and prognosis. The pathophysiology underlying these differences remains largely unknown. This study investigated whether the two subtypes differ in the pattern of dysfunction in striatal (caudate and putamen) dopaminergic system and if the dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging patterns are associated with the clinical features of corresponding PD subtype.

Typical Application of Sound Field in Wastewater Treatment with Fluidized Bed Photocatalytic Reactor.

The effect of a sound field on wastewater treatment with a fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor (FBPR) was investigated. With Alizarin Green (AG) being the sole infectant, the Fe-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared was used as the fluidized media. According to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the photocatalytic degradation follows the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics with respect to the concentration of AG. Sound field application allowed the fluidization of the fine powder at high liquid flow rates; thus, the mass transfer rate between organic pollutant and particle photocatalyst was enhanced and the efficiency of degradation was increased. As expected, the degradation rate constant increased with increasing sound pressure level, as well as increased with increasing sound frequency ranging from 50 to 100 Hz, then further decreased with increasing sound frequency from 100 to 200 Hz. In addition, Fe doping is also responsible for the enhanced photocurrent response of the Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticle in FBPR relative to pure TiO2.

Inhibition of cGAS DNA Sensing by a Herpesvirus Virion Protein.

Invading viral DNA can be recognized by the host cytosolic DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), resulting in production of the second messenger cGAMP, which directs the adaptor protein STING to stimulate production of type I interferons (IFNs). Although several DNA viruses are sensed by cGAS, viral strategies targeting cGAS are virtually unknown. We report here that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF52, an abundant gammaherpesvirus-specific tegument protein, subverts cytosolic DNA sensing by directly inhibiting cGAS enzymatic activity through a mechanism involving both cGAS binding and DNA binding. Moreover, ORF52 homologs in other gammaherpesviruses also inhibit cGAS activity and similarly bind cGAS and DNA, suggesting conserved inhibitory mechanisms. Furthermore, KSHV infection evokes cGAS-dependent responses that can limit the infection, and an ORF52 null mutant exhibits increased cGAS signaling. Our findings reveal a mechanism through which gammaherpesviruses antagonize host cGAS DNA sensing.

Use of magnetic resonance elastography for assessing liver functional reserve: A clinical study.

To investigate the value of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) with regard to assessing liver functional reserve.

Anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis associated with thymomatous myasthenia gravis.

No thymomatous myasthenia gravis (TMG) has been reported in patients with anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor encephalitis (AMPAR-E). We described clinical presentation and autoimmune profile of the first case with both AMPAR-E and TMG. Clinical information was obtained from original medical records. Antibodies against AMPAR and confounding antigens were examined on transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells by the indirect immunofluorescence method. In this case, anti-AMPAR antibodies and anti-acetylcholine receptor (AchR) antibodies were both positive and could explain the encephalitis and MG respectively. This report also indicated the complexity of autoimmunity network associated with thymoma. However, the relationships between thymoma, MG and AMPAR-E remained unclear.

Involvement of mortalin/GRP75/mthsp70 in the mitochondrial impairments induced by A53T mutant α-synuclein.

Mutations and excessive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) can lead to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, indicating a pivotal role of α-syn in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although how α-syn contributes to PD is still elusive, mitochondrial impairments have been reported to be implicated in. Mortalin, a molecular chaperone mainly located in mitochondria, has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD in recent studies. Moreover, some proteomics studies indicate that mortalin is associated with PD-related proteins, including α-syn. Therefore it is of interest to understand the function of mortalin in the mitochondrial disruption induced by A53T α-syn overexpression. The present study modulated the expression of mortalin and detected the effect of mortalin on the mitochondrial impairments induced by A53T α-syn in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data revealed that A53T α-syn could disrupt mitochondrial dynamics and increase the neuronal susceptibility to neurotoxin rotenone. The expression of mortalin decreased significantly in dopaminergic cells overexpressing A53T α-syn; furthermore, the down-regulation of mortalin could attenuate the disrupted mitochondrial dynamics by reducing α-syn translocation to mitochondria, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism of mortalin might be implicated in the pathogenesis of PD.

Identification of 46 CAG repeats within PPP2R2B as probably the shortest pathogenic allele for SCA12.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCA12) is predominantly characterized by action tremor, followed by slowly progressive cerebellar dysfunction. It is a very rare disorder and only identified in certain countries so far. The current appreciation for phenotypic and genotypic features of SCA12 is still limited.

Detection of human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Lanzhou and Nanjing, China.

The aim of this study was to explore the prevalent characteristics of HBoV1 and its co-infection.

Letter to the editor: Disc space preparation in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a comparison of minimally invasive and open approaches.

Clinical and computed tomography features of adult abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumor.

To investigate the clinical and computed tomography (CT) features of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), we retrospectively analyzed the clinical presentations, treatment and outcome, as well as CT manifestations of four cases of DSRCT confirmed by surgery and pathology. The CT manifestations of DSRCT were as follows: (1) multiple soft-tissue masses or diffuse peritoneal thickening in the abdomen and pelvis, with the dominant mass usually located in the pelvic cavity; (2) masses without an apparent organ-based primary site; (3) mild to moderate homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement in solid area on enhanced CT; and (4) secondary manifestations, such as ascites, hepatic metastases, lymphadenopathy, hydronephrosis and hydroureter. The prognosis and overall survival rates were generally poor. Commonly used treatment strategies including aggressive tumor resection, polychemotherapy, and radiotherapy, showed various therapeutic effects. CT of DSRCT shows characteristic features that are helpful in diagnosis. Early discovery and complete resection, coupled with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, are important for prognosis of DSRCT. Whole abdominopelvic rather than locoregional radiotherapy is more effective for unresectable DSRCT.

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl) -1-butanone induces circulating microRNA deregulation in early lung carcinogenesis.

To study the alteration of circulating microRNAs in 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl) -1-butanone (NNK)-induced early stage lung carcinogenesis.

Obstacle factors in implementation of integrated schistosomiasis prevention and control strategies with emphasis on infectious source in hilly endemic regions.

To analyze the main obstacles existing in the implementation of integrated schistosomiasis prevention and control strategies with emphasis on infection source in hilly endemic regions, and to find out the current priority issues in schistosomiasis prevention and control, so as to provide the evidence for further solutions.

Hemolymphangioma: a rare differential diagnosis of cystic-solid or cystic tumors of the pancreas.

We report a case of pancreatic hemolymphangioma. Hemolymphangioma is a malformation of both lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. The incidence of this disease in the pancreas is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases have been reported worldwide (PubMed). A 39-year-old woman with a one-day history of abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. There was no obvious precipitating factor. The preoperative examination, including ultrasonography and computed tomography, showed a cystic-solid tumor in the pancreas, and it was considered to be a mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Pancreatic body-tail resection combined with splenectomy was performed. After the operation, the tumor was pathologically demonstrated to be a pancreatic hemolymphangioma. Although pancreatic hemolymphangioma is rare, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic-solid tumors of the pancreas, particularly when there is no sufficient evidence for diagnosing cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma or some other relatively common disease of the pancreas.

Mitochondria-responsive signaling between egg and central cell controls their coordinated maturation.

Recent studies suggest a complex regulatory network in female gametophyte of angiosperm. The cell-cell communication between female gametes was confirmed during their maturation and functional specialization. The mitochondria-responsive signaling may play a critical role in this process. Here, we briefly summarized the recent discussion on this topic and proposed a two-pathway's mechanism for regulating coordinated development of the female gamete cells.

Mitochondrial GCD1 dysfunction reveals reciprocal cell-to-cell signaling during the maturation of Arabidopsis female gametes.

Cell-to-cell communication in embryo sacs is thought to regulate the development of female gametes in flowering plants, but the details remain poorly understood. Here, we report a mitochondrial protein, GAMETE CELL DEFECTIVE 1 (GCD1), enriched in gametophytes that is essential for final maturation of female gametes. Using Arabidopsis gcd1 mutants, we found that final maturation of the egg and central cells is not required for double fertilization but is necessary for embryogenesis initiation and endosperm development. Furthermore, nonautonomous effects, observed when GCD1 or AAC2 function is disrupted, suggest that mitochondrial function influences reciprocal signaling between central and egg cells to regulate maturation of the partner (egg or central) cell. Our findings confirm that cell-to-cell communication is important in functional maturation of female gametic cells and suggest that both egg and central cells sense and transmit their mitochondrial metabolic status as an important cue that regulates the coordination of gamete maturation.