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Johannes F E Mann - Top 30 Publications

Effects of Two Immunosuppressive Treatment Protocols for IgA Nephropathy.

The role of immunosuppression in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is controversial. In the Supportive Versus Immunosuppressive Therapy for the Treatment of Progressive IgA Nephropathy (STOP-IgAN) Trial, 162 patients with IgAN and proteinuria >0.75 g/d after 6 months of optimized supportive care were randomized into two groups: continued supportive care or additional immunosuppression (GFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2): 6-month corticosteroid monotherapy; GFR=30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2): cyclophosphamide for 3 months followed by azathioprine plus oral prednisolone). Coprimary end points were full clinical remission and GFR loss ≥15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) during the 3-year trial phase. In this secondary intention to treat analysis, we separately analyzed data from each immunosuppression subgroup and the corresponding patients on supportive care. Full clinical remission occurred in 11 (20%) patients receiving corticosteroid monotherapy and three (6%) patients on supportive care (odds ratio, 5.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 26.36; P=0.02), but the rate did not differ between patients receiving immunosuppressive combination and controls on supportive care (11% versus 4%, respectively; P=0.30). The end point of GFR loss ≥15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) did not differ between groups. Only corticosteroid monotherapy transiently reduced proteinuria at 12 months. Severe infections, impaired glucose tolerance, and/or weight gain in the first year were more frequent with either immunosuppressive regimen than with supportive care. In conclusion, only corticosteroid monotherapy induced disease remission in a minority of patients who had IgAN with relatively well preserved GFR and persistent proteinuria. Neither immunosuppressive regimen prevented GFR loss, and both associated with substantial adverse events.

Liraglutide and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.

In a randomized, controlled trial that compared liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk who were receiving usual care, we found that liraglutide resulted in lower risks of the primary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and death. However, the long-term effects of liraglutide on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown.

Chronic Kidney Disease, Basal Insulin Glargine, and Health Outcomes in People with Dysglycemia: The ORIGIN Study.

Early stages of chronic kidney disease are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with established type 2 diabetes and macrovascular disease. The role of early stages of chronic kidney disease on macrovascular outcomes in prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes mellitus is not known. In the Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial, the introduction of insulin had no effect on cardiovascular outcomes compared with standard therapy. In this post hoc analysis of ORIGIN, we compared cardiovascular outcomes in subjects without to those with mild (Stages 1-2) or moderate chronic kidney disease (Stage 3).

Mortality in dialysis patients with cinacalcet use: A large observational registry study.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients. The calcimimetic cinacalcet reduces intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) in dialysis patients. The randomized controlled EVOLVE trial failed to unequivocally prove survival advantage of cinacalcet in dialysis patients. However, recent post hoc analyses suggested a benefit in subgroups of dialysis patients. Large observational cohort studies may represent an option to better determine such subgroups.

Achieved blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: results from ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials.

Studies have challenged the appropriateness of accepted blood pressure targets. We hypothesised that different levels of low blood pressure are associated with benefit for some, but harm for other outcomes.

Dietary Sodium and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

Acute change in glomerular filtration rate with inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system does not predict subsequent renal and cardiovascular outcomes.

Initiation of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may cause an acute decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the prognostic significance of this is unknown. We did a post hoc analysis of patients with, or at risk for, vascular disease, in two randomized controlled trials: Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and the Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant participants with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND), whose median follow-up was 56 months. In 9340 patients new to renin-angiotensin system blockade, who were then randomized to renin-angiotensin system blockade, a fall in GFR of 15% or more at 2 weeks after starting renin-angiotensin system blockade was seen in 1480 participants (16%), with persistence at 8 weeks in 700 (7%). Both acute increases and decreases in GFR after initiation of renin-angiotensin system blockade were associated with tendencies, mostly not statistically significant, to increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes, which occurred in 1280 participants, and of microalbuminuria, which occurred in 864. Analyses of creatinine-based outcomes were suggestive of regression to the mean. In more than 3000 patients randomized in TRANSCEND to telmisartan or placebo, there was no interaction between acute change in GFR and renal or cardiovascular benefit from telmisartan. Thus, both increases and decreases in GFR on initiation of renin-angiotensin system blockade are common, and may be weakly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Changes do not predict increased benefit from therapy.

Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.

The cardiovascular effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, when added to standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains unknown.

Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies.

Several studies reported a U-shaped association between urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Whether these associations vary between those individuals with and without hypertension is uncertain. We aimed to explore whether the association between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality is modified by hypertension status.

Diet and Major Renal Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Dietary modification may be an approach to reducing CKD.

Long-term effects following 4 years of randomized treatment with atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis.

The 4D (Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse) Study was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing 4 years of treatment with atorvastatin to placebo in 1255 hemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary end point of cardiovascular events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) was non-significantly reduced by 8%. However, long-term effects remained uncertain. Therefore, surviving patients were invited to a follow-up survey done by questionnaire. Post-trial statin therapy was at nephrologist discretion, and outcomes were centrally adjudicated and analyzed by intention to treat and time to first event in the original treatment groups. Median overall follow-up was 11.5 years. Post-trial statin use and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not differ between groups. Statin treatment non-significantly affected the former primary outcome (relative risk, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.07). The risk of all cardiac events combined and the risk of cardiac death were significantly lower in the original statin group compared to placebo (0.83, 0.70-0.97, and 0.80, 0.66-0.97). No significant effect was detected on cerebrovascular events, fatal stroke, fatal cancer, non-vascular, or all-cause death. No rhabdomyolysis was reported. Thus, after 4 years of atorvastatin treatment in diabetic hemodialysis patients, similar effects on outcomes were found after 11.5 years of follow-up as were found at the end of the original study. There was no evidence of emerging hazards in the long term, confirming current clinical practice guidelines.

Population-Attributable Fractions of Modifiable Lifestyle Factors for CKD and Mortality in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study.

We quantified the impact of lifestyle and dietary modifications on chronic kidney disease (CKD) by estimating population-attributable fractions (PAFs).

Intensive Supportive Care plus Immunosuppression in IgA Nephropathy.

The outcomes of immunosuppressive therapy, when added to supportive care, in patients with IgA nephropathy are uncertain.

Intraprocedural reduction of the veno-arterial norepinephrine gradient correlates with blood pressure response after renal denervation.

No intraprocedural assessment is currently available to evaluate the extent of nerve ablation by renal denervation (RDN). We prospectively evaluated the association of intraprocedural reduction of renal veno-arterial norepinephrine gradient with blood pressure (BP) response after RDN.

Dietary risk factors for incidence or progression of chronic kidney disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the European Union.

Although the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is ∼ 30% in the group of people with diabetes, data on interventions in the very early stage of the disease are still missing. Furthermore, the effects of modifiable lifestyle factors such as nutrition on incidence and progression of CKD in patients with diabetes in Europe remain elusive.

Genome-wide studies to identify risk factors for kidney disease with a focus on patients with diabetes.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 10-13% of the general population and diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In addition to known demographic, biochemical and lifestyle risk factors, genetics is also contributing to CKD risk. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided a hypothesis-free approach to identify common genetic variants that could account for the genetic risk component of common diseases such as CKD. The identification of these variants might reveal the biological processes underlying renal impairment and could aid in improving risk estimates for CKD. This review aims to describe the methods as well as strengths and limitations of GWAS in CKD and to summarize the findings of recent GWAS in DN. Several loci and SNPs have been found to be associated with distinct CKD traits such as eGFR and albuminuria. For diabetic kidney disease, several loci were identified in different populations. Subsequent functional studies provided insights into the mechanism of action of some of these variants, such as UMOD or CERS2. However, overall, the results were ambiguous, and a few of the variants were not consistently replicated. In addition, the slow progression from albuminuria to ESRD could limit the power of longitudinal studies. The typically small effect size associated with genetic variants as well as the small portion of the variability of the phenotype explained by these variants limits the utility of genetic variants in improving risk prediction. Nevertheless, identifying these variants could give a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways underlying CKD, which in turn, could potentially lead to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

Diagnosis and treatment of early renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: what are the clinical needs?

Renal disease is prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Aggressive metabolic control and lowering of systemic and/or intraglomerular blood pressure are effective interventions but not without side effects. Thus a better, early identification of patients at risk for incidence or progression to end-stage renal failure by the use of new, validated biomarkers is highly desirable. In the majority of patients, hypertension and hyperglycaemia are pathogenetically important pathways for the progression of renal disease. Nonetheless even aggressive therapy targeting these factors does not eliminate the risk of end-stage renal failure and experimental evidence suggests that many other pathways (e.g. tubulointerstitial hypoxia or inflammation etc.) also contribute. As their individual importance might vary from patient to patient, interventions which interfere are likely not to be therapeutically effective in all subjects. In this situation, an option to preserve the statistical power of clinical trials is to rely on biomarkers that reflect individual pathophysiology. In current clinical practice, albuminuria is the biomarker that has been best evaluated to guide stratified/personalized therapy but there is a clear need to expand our diagnostic abilities.

Risk Prediction for Early CKD in Type 2 Diabetes.

Quantitative data for prediction of incidence and progression of early CKD are scarce in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, two risk prediction models were developed for incidence and progression of CKD after 5.5 years and the relative effect of predictors were ascertained.

Dual renin-angiotensin system blockade and outcome benefits in hypertension: a narrative review.

Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RASi) lowers blood pressure, reduces cardiovascular outcomes and blunts the progressive course of heart failure and of chronic kidney disease. This narrative article summarizes why the hypothesis came up that more complete RASi with two different agents should be more beneficial compared with one agent and how this hypothesis was deflated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Long-term effects of the iron-based phosphate binder, sucroferric oxyhydroxide, in dialysis patients.

Hyperphosphatemia necessitates the use of phosphate binders in most dialysis patients. Long-term efficacy and tolerability of the iron-based phosphate binder, sucroferric oxyhydroxide (previously known as PA21), was compared with that of sevelamer carbonate (sevelamer) in an open-label Phase III extension study.

Multiglandular hormone deficiency in a patient with systemic capillary leak syndrome.

Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare but potentially fatal disorder characterized by a loss of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space leading to intravascular hypovolemia up to the point of hypovolemic shock. We report the case of a 64-year-old man with SCLS and multiple hormone abnormalities (primary hypothyroidism, hypoadrenalism, and hypogonadism), deficiency of hormone binding globulins, and hypogammaglobulinemia. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulins, theophylline, and terbutaline. Strikingly, with the dissolution of peripheral edema, hormone levels improved. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of SCLS associated with polyglandular abnormalities.

Modifiable lifestyle and social factors affect chronic kidney disease in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes.

LEADER 3--lipase and amylase activity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: baseline data from over 9000 subjects in the LEADER Trial.

This report from the LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) trial describes baseline lipase and amylase activity in type 2 diabetic subjects without acute pancreatitis symptoms before randomization to the glucagonlike peptide analog liraglutide or placebo.

The relationship between estimated sodium and potassium excretion and subsequent renal outcomes.

Patients are often advised to reduce sodium and potassium intake, but supporting evidence is limited. To help provide such evidence we estimated 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in 28,879 participants at high cardiovascular risk who were followed for a mean of 4.5 years in the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials. The primary outcome was eGFR decline of 30% or more or chronic dialysis. Secondary outcomes were eGFR decline of 40% or more or chronic dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine or chronic dialysis, an over 5%/year loss of eGFR, progression of albuminuria, and hyperkalemia. Multinomial logit regression with multivariable fractional polynomials, adjusted for confounders, determined the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and renal outcomes, with death as a competing risk. The primary outcome occurred in 2,052 (7.6%) patients. There was no significant association between sodium and any renal outcome (primary outcome odds ratio 0.99; 95% CI 0.89-1.09 for highest [median 6.2 g/day] vs. lowest third [median 3.3 g/day]). Higher potassium was associated with lower odds of all renal outcomes (primary outcome odds ratio 0.74; 95% CI 0.67-0.82 for highest [median 2.7 g/day] vs. lowest third [median 1.7 g/day], except hyperkalemia nonsignificant. Thus, urinary potassium, but not sodium, excretion predicted clinically important renal outcomes. Our findings do not support routine low sodium and potassium diets for prevention of renal outcomes in people with vascular disease with or without chronic kidney disease.

Basal insulin glargine and microvascular outcomes in dysglycaemic individuals: results of the Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial.

As glycaemia and the incidence of microvascular diabetes complications follow a log-linear relationship, it becomes increasingly difficult to demonstrate a microvascular benefit of glucose-lowering when the HbA1c level is close to normal.

Adding lisinopril to losartan increased hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury in type 2 diabetes and proteinuria.

Sodium intake and renal outcomes: a systematic review.

Sodium intake is an important determinant of blood pressure; therefore, reduction of intake may be an attractive population-based target for chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevention. Most guidelines recommend sodium intake of < 2.3 g/day, based on limited evidence. We reviewed the association between sodium intake and renal outcomes.

Predictors of congestive heart failure after treatment with an endothelin receptor antagonist.

The Avosentan on Time to Doubling of Serum Creatinine, End Stage Renal Disease or Death (ASCEND) trial tested the renoprotective effect of the endothelin receptor antagonist avosentan in patients with diabetes and nephropathy, but the study was terminated due to an excess of congestive heart failure (CHF) events in the avosentan arms, likely due to fluid retention. The aim of this study was to identify risk markers of CHF after treatment with avosentan.

Design of the liraglutide effect and action in diabetes: evaluation of cardiovascular outcome results (LEADER) trial.

Diabetes is a multisystem disorder associated with a nearly twofold excess risk for a broad range of adverse cardiovascular outcomes including coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Liraglutide is a human glucagon-like peptide receptor analog approved for use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Dual RAS blockade-unresolved controversy?