A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Katherine Kolor - Top 30 Publications

Evaluating the role of public health in implementation of genomics-related recommendations: a case study of hereditary cancers using the CDC Science Impact Framework.

Public health plays an important role in ensuring access to interventions that can prevent disease, including the implementation of evidence-based genomic recommendations. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Science Impact Framework to trace the impact of public health activities and partnerships on the implementation of the 2009 Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Lynch Syndrome screening recommendation and the 2005 and 2013 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing recommendations.The EGAPP and USPSTF recommendations have each been cited by >300 peer-reviewed publications. CDC funds selected states to build capacity to integrate these recommendations into public health programs, through education, policy, surveillance, and partnerships. Most state cancer control plans include genomics-related goals, objectives, or strategies. Since the EGAPP recommendation, major public and private payers now provide coverage for Lynch Syndrome screening for all newly diagnosed colorectal cancers. National guidelines and initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, included similar recommendations and cited the EGAPP and USPSTF recommendations. However, disparities in implementation based on race, ethnicity, and rural residence remain challenges. Public health achievements in promoting the evidence-based use of genomics for the prevention of hereditary cancers can inform future applications of genomics in public health.

Prevalence and Predictors of Cholesterol Screening, Awareness, and Statin Treatment Among US Adults With Familial Hypercholesterolemia or Other Forms of Severe Dyslipidemia (1999-2014).

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other extreme elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, recent data suggest that prescription rates for statins remain low in these patients. National rates of screening, awareness, and treatment with statins among individuals with FH or severe dyslipidemia are unknown.

From public health genomics to precision public health: a 20-year journey.

In this paper, we review the evolution of the field of public health genomics in the United States in the past two decades. Public health genomics focuses on effective and responsible translation of genomic science into population health benefits. We discuss the relationship of the field to the core public health functions and essential services, review its evidentiary foundation, and provide examples of current US public health priorities and applications. We cite examples of publications to illustrate how Genetics in Medicine reflected the evolution of the field. We also reflect on how public-health genomics is contributing to the emergence of "precision public health" with near-term opportunities offered by the US Precision Medicine (AllofUs) Initiative.

Trends in utilization and costs of BRCA testing among women aged 18-64 years in the United States, 2003-2014.

PurposeWe examined 12-year trends in BRCA testing rates and costs in the context of clinical guidelines, national policies, and other factors.MethodsWe estimated trends in BRCA testing rates and costs from 2003 to 2014 for women aged 18-64 years using private claims data and publicly reported revenues from the primary BRCA testing provider.ResultsThe percentage of women with zero out-of-pocket payments for BRCA testing increased during 2013-2014, after 7 years of general decline, coinciding with a clarification of Affordable Care Act coverage of BRCA genetic testing. Beginning in 2007, family history accounted for an increasing proportion of women with BRCA tests compared with personal history, coinciding with BRCA testing guidelines for primary care settings and direct-to-consumer advertising campaigns. During 2013-2014, BRCA testing rates based on claims grew at a faster rate than revenues, following 3 years of similar growth, consistent with increased marketplace competition. In 2013, BRCA testing rates based on claims increased 57%, compared with 11% average annual increases over the preceding 3 years, coinciding with celebrity publicity.ConclusionThe observed trends in BRCA testing rates and costs are consistent with possible effects of several factors, including the Affordable Care Act, clinical guidelines and celebrity publicity.

BRCA Genetic Testing and Receipt of Preventive Interventions Among Women Aged 18-64 Years with Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas - United States, 2009-2014.

Genetic testing for breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene mutations can identify women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer. These testing results can be used to select preventive interventions and guide treatment. Differences between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan populations in rates of BRCA testing and receipt of preventive interventions after testing have not previously been examined.

A knowledge base for tracking the impact of genomics on population health.

We created an online knowledge base (the Public Health Genomics Knowledge Base (PHGKB)) to provide systematically curated and updated information that bridges population-based research on genomics with clinical and public health applications.

Clinical utility of genetic and genomic services: context matters.

Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an "identify, inform, and integrate" model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

Public awareness of genetic nondiscrimination laws in four states and perceived importance of life insurance protections.

Genetic testing has grown dramatically in the past decade and is becoming an integral part of health care. Genetic nondiscrimination laws have been passed in many states, and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) was passed at the federal level in 2008. These laws generally protect individuals from discrimination by health insurers or employers based on genetic information, including test results. In 2010, Connecticut, Michigan, Ohio, and Oregon added four questions to their Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey to assess interest in genetic testing, awareness of genetic nondiscrimination laws, concern about genetic discrimination in determining life insurance eligibility and cost, and perceived importance of genetic nondiscrimination laws that address life insurance. Survey results showed that awareness of genetic nondiscrimination laws was low (less than 20 % of the adult population), while perceived importance of these types of laws was high (over 80 % of respondents rated them as very or somewhat important). Over two-thirds of respondents indicated they were very or somewhat concerned about life insurance companies using genetic test results to determine life insurance coverage and costs. Results indicate a need for more public education to raise awareness of protections provided through current genetic nondiscrimination laws. The high rate of concern about life insurance discrimination indicates an additional need for continued dialogue regarding the extent of legal protections in genetic nondiscrimination laws.

Horizon scanning for translational genomic research beyond bench to bedside.

The dizzying pace of genomic discoveries is leading to an increasing number of clinical applications. In this report, we provide a method for horizon scanning and 1 year data on translational research beyond bench to bedside to assess the validity, utility, implementation, and outcomes of such applications.

A DNA sequence element that advances replication origin activation time in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication undergo activation at various times in S-phase, allowing the genome to be duplicated in a temporally staggered fashion. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation times of individual origins are not intrinsic to those origins but are instead governed by surrounding sequences. Currently, there are two examples of DNA sequences that are known to advance origin activation time, centromeres and forkhead transcription factor binding sites. By combining deletion and linker scanning mutational analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure fork direction in the context of a two-origin plasmid, we have identified and characterized a 19- to 23-bp and a larger 584-bp DNA sequence that are capable of advancing origin activation time.

Public awareness and use of direct-to-consumer personal genomic tests from four state population-based surveys, and implications for clinical and public health practice.

Direct-to-consumer personal genomic tests are widely available, but population-based data are limited on awareness and use of these tests among the general public in the United States.

Awareness and utilization of BRCA1/2 testing among U.S. primary care physicians.

Testing for mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) has been commercially available since 1996.

Health care provider and consumer awareness, perceptions, and use of direct-to-consumer personal genomic tests, United States, 2008.

Adherence to american academy of pediatrics recommendations for cardiac care among female carriers of duchenne and becker muscular dystrophy.

The goal was to assess women's knowledge and heart health behaviors consistent with the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for cardiac care among female carriers of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy.

Can UGT1A1 genotyping reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan? An evidence-based review.

This evidence-based review addresses the question of whether testing for UGT1A1 mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan leads to improvement in outcomes (e.g., irinotecan toxicity, response to treatment, morbidity, and mortality), when compared with no testing. No studies were identified that addressed this question directly. The quality of evidence on the analytic validity of current UGT1A1 genetic testing methods is adequate (scale: convincing, adequate, inadequate), with available data indicating that both analytic sensitivity and specificity for the common genotypes are high. For clinical validity, the quality of evidence is adequate for studies reporting concentration of the active form of irinotecan (SN-38), presence of severe diarrhea, and presence of severe neutropenia stratified by UGT1A1 common genotypes. The strongest association for a clinical endpoint is for severe neutropenia. Patients homozygous for the *28 allele are 3.5 times more likely to develop severe neutropenia compared with individuals with the wild genotype (risk ratio 3.51; 95% confidence interval 2.03-6.07). The proposed clinical utility of UGT1A1 genotyping would be derived from a reduction in drug-related adverse reactions (benefits) while at the same time avoiding declines in tumor response rate and increases in morbidity/mortality (harms). At least three treatment options for reducing this increased risk have been suggested: modification of the irinotecan regime (e.g., reduce initial dose), use of other drugs, and/or pretreatment with colony-stimulating factors. However, we found no prospective studies that examined these options, particularly whether a reduced dose of irinotecan results in a reduced rate of adverse drug events. This is a major gap in knowledge. Although the quality of evidence on clinical utility is inadequate, two of three reviewed studies (and one published since our initial selection of studies for review) found that individuals homozygous for the *28 allele had improved survival. Three reviewed studies found statistically significant higher tumor response rates among individuals homozygous for the *28 allele. We found little or no direct evidence to assess the benefits and harms of modifying irinotecan regimens for patients with colorectal cancer based on their UGT1A1 genotype; however, results of our preliminary modeling of prevalence, acceptance, and effectiveness indicate that reducing the dose would need to be highly effective to have benefits outweigh harms. An alternative is to increase irinotecan dose among wild-type individuals to improve tumor response with minimal increases in adverse drug events. Given the large number of colorectal cancer cases diagnosed each year, a randomized controlled trial of the effects of irinotecan dose modifications in patients with colorectal cancer based on their UGT1A1 genotype is feasible and could clarify the tradeoffs between possible reductions in severe neutropenia and improved tumor response and/or survival in patients with various UGT1A1 genotypes.

Diagnostic markers for ovarian cancer screening: not ready for routine clinical use.

Trends and racial disparities in muscular dystrophy deaths in the United States, 1983-1998: an analysis of multiple cause mortality data.

To identify trends and patterns associated with muscular dystrophy (MD)-associated deaths, we analyzed population-based data from death certificates in the Multiple Cause Mortality Files compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. From 1983 to 1998, 14,499 deaths in the United States were associated with ICD-9 codes for MD. The mortality rate for MD in the general U.S. population over this time period was 0.365 per 100,000 persons per year. Stratification by age at death revealed a trimodal distribution with peaks at 0, 17, and 62 years. The male-to-female ratio varied with age at death, a pattern consistent with a mixture of autosomal and X-linked MDs with different prognoses. Deaths related to MD appeared to be equally divided between presumed autosomal and X-linked MDs. The mortality rate was higher in Whites than in Blacks, for both autosomal and X-linked MDs. The median age at death was lower in Blacks than Whites for both males and females. Cardiac complications were more commonly noted among MD-associated deaths in Blacks (38.9%) than Whites (28.6%). Respiratory infections were noted in about 20% of MD-associated deaths and were more common in winter than summer months. Potential reasons for the racial differences include differences in prevalence rates, rates of diagnosis, and reporting on death certificates. Additional studies are needed to resolve these issues. Challenges in the interpretation of these data include the lack of ICD-9 codes specific for individual MDs and potential recording biases in underlying cause of death and contributing factors. We also present a method for estimating autosomal and X-linked contributions to the overall mortality rate of a genetically heterogeneous condition such as MD.