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Katie Edwards - Top 30 Publications

Ophthalmic and clinical factors that predict four-year development and worsening of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes.

To investigate the role of ophthalmic imaging markers - namely retinal thickness measures and corneal nerve morphology - in predicting four-year development and worsening of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM).

Rape Myth Acceptance in Sexually Assaulted Adolescents' School Contexts: Associations with Depressed Mood and Alcohol Use.

High school students exposed to sexual assault (SA) are at risk for negative outcomes like depressed mood and high-risk drinking. Although evidence suggests that both social contexts and internalized stigma can affect recovery from SA, no research to date has directly examined the presence of stigma in social contexts such as high schools as a correlate of adjustment after SA. In this study, the self-reported rape myth acceptance (RMA) of 3080 students from 97 grade cohorts in 25 high schools was used to calculate grade-mean and school-mean RMA, which was entered into multilevel models predicting depressed mood and alcohol use among N = 263 SA survivors within those schools. Two forms of RMA were assessed (i.e., rape denial and traditional gender expectations). Results indicate that higher grade-mean rape denial was associated with higher risk for depressed mood among high school boys and girls exposed to SA, and higher grade-mean traditional gender expectations were associated with higher risk for alcohol use among girls exposed to SA. Survivors' own RMA and school-level RMA were not significantly associated with their depressed mood or alcohol use. Although causality cannot be concluded, these findings suggest that interventions that reduce stigma in social contexts should be explored further as a strategy to improve well-being among high-school-aged survivors of SA.

Presence of Peripheral Neuropathy Is Associated With Progressive Thinning of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Type 1 Diabetes.

Reduced retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in cross-sectional studies. This prospective study defines longitudinal alterations to the RNFL thickness in individuals with type 1 diabetes without (DPN-ve) and with (DPN+ve) DPN and in relation to risk factors for nerve damage.

Risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis in daily disposable contact lens wear.

This study investigated independent risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis in daily disposable contact lens (CL)-wearers.

Optical coherence tomography predicts 4-year incident diabetic neuropathy.

To examine the capability of optical coherence tomography-derived retinal thickness measures in detecting 4-year incident diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).

Corneal confocal microscopy best identifies the development and progression of neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.

A sub-set of 38 individuals with type 1 diabetes that fulfilled a strict criterion of "normal" classification for all 7 measures of neuropathy at baseline, were identified and followed. Corneal nerve morphology, as captured with corneal confocal microscopy demonstrated the greatest, and most sustained degeneration over a 4 year period.

Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) promotes opioid-induced anti-nociception by an ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mechanism in mouse brain.

Recent advances in developing opioid treatments for pain with reduced side effects have focused on the signaling cascades of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). However, few such signaling targets have been identified for exploitation. To address this need, we explored the role of heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in opioid-induced MOR signaling and pain, which has only been studied in four previous articles. First, in four cell models of MOR signaling, we found that Hsp90 inhibition for 24 h with the inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) had different effects on protein expression and opioid signaling in each line, suggesting that cell models may not be reliable for predicting pharmacology with this protein. We thus developed an in vivo model using CD-1 mice with an intracerebroventricular injection of 17-AAG for 24 h. We found that Hsp90 inhibition strongly blocked morphine-induced anti-nociception in models of post-surgical and HIV neuropathic pain but only slightly blocked anti-nociception in a naive tail-flick model, while enhancing morphine-induced precipitated withdrawal. Seeking a mechanism for these changes, we found that Hsp90 inhibition blocks ERK MAPK activation in the periaqueductal gray and caudal brain stem. We tested these signaling changes by inhibiting ERK in the above-mentioned pain models and found that ERK inhibition could account for all of the changes in anti-nociception induced by Hsp90 inhibition. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hsp90 promotes opioid-induced anti-nociception by an ERK mechanism in mouse brain and that Hsp90 could be a future target for improving the therapeutic index of opioid drugs.

Thiamine Assays-Advances, Challenges, and Caveats.

Thiamine (vitamin B1) is essential to the health of all living organisms and deficiency has long been associated with diseases in animals such as fish, birds, alligators, and domesticated ruminant mammals. Thiamine is also implicated in several human diseases including Alzheimer's, diabetes, dementia, depression and, most notably, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and Beriberi disease. Yet, highly sensitive and specific detection of thiamine remains an analytical challenge, as pM to nm levels of thiamine need to be detected in environmental and human samples, respectively, various phosphorylated variants need to be discriminated, and rapid on-site detection would be highly desirable. Furthermore, appropriate sample preparation is mandatory, owing to the complexity of the relevant sample matrices including fish tissues, ocean water, and body fluids. This Review has two objectives. First, it provides a thorough overview of analytical techniques published for thiamine detection over the last 15 years. Second, it describes the principles of analytical approaches that are based on biorecognition and may open up new avenues for rapid and high-throughput thiamine analysis. Most notably, periplasmic binding proteins, ribozymes, and aptamers are of particular interest, as they function as bioaffinity recognition elements that can fill an important assay technology gap, owing to the unavailability of thiamine-specific commercial antibodies. Finally, the authors provide brief evaluations of key outcomes of the major assay concepts and suggest how innovative techniques could help develop sensitive and specific thiamine analytical test systems.

Liposome-Enhanced Lateral-Flow Assays for Clinical Analyses.

Clinical and environmental analyses frequently necessitate rapid, simple, and inexpensive point-of-care or field tests. These semiquantitative tests may be later followed up by confirmatory laboratory-based assays, but provide an initial scenario assessment important for resource mobilization and threat confinement. Lateral-flow assays (LFAs) and dip-stick assays, which are typically antibody-based and yield a visually detectable signal, provide an assay format suiting these applications extremely well. Signal generation is commonly obtained through the use of colloidal gold or latex beads, which yield a colored band either directly proportional or inversely proportional to the concentration of the analyte of interest. Here, dye-encapsulating liposomes as a highly visible alternative are discussed. The semiquantitative LFA biosensor described in this chapter relies on a sandwich immunoassay for the detection of myoglobin in whole blood. After an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) event, several cardiac markers are released into the blood, the most common of which are troponin, creatine kinase MB, C-reactive protein, and myoglobin. Due to its early release, myoglobin has value as an indicator of a recent heart attack amongst conditions which present with similar symptoms and its lack of elevation can effectively rule out a heart attack (Brogan et al., Ann Emerg Med 24:665-671, 1994). The assay described within relies on sandwich complex formation between a membrane immobilized capture monoclonal antibody against myoglobin, a detector biotinylated monoclonal antibody against a different epitope on myoglobin, and streptavidin-conjugated visible dye (sulforhodamine B)-encapsulating liposomes to allow for signal generation.

Co-Occurrence of and Recovery from Substance Abuse and Lifespan Victimization: A Qualitative Study of Female Residents in Trauma-Informed Sober Living Homes.

Despite the co-occurrence of substance use disorders (SUDs) and domestic and/or sexual violence (DSV) in the lives of women, there remains a dearth of research on how and why these phenomena intersect as well as the role that trauma-informed sober living homes (SLHs) may play in promoting recovery. Following a detailed description of a unique trauma-informed SLH (Support, Education, Empowerment, and Directions [SEEDs]), we present findings from a qualitative study that documented the perceptions and lived experiences of 28 female current or former residents of a trauma-informed SLH; all women had histories of SUDs and DSV. Results uncovered four themes (fractured foundations, points of intersection of SUDs and DSV, pervasiveness of SUDS and DSV, resiliency) and a constitutive pattern (moving away from instability and harnessing self-agency). Women noted that their engagement with SEEDs played a significant role in their recovery, specifically through fulfilling their needs for tangible resources (e.g., food, clothing, shelter) and the community's provision of emotional support (e.g., family, love, consistency) to promote recovery. These findings provide new insights on SUDs and DSV and preliminary support for the effectiveness of a trauma-informed SLH.

Disclosure Recipients' Social Reactions to Victims' Disclosures of Intimate Partner Violence.

Prior research indicates that victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are most likely to disclose their victimization experiences to an informal support (e.g., friend, family), and that IPV disclosures are often met with both positive (e.g., empathic support) and negative (e.g., victim blame) reactions. However, research on social reactions to disclosure largely has neglected the perspectives of disclosure recipients. Guided by the attribution framework, the current study extends prior research by assessing factors (i.e., situation-specific, individual, relational, attributional, and emotional response) related to positive and negative reactions from the perspective of disclosure recipients (N = 743 college students). Linear regression analyses indicated that positive social reactions were related to the victim being a woman, greater frequency of IPV victimization by the victim, greater frequency of IPV victimization by the disclosure recipient, less accepting attitudes toward IPV, a closer relationship with the victim, a less close relationship with the perpetrator, lower perceptions of victim responsibility, more empathy for the victim, and more emotional distress experienced by the disclosure recipient during the disclosure. Negative social reactions were associated with more accepting attitudes toward IPV, greater frequency of IPV victimization by the disclosure recipient, a less close relationship with the victim, higher perceptions of victim responsibility, and more emotional distress experienced by the disclosure recipient. Results suggest that programs to improve responses to victim disclosure should focus on decreasing IPV-supportive attitudes, increasing empathy, and assisting disclosure recipients in managing difficult emotional responses effectively.

Focal loss volume of ganglion cell complex in diabetic neuropathy.

The aim was to investigate the relationship between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and abnormalities in ganglion cell complex (GCC); specifically, focal loss volume (FLV) and global loss volume (GLV).

Rural Young Adults' Lay Theories of Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Examination.

This study qualitatively examined rural emerging adults' ways of thinking (i.e., lay theories) about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and ideas on how to prevent IPV most effectively. Participants were 74 individuals (majority Caucasian, heterosexual, low income) between the ages of 18 and 24 who resided in one of 16 rural communities. Participants' perceptions of the causes of IPV included (a) individual-level pathology, stress, and lack of education; (b) intergenerational transmission of violence and early-life factors; (c) relationship stressors and challenges; and (d) community factors. Furthermore, participants felt that IPV could most effectively be prevented through (a) education and awareness; (b) victim-focused efforts (e.g., teaching self-esteem); and (c) job creation. Overall, participants identified a number of established risk factors for IPV perpetration across the social ecological model, although a number were never or rarely mentioned (e.g., peer group norms, positive bystander action, and collective efficacy). Future research should examine if and how perceptions of the causes of IPV impact IPV prevention engagement and impact. Further, prevention initiatives that take into account understandings of lay theories about IPV may be more impactful in reducing IPV than prevention initiatives that do not.

Abnormal Anterior Corneal Morphology in Diabetes Observed Using In Vivo Laser-scanning Confocal Microscopy.

To assess if diabetes alters corneal epithelial, anterior stromal and subbasal nerve plexus morphology and to determine the associations between these and other clinical variables.

A rapid decline in corneal small fibers and occurrence of foot ulceration and Charcot foot.

We present clinical, neuropathy and corneal nerve morphology data in a participant with type 2 diabetes who developed diabetic foot ulceration, partial amputation and Charcot during a longitudinal observational study. While conventional measures of neuropathy did not deteriorate significantly, corneal nerve parameters showed a rapid reduction prior to the development of foot complications.

High-Throughput Detection of Thiamine Using Periplasmic Binding Protein-Based Biorecognition.

Although antibodies and aptamers are commonly used bioaffinity recognition elements, they are not available for many important analytes. As an alternative, we demonstrate use of a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) to provide high affinity recognition for thiamine (vitamin B1), an analyte of great importance to human and environmental health for which, like so many other small molecules, no suitable biorecognition element is available. We demonstrate that with an appropriate competitive strategy, a highly sensitive (limit of detection of 0.5 nM) and specific bioassay for thiamine and its phosphorylated derivatives can be designed. The high-throughput method relies upon the thiamine periplasmic binding protein (TBP) from Escherichia coli for thiamine biorecognition and dye-encapsulating liposomes for signal-enhancement. A thiamine monosuccinate-PEG-biotin derivative was synthesized to serve as an immobilized competitor that overcame constraints imposed by the deep binding cleft and structural recognition requirements of PBPs. The assay was applied to ambient environmental samples with high reproducibility. These findings demonstrate that PBPs can serve as highly specific and sensitive affinity recognition elements in bioanalytical assay formats, thereby opening up the field of affinity sensors to a new range of analytes.

College Campus Community Readiness to Address Intimate Partner Violence Among LGBTQ+ Young Adults: A Conceptual and Empirical Examination.

This paper provides an overview of a conceptual model that integrates theories of social ecology, minority stress, and community readiness to better understand risk for and outcomes of intimate partner violence (IPV) among LGBTQ+ college students. Additionally, online survey data was collected from a sample of 202 LGBTQ+ students enrolled in 119 colleges across the United States to provide preliminary data on some aspects of the proposed model. Results suggested that students generally thought their campuses were low in readiness to address IPV; that is, students felt that their campuses could do more to address IPV and provide IPV services specific to LGBTQ+ college students. Perceptions of greater campus readiness to address IPV among LGBTQ+ college students was significantly and positively related to a more favorable LGBTQ+ campus climate and a greater sense of campus community. Additionally, IPV victims were more likely to perceive higher levels of campus community readiness than non-IPV victims. There was no association between IPV perpetration and perceptions of campus community readiness. Greater sense of community was marginally and inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration. Sense of community and LGBTQ+ campus climate also varied to some extent as a function of region of the country and type of institution. Implications for further development and refinement of the conceptual model, as well as future research applying this model to better understand IPV among sexual minority students are discussed.

Diagnostic capability of retinal thickness measures in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

To examine the diagnostic capability of the full retinal and inner retinal thickness measures in differentiating individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) from those without neuropathy and non-diabetic controls.

Repeatability of Measuring Corneal Nerve Migration Rate in Individuals With and Without Diabetes.

To assess the repeatability of measuring the corneal nerve migration rate in individuals with and without neuropathy.

High School Youth's Reactions to Participating in Mixed-Methodological Dating Violence Research.

The present study used a sample of high school youth (N = 218) and a mixed-methodological research design to examine high school students' reactions to participating in focus groups and completing surveys that inquired about dating violence (DV). Results showed that showed that 1.5% (n = 3) of the youth regretted participating in the study and 6% (n = 12) were upset by the study questions; being upset was attributed to personal experiences with DV and being disturbed by peers' responses during the focus group. Furthermore, 49% (n = 99) of the youth reported feeling that they personally benefited from participating in the study for reasons such as learning ways to help friends in situations of DV. Results have implications for conducting mixed-methodological DV research with youth.

Biochemical and biophysical characterization of cell-free synthesized Rift Valley fever virus nucleoprotein capsids enables in vitro screening to identify novel antivirals.

Viral capsid assembly involves the oligomerization of the capsid nucleoprotein (NP), which is an essential step in viral replication and may represent a potential antiviral target. An in vitro transcription-translation reaction using a wheat germ (WG) extract in combination with a sandwich ELISA assay has recently been used to identify small molecules with antiviral activity against the rabies virus.

Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial.

Quality of life of children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) is impacted greatly by its symptoms and their social consequences. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) is effective but has not, until now, been empirically evaluated in groups. This randomised controlled trial evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of eight HRT group sessions compared to eight Education group sessions. Thirty-three children aged 9-13 years with TS or Chronic Tic Disorder took part. Outcomes evaluated were tic severity and quality of life (QoL). Tic severity improvements were found in both groups. Motor tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) showed greatest improvements in the HRT group. Both groups showed a strong tendency toward improvements in patient reported QoL. In conclusion, group-based treatments for TS are feasible and exposure to other children with tics did not increase tic expression. HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed.

Development of a Novel Technique to Measure Corneal Nerve Migration Rate.

We have developed a novel technique to measure in vivo corneal nerve migration.

Retinal Tissue Thickness is Reduced in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

To investigate the relationship between diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and retinal tissue thickness.

Retinal tissue thickness in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

The objective was to investigate full retinal and inner retinal thickness in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors Associated With Corneal Nerve Alteration in Type 1 Diabetes in the Absence of Neuropathy: A Longitudinal In Vivo Corneal Confocal Microscopy Study.

The aim of this study was to determine alterations to the corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SNP) over 4 years using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy in participants with type 1 diabetes and to identify significant risk factors associated with these alterations.

Retinal thickness profile of individuals with diabetes.

To examine the retinal thickness profiles of individuals with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Incidence and Outcomes of Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth: The Role of Gender and Sexual Orientation.

The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts.

Reactions to Participating in Intimate Partner Violence and Minority Stress Research: A Mixed Methodological Study of Self-Identified Lesbian and Gay Emerging Adults.

The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research.

Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity.