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Katsuhiro Hayashi - Top 30 Publications

Mid- to long-term clinical outcome of giant cell tumor of bone treated with calcium phosphate cement following thorough curettage and phenolization.

Giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB) are intermediate and locally aggressive bone tumor. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a bone void filler used in orthopaedic surgery. This study investigated the clinical outcome of GCTB treated with thorough curettage, phenolization, and CPC.

Recombinant methioninase in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) overcomes first-line DOX resistance in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft nude-mouse model of undifferentiated spindle-cell sarcoma.

We have previously established a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma (USCS). Recombinant methioninase (rMETase) has previously demonstrated efficacy in PDOX mouse models of human cancers. In the present study, we determined if rMETase in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) can overcome first-line DOX resistance in a PDOX models of USCS. The USCS PDOX mouse models were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached 100 mm3: G1, control without treatment; G2, doxorubicin (DOX) (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.] injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, rMETase (100 units/mouse, i.p., daily, for 2 weeks); G4, DOX (3 mg/kg, i.p., weekly, for 2 weeks) combined with rMETase (100 units/mouse, i.p., daily, for 2 weeks). Tumor size and body weight were measured twice a week. On day 14 after initiation, the USCS PDOX tumor sizes were (G1): 360 ± 85 mm3; DOX (G2): 355 ± 111 mm3, p = .927; rMETase (G3): 182 ± 57 mm3, p = .0003; DOX + rMETase (G4): 134 ± 29 mm3, p = .00001. These results indicate that rMETase can overcome USCS resistance to DOX, which is first line therapy for this disease. The body weight of treated mice was not significantly different in any group. The present results demonstrate the power of the PDOX model to identify effective therapy for recalcitrant cancer and the potential of rMETase to overcome DOX resistance.

The Efficacy of Wide Resection for Musculoskeletal Metastatic Lesions of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

This study evaluated the outcome of wide resection for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the bone or soft tissue.

Growth of doxorubicin-resistant undifferentiated spindle-cell sarcoma PDOX is arrested by metabolic targeting with recombinant methioninase.

Undifferentiated spindle-cell sarcoma (USCS) is a recalcitrant -cancer in need of individualized therapy. A high-grade USCS from a striated muscle of a patient was grown orthotopically in the right biceps femoris muscle of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. In a previous study, we evaluated the efficacy of standard first-line chemotherapy of doxorubicin (DOX), gemcitabine (GEM) combined with docetaxel (DOC), compared to pazopanib (PAZ), a multi-targeting tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, in an USCS PDOX model. In the present study, mice-bearing the USCS PDOX tumors were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached 100 mm3 : G1, untreated control without treatment; G2, DOX (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, L-methionine α-deamino-γ-mercaptomethane lyase (recombinant methioninase [rMETase]) (100 U/mouse, i.p., daily, for 2 weeks). Tumor size and body weight were measured with calipers and a digital balance twice a week. The methionine level of supernatants derived from sonicated tumors was also measured. rMETase inhibited tumor growth, measured by tumor volume, compared to untreated controls and the DOX-treated group on day 14 after initiation of treatment: control (G1): 347.6 ± 88 mm3 ; DOX (G2): 329.5 ± 79 mm3 , P = 0.670; rMETase (G3): 162.6 ± 51 mm3 , P = 0.0003. The mouse body weight of the treated mice was not significantly different from the untreated controls. Tumor L-methionine levels were reduced after the rMETase-treatment compared to untreated control and pre-rMETase treatment. We previously reported efficacy of rMETase against Ewing's sarcoma and melanoma in a PDOX models. These studies suggest clinical development of rMETase, especially in recalcitrant cancers such as sarcoma.

Risk factors for postoperative deep infection in bone tumors.

Postoperative deep infection after bone tumor surgery remains a serious complication. Although there are numerous reports about risk factors for postoperative deep infection in general surgery, there is only a small number of reports about those for bone tumor surgery. This retrospective study aimed to identify risk factors for postoperative deep infection after bone tumor resection.

Temozolomide combined with irinotecan caused regression in an adult pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model.

Adult pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare and recalcitrant, highly-malignant mesenchymal tumor in need of improved therapeutic strategies. Our laboratory pioneered the patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model with the technique of surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI). We previously described the development of a PDOX model of adult pleomorphic RMS where the tumor behaved similar to the patient donor. A high-grade pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma from a striated muscle was previously grown orthotopically in the right biceps-femoris muscle of nude mice to establish the PDOX model. In the present study, the PDOX models were randomized into the following treatment groups when tumor volume reached 100 mm3: G1, control without treatment; G2, cyclophosphamide (CPA) 140 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 3 weeks; G3, temozolomide (TEM), 25 mg/kg, per oral (p.o.), daily, for 21 days; G4, temozolomide (TEM) 25 mg/kg, p.o., daily, for 21 days combined with irinotecan (IRN), 4 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 21 days. After 3 weeks, treatment of PDOX with TEM combined with IRN was so powerful that it resulted in tumor regression and the smallest tumor volume compared to other groups. The RMS PDOX model should be of use to design the treatment program for the patient and for drug discovery and evaluation for this recalcitrant tumor type.

A novel anionic-phosphate-platinum complex effectively targets an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma better than cisplatinum and doxorubicin in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX).

A patient high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic soft-tissue sarcoma (UPS) from a striated muscle was previously orthotopically implanted in the right biceps femoris muscle of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model. In the present study, two weeks after orthotopic transplantation of the UPS, mice were treated intraperitoneally with cisplatinum (CDDP), doxorubicin (DOX) or a novel anionic-phosphate-platinum compound 3Pt. Treatments were repeated weekly for a total of 3 times. Six weeks after transplantation, all mice were sacrificed and evaluated. After two weeks treatment, tumor sizes were as follows: control (G1): 2208.3 mm3; CDDP (G2): 841.8±3 mm3, p=0.0001; DOX (G3): 693.1±3 mm3, p=6.56E-7; 3Pt (G4): 333.7±1 mm3, p=4.8E-8. 3Pt showed significantly more efficacy compared to other therapy drugs tested: CDDP (p=0.0002), DOX (p=0.001). There were no animal deaths in any of the four groups. The present results suggest 3Pt is a promising new candidate for UPS since it was demonstrated to be effective in a PDOX model.

Effective Metabolic Targeting of Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro and in Orthotopic Nude-mouse Models with Recombinant Methioninase.

Methionine dependence may be the only known general metabolic defect in cancer. In order to exploit methionine dependence for therapy, our laboratory previously cloned L-methionine α-deamino-γ-mercaptomethane lyase [EC 4.4.1.11]) (recombinant methioninase [rMETase]), which was subsequently tested in mouse models of various types of human tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of rMETase on human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

Spontaneous shrinkage of solitary osteochondromas.

Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumors, and thus far, their spontaneous shrinkage is considered a rare phenomenon. This study was designed to investigate the exact ratio of remission to progressive or stable cases and analyze the mechanism of tumor regression on the basis of existing theories.

Efficacy In Vitro of Caffeine and Valproic Acid on Patient-Derived Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines.

We have previously reported that caffeine (CAF) can enhance chemotherapy efficacy of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma established cell lines via cell-cycle perturbation. We subsequently tested the combination of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, with caffeine on established human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Both VPA and CAF caused concentration-dependent cell death of the osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro, and their combination was synergistic. We subsequently established patient-derived cell lines from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), both of which are recalcitrant cancers. These cell lines are termed AC-UPS01 and AC-RMS01, respectively.

Knee joint preservation surgery in osteosarcoma using tumour-bearing bone treated with liquid nitrogen.

To preserve the joint structure in order to maintain good limb function in patients with osteosarcoma, we perform epiphyseal or metaphyseal osteotomy and reconstruction using frozen autografts that contain a tumour treated with liquid nitrogen. There are two methods of using liquid nitrogen-treated autografts: the free-freezing method and the pedicle-freezing method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of intentional joint-preserving reconstruction using the free-freezing method and the pedicle-freezing method in patients with osteosarcoma.

An unusual case of proximal humeral simple bone cyst in an adult from secondary cystic change.

Simple bone cysts (SBC) have been documented to occur in adults with closed physeal plates, most commonly affecting the calcaneus in this patient subset. Although most authors theorize an association to trauma, etiology of simple bone cysts remains an enigma up to now.

Intra-arterial administration of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R regresses a cisplatin-resistant relapsed osteosarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model.

Previously, a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model was established with a lung metastasis from an osteosarcoma patient which developed after adjuvant cisplatinum (CDDP) treatment. In this model, we previously demonstrated the efficacy of trabectedin (TRAB) and temozolomide (TEM) compared with CDDP. In the present report, osteosarcoma tissue was implanted orthotopically in the distal femur of mice which were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached approximately 100 mm3; On day 14 after initiation of treatment, all but CDDP significantly inhibited tumor volume growth compared with untreated controls. Control (G1): 793.7 ± 215.0 mm3; CDDP (G2): 588.1 ± 176.9 mm3; Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) intravenous (i.v.) (G3): 269.7 ± 72.7 mm3; S. typhimurium A1-R intra-arterial (i.a.) (G4): 70.2 ± 18.9 mm3 (CDDP: p = 0.056; S. typhimurium A1-R i.v.: p = 0.0001; S. typhimurium A1-R i.a.: p = 0.00003, all vs. untreated controls). i.a. administration of S. typhimurium A1-R was significantly more effective than either CDDP (p = 0.00007), or i.v. administration of S. typhimurium A1-R (p = 0.00007) and significantly regressed the tumor volume compared with day 0 (p = 0.001). The new model of i.a. administration of S. typhimurium A1-R has great promise for the treatment of recalcitrant osteosarcoma.

Intercalary frozen autograft for reconstruction of malignant bone and soft tissue tumours.

In 1999, we developed a technique using frozen autografts-tumour-containing bone treated with liquid nitrogen-for the reconstruction of malignant bone tumours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and oncological outcomes of frozen autografts for intercalary reconstruction of malignant bones and soft tissue tumours.

Antimetastatic Efficacy of the Combination of Caffeine and Valproic Acid on an Orthotopic Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line Model in Nude Mice.

We have previously reported that caffeine can enhance chemotherapy efficacy of bone and soft tissue sarcoma via cell-cycle perturbation. Valproic acid has histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity. We have also reported the anti-tumor efficacy of combination treatment with caffeine and valproic acid against osteosarcoma primary tumors in a cell-line orthotopic mouse model.

Phase 1/2 study of immunotherapy with dendritic cells pulsed with autologous tumor lysate in patients with refractory bone and soft tissue sarcoma.

There are limited options for the curative treatment of refractory bone and soft tissue sarcomas. The purpose of this phase 1/2 study was to assess the immunological and clinical effects of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with autologous tumor lysate (TL) in patients with advanced bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

Pathogenesis of Osteosclerotic Change Following Treatment with an Antibody Against RANKL for Giant Cell Tumour of the Bone.

Giant cell tumours (GCTs) of the bone are intermediate tumours that are locally aggressive. Denosumab, an antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), was recently developed; however, it induces osteosclerotic change through an unknown mechanism. We determined whether osteosclerotic change could be induced by neoplastic stromal cells of giant cell tumours (GCTs).

High Efficacy of Pazopanib on an Undifferentiated Spindle-Cell Sarcoma Resistant to First-Line Therapy Is Identified With a Patient-Derived Orthotopic Xenograft (PDOX) Nude Mouse Model.

Undifferentiated spindle-cell sarcoma (USCS) is a recalcitrant -cancer. Our laboratory pioneered the patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model with the technique of surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of standard first-line chemistry of doxorubicin (DOX), gemcitabine (GEM) combined with docetaxel (DOC), compared to pazopanib (PAZ), a multi-targeting tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, in an USCS PDOX model. A high-grade USCS from a striated muscle of the patients was grown orthotopically in the right biceps femoris muscle of nude mice to establish the PDOX model. The PDOX models were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached 100 mm3 : G1, control without treatment; G2, DOX (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, GEM (100 mg/kg, i.p., weekly, for 2 weeks) combined with DOC (20 mg/kg, i.p., once); G4, PAZ (100 mg/kg, p.o., daily, for 14 days). All treatments except DOX significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to untreated control on day 14 after treatment initiation. Tumor sizes were as fallows: control (G1): 332.0 ± 58.7 mm3 ; DOX (G2): 316.9 ± 55.9 mm3 , P = 0.605; GEM + DOC (G3): 228.9 ± 39.8 mm3 , P = 0.001; PAZ (G4): 173.8 ± 23.3 mm3 , P < 0.0001. PAZ showed significantly more efficacy compared to other therapies evaluated: DOX (P < 0.0001), GEM + DOC (P = 0.006). There were no animal deaths in any group and body weight of treated mice was not significantly different in each group. The present results demonstrate that the PDOX model of USCS can identify a promising novel agent with significantly greater efficacy than first-line therapy for this recalcitrant disease. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2739-2743, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Do Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Atypical Lipomatous Tumors Have Greater Differentiation Potency Than Cells From Normal Adipose Tissues?

The p53 protein in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) regulates differentiation to osteogenic or adipogenic lineage. Because p53 function is depressed in most malignancies, if MSCs in malignancy also have p53 hypofunction, differentiation therapy to osteogenic or adipogenic lineage may be an effective treatment. We therefore wished to begin to explore this idea by evaluating atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDL) cells, because murine double minute 2 (MDM2) gene amplification, which leads to p53 hypofunction, is found in almost all ALT/WDLs.

Functional and radiological outcomes of a minimally invasive surgical approach to monostotic fibrous dysplasia.

Reports showing high recurrence rates for intralesional curettage and bone grafting have made the current treatment principle for fibrous dysplasia controversial. This study aimed to report the postoperative clinical outcomes from three minimally invasive surgical strategies we use for monostotic fibrous dysplasia (MFD).

Surgical management of proximal fibular tumors: A report of 12 cases.

Aggressive benign or malignant tumors in the proximal fibula may require en bloc resection of the fibular head, including the peroneal nerve and lateral collateral ligament. Here, we report the treatment outcomes of 12 patients with aggressive benign or malignant proximal fibula tumors.

A case of infected schwannoma mimicking malignant tumor.

Infected schwannoma has been reported, this being one of the four cases published in the literature. Infected schwannoma has proven to be a tough diagnostic challenge to the treating tumor surgeon, mimicking infectious entities and most essentially, a malignant tumor.

Clinical Outcome of Reconstruction Using Frozen Autograft for a Humeral Bone Tumor.

We developed a frozen autograft technique in which a tumor-bearing bone was treated with liquid nitrogen for reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of this technique after resection of humeral bone tumors.

Patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model of adult rhabdomyosarcoma invades and recurs after resection in contrast to the subcutaneous ectopic model.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare mesenchymal tumor. The aim of the present study was to develop a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model of RMS and compare the PDOX model to a subcutaneous (s.c.)-transplant model. A patient RMS from a striated muscle was grown orthotopically in the right biceps femoris muscle and right quadriceps muscle of nude mice to establish a PDOX model, as well as under the skin to establish an s.c.

Efficacy of glycogen synthase kinase-3β targeting against osteosarcoma via activation of β-catenin.

Development of innovative more effective therapy is required for refractory osteosarcoma patients. We previously established that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK- 3β) is a therapeutic target in various cancer types. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic efficacy of GSK-3β inhibition against osteosarcoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms in an orthotopic mouse model. Expression and phosphorylation of GSK-3β in osteosarcoma and normal osteoblast cell lines was examined, together with efficacy of GSK-3β inhibition on cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis and on the growth of orthotopically-transplanted human osteosarcoma in nude mice. We also investigated changes in expression, phosphorylation and co-transcriptional activity of β-catenin in osteosarcoma cells following GSK-3β inhibition. Expression of the active form of GSK- 3β (tyrosine 216-phosphorylated) was higher in osteosarcoma than osteoblast cells. Inhibition of GSK-3β activity by pharmacological inhibitors or of its expression by RNA interference suppressed proliferation of osteosarcoma cells and induced apoptosis. Treatment with GSK-3β-specific inhibitors attenuated the growth of orthotopic osteosaroma in mice. Inhibition of GSK-3β reduced phosphorylation at GSK- 3β-phospho-acceptor sites in β-catenin and increased β-catenin expression, nuclear localization and co-transcriptional activity. These results suggest the efficacy of GSK-3β inhibitors is associated with activation of β-catenin, a putative tumor suppressor in bone and soft tissue sarcoma and an important component of osteogenesis. Our study thereby demonstrates a critical role for GSK-3β in sustaining survival and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, and identifies this kinase as a potential therapeutic target against osteosarcoma.

Experience of total scapular excision for musculoskeletal tumor and reconstruction in eastern Asian countries.

Total scapulectomy and reconstruction has been performed for scapular tumor, however, most of the reconstruction methods have resulted in poor functional outcomes and there is still room for improvement. Most of the reports of reconstruction after scapulectomy are from a single institution. In the present study, we investigated functional outcomes after total scapulectomy in a multicenter study in The Eastern Asian Musculoskeletal Oncology Group (EAMOG). Thirty-three patients who underwent total scapulectomy were registered at EAMOG affiliated hospitals. The patients were separated into no reconstruction group (n=8), humeral suspension group (n=15) and prosthesis group (n=10). Functional outcome was assessed by the Enneking score. One-way ANOVA was used to compare parameters between the patient groups. Complications included five local recurrences, one superficial infection, one dislocation and one clavicle protrusion. The average follow-up period was 43.5  months. The average active flexion range was 45.8° (0-120°), and 37.1° in abduction (0-120°). The mean total functional score was 22.9 out of 30 (15-29), which is a satisfactory score following resection of the shoulder girdle. There were significant differences in reconstruction methods for active range of motion. Bony reconstruction provided better range of motion in this study. There was a variety of reconstruction methods after scapulectomy in the eastern Asian countries. Although better functional score was obtained using scapular prosthesis or recycled bone and prosthesis composite grafting, postoperative function is still lower than preoperative function. Modified designed prosthesis with or without combination of recycle bone or allograft would restore the lost shoulder function in the future.

Intraosseous Leiomyoma of the Tibia. A Case Report.

Leiomyoma is benign smooth-muscle tumor most commonly arising in the uterus, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin. Leiomyomata are infrequently seen in the extremities and rarely seen in the bone. It is usually presented by a gradually increasing pain with nonspecific radiological findings, and could be a differential diagnosis for wide range of bone tumors.

Non-toxic Efficacy of the Combination of Caffeine and Valproic Acid on Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro and in Orthotopic Nude-mouse Models.

We have previously reported that caffeine can enhance chemotherapy efficacy of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma via cell-cycle perturbation. Valproic acid has histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the combination of valproic acid and caffeine on human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in orthotopic nude-mouse models.

Clinical relevance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in myxoid liposarcoma.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARγ is essential in adipocyte differentiation from precursor cells. Its antitumorigenic effects are reported in certain malignancies; however, its effects in liposarcoma are unclear.

Balancing Prolonged Survival with QoL Using Low-dose Pazopanib Maintenance: A Comparison with the PALETTE Study.

A consensus has not been reached regarding the optimal pazopanib dosing schedule, which we determined in patients who received pazopanib at our Institution.