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Lakshmanan Suresh - Top 30 Publications

Clinicopathologic significance of in vivo antinuclear autoantibodies in oral mucosal biopsies.

Although antinuclear autoantibody (ANA) staining of oral biopsy specimens is indicative of chronic ulcerative stomatitis, it is not known whether this staining is characteristic of other autoimmune diseases. Our study was undertaken to characterize the various in vivo ANA patterns detected in the oral mucosa by direct immunofluorescence to describe the associated hematoxylin and eosin findings, and determine whether patients with these findings had a coexisting systemic connective tissue disease.

Systemic manifestations of primary Sjögren's syndrome in the NOD.B10Sn-H2b/J mouse model.

Animal models that recapitulate human disease are crucial for the study of Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). While several SS mouse models exist, there are few primary SS (pSS) models that mimic systemic disease manifestations seen in humans. Similar to pSS patients, NOD.B10Sn-H2b/J (NOD.B10) mice develop exocrine gland disease and anti-nuclear autoantibodies. However, the disease kinetics and spectrum of extra-glandular disease remain poorly characterized in this model. Our objective was to characterize local and systemic SS manifestations in depth in NOD.B10 female mice at early and late disease time points. To this end, sera, exocrine tissue, lung, and kidney were analyzed. NOD.B10 mice have robust lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal tissue. In addition, they exhibit significant renal and pulmonary inflammation. We identified numerous autoantibodies, including those directed against salivary proteins. In conclusion, the NOD.B10 model recapitulates both local and systemic pSS disease and represents an excellent model for translational studies.

Evaluation of Autoantibodies in Patients with Primary and Secondary Sjogren's Syndrome.

Antibodies to salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and parotid secretory protein (PSP) were discovered in an animal model of Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Their expression was noted in patients with SS, especially those with lower focus scores on lip biopsies and those with early disease lacking antibodies to Ro and La.

Autoantibodies, detection methods and panels for diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome.

The presence of autoantibodies is one of several hallmarks of Sjögren's Syndrome, the detection of serum autoantibodies has a central role in the diagnosis and classification of Sjögren's syndrome. In this review, we will discuss autoantibodies that are helpful in the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. This includes the traditional autoantibodies for disease classification (ANA, Anti-Ro/SSA, Anti-La/SSB, RF), autoantibodies identified from mouse models (Anti-SP1, Anti- PSP, Anti-CA6, and anti-alpha fodrin) and autoantibodies associated with other autoimmune disease (ACA, AMA, and Anti-CCP). We will also review the methods for the detection of autoantibodies and associated challenges for clinical results reporting. The significance of using an autoantibody panel for the diagnosis of SS will be also be reviewed.

Analysis of DFS70 pattern and impact on ANA screening using a novel HEp-2 ELITE/DFS70 knockout substrate.

Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using human epithelial cell (HEp-2) substrate is a widely used and the recommended method for screening of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Dense fine speckled (DFS70) pattern on HEp-2 has been widely reported in various healthy and disease groups. Interpretation of DFS70 pattern can be challenging on a conventional HEp-2 substrate due to its similarity to some of the disease associated patterns. The high prevalence of DFS70 autoantibodies in normal population, lack of association with a particular disease group and a general negative association with systemic and ANA associated autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD/AARD) necessitates the confirmation of DFS70 pattern. Results using available commercial assays for confirmation of DFS70 autoantibodies do not always agree with IIF screening results further complicating the lab work flow and ANA algorithms. In this review, we discuss the prevalence of DFS70 antibodies and factors affecting the performance of IIF and DFS70 specific confirmatory assays. Factors that contribute to disagreement between DFS70 suspicion by IIF and confirmatory assays will also be discussed. In addition, we also describe a novel IIF HEp-2 substrate, and its positive impact on DFS70 reporting and ANA screening-confirmation algorithm.

Analysis of novel Sjogren's syndrome autoantibodies in patients with dry eyes.

Dry eye is a common problem in Ophthalmology and may occur for many reasons including Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Recent studies have identified autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), which occur early in the course of SS. The current studies were designed to evaluate how many patients with idiopathic dry eye and no evidence of systemic diseases from a dry eye practice have these autoantibodies.

Multiple Roles for B-Lymphocytes in Sjogren's Syndrome.

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a complex heterogeneous autoimmune disease resulting in loss of salivary gland and lacrimal gland function that may include multiple systemic manifestations including lymphoma. Multiple cell types participate in disease pathogenesis. This review discusses evidence for abnormal B cell subpopulations in patients with SS, critical roles of B cells in SS and the status of B cell-directed therapies in the management of patients with SS.

Multicentric Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a rare benign epithelial odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws. Both intraosseous and peripheral SOTs have been described in the English language literature. While most intraosseous SOTs occur as solitary lesions, a multicentric variant has also been previously described. Although the radiographic and microscopic features are identical for both solitary and multicentric clinical presentations, there are three significant differences between them. More specifically, multicentric SOT presents at an earlier age (third decade of life), has a slightly higher male to female ratio than the solitary type and has a marked predilection for African-Americans. Here we document the eighth reported case of multicentric SOT, which was diagnosed in a 43-year-old African-American male. In addition, we feature focal sebaceous metaplasia, a heretofore unknown microscopic feature of SOT. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings are discussed. The differential diagnosis, biological behavior and management modalities for SOT are also addressed.

Central role for marginal zone B cells in an animal model of Sjogren's syndrome.

Patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) have been shown to have abnormal B cell function and increased numbers of marginal zone B cells (MZB and MZB precursors. The current studies utilized the Interleukin 14 alpha transgenic mouse model (IL14aTG) for SS to investigate the roles of marginal zone B cells (MZB) of the innate immune system in the pathophysiology of the disease. Eliminating MZB from IL14aTG mice by B cell specific deletion of RBP-J resulted in complete elimination of all disease manifestations of SS. Mice had normal salivary gland secretions, negative autoantibodies and normal histology of the salivary and lacrimal glands compared to IL14aTG mice at the same time points. In contrast, eliminating B1 cells by deleting btk did not ameliorate the disease. Therefore, MZB are critical for the development of SS.

Gastrointestinal disease in Sjogren's syndrome: related to food hypersensitivities.

Patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) frequently have irritable bowel like symptoms (IBS). Some have celiac sprue. The current studies were designed to examine the presence of food hypersensitivities in a population of patients with SS and IBS. Ten patients were selected from the autoimmune disease clinics at SUNY at Buffalo who had SS and IBS symptoms. Food hypersensitivities were determined by specific IgG ImmunoCAP(®) assays. Symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and joint pain were eliminated with dietary restriction of foods to which hypersensitivity was demonstrated. Symptoms recurred with re-institution of offending foods. Resolution of fatigue required elimination of offending foods as well as treatment of underlying metabolic disorders. The presence of IBS in patients with SS should lead to investigation of food hypersensitivities as possible culprits.

Humoral Responses to Diverse Autoimmune Disease-Associated Antigens in Multiple Sclerosis.

To compare frequencies of autoreactive antibody responses to endogenous disease-associated antigens in healthy controls (HC), relapsing and progressive MS and to assess their associations with clinical and MRI measures of MS disease progression.

Investigation of novel autoantibodies in Sjogren's syndrome utilizing Sera from the Sjogren's international collaborative clinical alliance cohort.

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease mainly affecting salivary and lacrimal glands. Current diagnostic criteria for SS utilize anti-Ro and anti-La as serological markers. Animal models for SS have identified novel autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and parotid secretory protein (PSP). These novel antibodies are seen in the animals at an earlier stage of SS than anti-Ro and anti-La. The current studies were designed to evaluate these novel autoantibodies in the sera of well-characterized patients with dry eyes and dry mouth and lip biopsies from the Sjogren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) to determine if they indeed identify SS with less severe disease than patients expressing anti-Ro and anti-La.

The role of point-of-care assessment of platelet function in predicting postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements after coronary artery bypass grafting.

OBJECTIVE platelet function assessment after cardiac surgery can predict postoperative blood loss, guide transfusion requirements and discriminate the need for surgical re-exploration. We conducted this study to assess the predictive value of point-of-care testing platelet function using the Multiplate® device.

Indications and procedures for direct immunofluorescence biopsies of the oral mucosa.

A definitive diagnosis is crucial for management of any oral mucosal disease. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is a valuable diagnostic aid for immune-mediated blistering diseases and systemic connective tissue diseases of the skin and the mucosa. This paper gives an overview of the DIF biopsy technique for oral lesions and provides a background for the clinician to optimize the utilization of DIF biopsy. The key characteristic diagnostic findings of DIF of specific mucosal diseases are also discussed.

Evaluation of salivary gland protein 1 antibodies in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome.

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) has been associated with the expression of anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies. Anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1) antibodies have recently been identified in patients with SS. The current work involved a cross sectional study to determine whether anti-SP1 antibodies were identified in particular subgroups of patients with SS. The results of this study revealed that anti-SP1 antibodies were present in the sera of 52% of SS patients while anti-Ro/anti-La was present in 63% of patients. 19% of patients had anti-SP1 without anti-Ro/anti-La. Patients with SS and lymphoma expressed anti-Ro, anti-La and anti-SP1 together. In SS associated with RA, 50% had antibodies anti-SP1 while 40% had anti-Ro/anti-La. In conclusion, anti-SP1 antibodies are commonly seen in both primary and secondary SS and rarely in normal controls. Future studies are needed to determine the roles and timing of expression of anti-SP1 antibodies in Sjogren's syndrome.

Xerophthalmia of Sjogren's Syndrome Diagnosed with Anti-Salivary Gland Protein 1 Antibodies.

The purpose of this report is to describe 2 patients with persistent severe dry eyes, positive Schirmer tests for Sjogren's syndrome (SS) but lacking antibodies to either Ro or La. These patients were diagnosed to have SS by detecting antibodies to salivary gland protein 1 (Sp1) and parotid secretory protein (PSP). This report emphasizes the existence of patients with SS who lack antibodies to either Ro or La and may therefore be misdiagnosed. Detection of novel autoantibodies, including antibodies to Sp1 and PSP, are helpful in identifying these patients. Initial presentation may simply be dry eyes.

Anti-salivary gland protein 1 antibodies in two patients with Sjogren's syndrome: two case reports.

Current diagnostic criteria for Sjogren's syndrome developed by the American College of Rheumatology include the presence of antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-Ro or anti-La autoantibodies. The purpose of this report is to describe two patients with biopsy-proven Sjogren's syndrome lacking these autoantibodies but identified by antibodies to salivary gland protein 1. Diagnosis was delayed until salivary gland tumors developed in these patients because of the lack of the classic autoantibodies. This report emphasizes the existence of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome who lack autoantibodies anti-Ro or anti-La and may therefore be misdiagnosed. Antibodies to salivary gland protein 1 identify some of these patients.

Temporal histological changes in lacrimal and major salivary glands in mouse models of Sjogren's syndrome.

Evidence in imaging studies suggests that there may be differences in glandular involvement in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) depending on the stage of the disease. No detailed histological studies are available to show if there are any such difference in glandular involvement at various time periods and stages of SS. This cross sectional study examines the inflammatory changes in mouse models of SS at various ages.

Cardiac surgery in a patient with severe thrombocytopenia: how low is too low?

Platelets play a very important role in hemostasis, especially after cardiac surgery. Excessive bleeding after such surgery may lead to increased need for transfusion and its incumbent increase in post-operative morbidity and mortality. Although most cardiac surgeons will offer a surgical option to a patient with moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count around 70 × 10 9 /L), successful cardiac surgery has not been reported in patients with significantly lower platelets counts (less than 40 × 10 9 /L). We report a case of severe thrombocytopenia (19 × 10 9 /L) where coronary artery bypass grafting was performed with minimal blood loss post-operatively, discuss the patient's management and provide insights while dealing with such patients.

Different stages of primary Sjogren's syndrome involving lymphotoxin and type 1 IFN.

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a complex autoimmune disease starting in the salivary and lacrimal glands and continuing to involve the lungs and kidneys with the eventual development of lymphoma. Many studies have emphasized the role of type 1 IFN (IFN-α) and lymphotoxin α (LTα) in the pathogenesis of the disease. The present studies were designed to delineate the role of IFN-α in pSS using an animal model, the IL-14α (IL14αTG) transgenic mouse. IL14αTG mice lacking the type 1 IFNR (IL14αTG.IFNR(-/-)) had the same submandibular gland and lacrimal gland injury as did the IL14αTG mice, but they lacked the later parotid gland and lung injury. Development of lymphoma was delayed in IL14αTG.IFNR(-/-) mice. The switch from IgM to IgG autoantibodies as well as the increase in serum IgG2a seen is IL14αTG mice was inhibited in IL14αTG.IFNR(-/-) mice. Production of LTα was identified in both IL14αTG mice and IL14αTG.IFNR(-/-) mice at the time that salivary gland injury was occurring. These and previous studies suggest a model for pSS that separates the disease into several stages: 1) initial injury to the submandibular and lacrimal glands via an environmental insult and LTα; 2) amplification of local injury via the production of type 1 IFN; injury to the parotid glands, lungs, and kidneys is seen; 3) progression of systemic inflammation with the eventual development of large B cell lymphoma. Understanding these different stages will help to develop strategies for treatment of patients with pSS based on the status of their disease.

Novel autoantibodies in Sjogren's syndrome.

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is defined by autoantibodies to Ro and La. The current studies identified additional autoantibodies in SS to salivary gland protein 1 (SP-1), carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and parotid secretory protein (PSP). These autoantibodies were present in two animal models for SS and occurred earlier in the course of the disease than antibodies to Ro or La. Patients with SS also produced antibodies to SP-1, CA6 and PSP. These antibodies were found in 45% of patients meeting the criteria for SS who lacked antibodies to Ro or La. Furthermore, in patients with idiopathic xerostomia and xerophthalmia for less than 2 years, 76% had antibodies to SP-1 and/or CA6 while only 31% had antibodies to Ro or La. Antibodies to SP-1, CA6 and PSP may be useful markers for identifying patients with SS at early stages of the disease or those that lack antibodies to either Ro or La.

Definitive and differential diagnosis of desquamative gingivitis through direct immunofluorescence studies.

Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a common clinical manifestation of oral autoimmune vesiculobullous diseases (VBDs). Their polymorphous clinical presentations coupled with similar histologic features make diagnosis indistinguishable among the different VBDs. Direct immunofluorescence (IF) studies are valuable gold-standard diagnostic tests that allow for discrimination among the various VBDs that present with DG. There have been no recent detailed analyses done that have used conventional light microscopy and direct IF in diagnosis to document the clinical associations of DG with various autoimmune oral diseases. The aim of this study is to examine retrospectively a large cohort of patients with DG for associated diseases and to determine the utility of direct IF and conventional light microscopy in establishing a definitive diagnosis.

Ventricular mass: a clinical and surgical conundrum.

Cardiac tumours are rare in occurrence. The authors report a patient who presented with a history of recurrent transient ischemic attacks and cerebrovascular accidents. During rehabilitation he was incidentally diagnosed with a large left ventricular mass which was excised successfully with good clinical outcome. On histopathology it was a papillary fibroelastoma.

A role for lymphotoxin in primary Sjogren's disease.

The etiology of salivary gland injury in primary Sjögren's disease is not well understood. We have previously described a mouse model of Sjögren's disease, IL-14α transgenic (IL14αTG) mice, which reproduces many of the features of the human disease. We now demonstrate a critical role for lymphotoxin α (LTA) in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's disease in IL14αTG mice. IL14αTG mice express LTA mRNA in their salivary glands and spleen and produce soluble LTA protein in their salivary secretions. When IL14αTG mice were crossed with LTA(-/-) mice, the IL14αTG.LTA(-/-) mice retained normal salivary gland secretions and did not develop either lymphocytic infiltration of their salivary glands or secondary lymphomas. However, both IL14αTG and IL14αTG.LTA(-/-) mice produced similar amounts of IFN-α and had similar deposition of autoantibodies in their salivary glands. Both IL14α and IL14α/LTA(-/-) mice had similar B cell responses to T-dependent and T-independent Ags, L-selectin expression, and expression of RelA, RelB, and NF-κB2 in their spleens. These studies suggest that LTA plays a critical role in the local rather than systemic inflammatory process of Sjögren's disease. Furthermore, local production of soluble LTA in the salivary glands of IL14αTG mice is necessary for the development of overt Sjögren's disease. Autoantibody deposition alone is not sufficient to produce salivary gland dysfunction. We also demonstrate that LTA is increased in the salivary gland secretions and sera of patients with Sjögren's disease, further strengthening the biological relevance of the IL14αTG model to understanding the pathogenesis of human disease.

Temporary epicardial pacing wire removal: is it an innocuous procedure?

The safety and efficacy of temporary pericardial pacing wires have been accepted and their use is common after cardiac operations. Complications related to pacing wire removal are unusual but it can be serious and even catastrophic. We report an unusual case of bleeding due the laceration and rent created in the saphenous vein graft wall by the metallic tip of the pacing wire at the time of pacing wire removal.

Delayed presentation of right and left ventricle perforation due to suicidal nail gun injury.

We describe a case of delayed presentation of attempted suicide with a nail gun that penetrated both the right and left ventricle. Nearly invisible entry point of the nail did not reflect the gravity of the injury. A prompt and accurate history along with chest X-ray and bedside transthoracic echocardiography facilitated localization of the nails and helped assess the damage. Despite cardiac arrest after induction of general anesthesia, the patient had a successful outcome. Issues related to the injury site, modalities of investigation and management strategies in a patient with cardiac tamponade are discussed.

Desmoplastic fibroma of the anterior mandible. Case report and review of literature.

Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare and locally aggressive lesion that affects the long bone and the jaw bones. Mandibular bone involvement has been mostly reported in the posterior segment; anterior region presentation is rare. This case report highlights the diagnosis, management and treatment of a midline mandibular involvement. It includes a literature review.

IL-14 alpha, the nexus for primary Sjögren's disease in mice and humans.

To evaluate the role of interleukin 14 alpha (IL-14a) in Sjögren's syndrome (SS), we evaluated the expression of IL-14a in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of patients with primary and secondary SS and normal controls by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, transgenic IL-14a mice were analyzed from 6 weeks of age to death for both histological and immunological features of Sjögren's disease. Patients with both primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome expressed IL-14a at statistically higher levels in their peripheral blood compared to normal controls matched for age, sex and ethnic group. Transgenic mice in which IL-14a expression was increased constitutively were previously demonstrated to develop hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibodies, infiltration of the parotid glands with lymphocytes, mild immune-complex mediated renal disease and large B cell lymphoma. In this paper we expand these observations to demonstrate that these mice develop all the clinical and immunological features of primary Sjögren's disease in the same relative time frame as patients with primary Sjögren's disease: stage 1-early hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody production, stage 2-decreased salivary gland function with early lymphocytic infiltration of the submandibular glands only, but antibody deposition in the submandibular and parotid glands, stage 3-lymphocytic infiltration of the submandibular, parotid and lacrimal glands with B and T lymphocytes and plasma cells along with interstitial lung disease and mild renal disease, and stage 4-large B cell lymphoma. Thus IL-14a is important in the pathophysiology of Sjögren's disease. The IL-14a transgenic mouse is a novel animal model that can be utilized to understand the pathophysiology of Sjögren's disease.

Prevalence and clinical significance of elongated calcified styloid processes in panoramic radiographs.

The styloid process refers to a mineralized styloid ligament of the temporal bone that usually appears (in different forms and lengths) on panoramic radiographs. This study sought to evaluate panoramic radiographs to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of elongated calcified styloid processes. For this study, panoramic radiographs from 1,000 dental patients were evaluated. Each styloid process length was measured and its pattern of calcification was assessed as elongated (that is, uninterrupted styloid calcification), pseudoarticulated (a single joint appearing as an articulated styloid process), or segmented (an interrupted calcified styloid process). Calcified styloid processes longer than 30 mm were considered to be elongated and were used for this study; 220 panoramic radiographs (22%) revealed such elongated processes. This retrospective study indicated that there is no clinical significance when elongated styloid processes are found coincidentally.

A comparative treatment study of topical tacrolimus and clobetasol in oral lichen planus.

Existing clinical trials have shown that topical corticosteroids are often effective in the management of oral lichen planus (OLP). However, tacrolimus has recently been shown to be an effective treatment of OLP.