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Leo H Bonati - Top 30 Publications

Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients with Stroke Taking Rivaroxaban Using Drug Specific Plasma Levels: Experience with a Standard Operation Procedure in Clinical Practice.

Standard operating procedures (SOP) incorporating plasma levels of rivaroxaban might be helpful in selecting patients with acute ischemic stroke taking rivaroxaban suitable for IVthrombolysis (IVT) or endovascular treatment (EVT).

Investigations of Carotid Stenosis to Identify Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque and Determine Individual Stroke Risk.

Selection of patients with atherosclerotic carotid stenosis for revascularization is mainly based on the degree of luminal narrowing of the carotid artery. However, identification of other features of plaque apart from the degree of stenosis could enable better selection for intervention if they are also associated with the occurrence of stroke. Before these risk factors can possibly play a role in treatment decisions, their prognostic value needs to be proven. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the risk factors for stroke in patients with carotid stenosis, how they can be determined, and to what extent they predict stroke, based on recent literature. References for this review were identified by searches of PubMed between 1995 and October, 2016 and references from relevant articles. For each topic in this review different relevant search terms were used. The main search terms were 'carotid stenosis', 'atherosclerosis', 'stroke risk', and 'vulnerable plaque'. Language was restricted to English. The final reference list was generated on the basis of relevance to the topics covered in this review.

Acute Ischemic Stroke in Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus-Underestimated? Results from an Eight-Year Cohort Study.

Early Endarterectomy Carries a Lower Procedural Risk Than Early Stenting in Patients With Symptomatic Stenosis of the Internal Carotid Artery: Results From 4 Randomized Controlled Trials.

Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for symptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery benefit from early intervention. Heterogeneous data are available on the influence of timing of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on procedural risk.

Body mass index and outcome after revascularization for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

To determine whether the obesity paradox exists in patients who undergo carotid artery stenting (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

Vascular Anatomy Predicts the Risk of Cerebral Ischemia in Patients Randomized to Carotid Stenting Versus Endarterectomy.

Complex vascular anatomy might increase the risk of procedural stroke during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Randomized controlled trial evidence that vascular anatomy should inform the choice between CAS and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been lacking.

Early start of DOAC after ischemic stroke: Risk of intracranial hemorrhage and recurrent events.

In patients with recent acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and atrial fibrillation, we assessed the starting time of direct, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for secondary prevention, the rate of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and recurrent ischemic events during follow-up.

Frequency and Determinants of Adherence to Oral Anticoagulants in Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Clinical Practice.

Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are beneficial in patients with stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about frequency and determinants of adherence to NOACs/VKAs in clinical practice.

Feasibility of rapid measurement of Rivaroxaban plasma levels in patients with acute stroke.

Plasma levels of Rivaroxaban (RivLev) might be useful to guide therapeutic decisions in patients with acute stroke under Rivaroxaban. A prerequisite for the potential clinical usefulness is their rapid availability in emergency situations. Single-center explorative analysis from the Novel-Oral-Anticoagulants-in-Stroke-Patients-registry (NOACISP, cinicaltrials.gov:NCT02353585). We included consecutive patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke under Rivaroxaban (last intake <48 h) in which RivLev determined by an automated anti-factor Xa-based chromogenic assay (Hyphen-Biomed, France) are available. Primary endpoint was the turnaround time (TAT), defined as time from registration of the blood sample in the lab to first result published. Furthermore, we studied, whether TAT is influenced by (1) on- and off-hour-measurements and (2) early versus later patient arrival (cut-off: 270 min after symptom onset). Thirty-eight patients met the eligibility criteria (mean age 77 years, 44 % female). TAT was 34 min (IQR 29-65 min). TATs were similar for on- (n = 14; median 34 min; IQR 30-56 min) and off-hours-TATs (n = 24; median 35 min; IQR 29-75 min) as well as for early (n = 16; median 33 min; IQR 30-40 min) and late patient arrival (n = 22, median 34 min, IQR 28-58 min; all nonsignificant.). Taking into account RivLev in the decision process about the use of intravenous thrombolysis, three patients received intravenous thrombolysis on an individualized basis, none of them with bleeding complications. Emergency measurement of RivLev among patients with acute stroke is available within a median of 34 min and therefore feasible for ED use. Due to the rapid availability, further research to evaluate the role of RivLev in order to guide acute treatment decisions is warranted.

Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): a randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness analysis.

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for the treatment of carotid stenosis, but safety and long-term efficacy were uncertain.

Association between age and risk of stroke or death from carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting: a meta-analysis of pooled patient data from four randomised trials.

Age was reported to be an effect-modifier in four randomised controlled trials comparing carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA), with better CEA outcomes than CAS outcomes noted in the more elderly patients. We aimed to describe the association of age with treatment differences in symptomatic patients and provide age-specific estimates of the risk of stroke and death within narrow (5 year) age groups.

Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients Dependent on the Daily Help of Others Before Stroke.

We compared outcome and complications in patients with stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) who could not live alone without help of another person before stroke (dependent patients) versus independent ones.

Clinical Perspective of Carotid Plaque Imaging.

At present, patients with carotid disease are selected for invasive recanalization therapies mainly based on the degree of luminal narrowing and the presence or absence of recent ischemic symptoms. A more sophisticated risk model takes into account other clinical variables, such as age, sex, and the type of recent symptoms, as well as presence of ulcerated plaque. A growing body of evidence shows that noninvasive imaging of the carotid plaque by various methods reliably identifies structural correlates of plaque vulnerability, which are associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events.

Identification of Inflammatory, Metabolic, and Cell Survival Pathways Contributing to Cerebral Small Vessel Disease by Postmortem Gene Expression Microarray.

Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by periventricular white matter (WM) changes and general brain atrophy. SVD is prevalent in elderly individuals and is frequently associated with the development of vascular dementia (VaD). Studies of the molecular basis of SVD are sparse. We have to gain further insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of SVD. Therefore, we compared gene expression patterns in the brains of SVD and control patients, in order to identify cellular pathways changed in diseased brains. We compared the expression of mRNA transcripts in postmortem, macroscopically normal-appearing human brain tissues isolated from frontal, temporal and occipital cortical and subcortical regions in 5 SVD and 5 non-SVD control patients. Significant expression changes were determined by fold change F>1.2 in either direction, and p<0.05. We identified 228 genes differentially expressed in cortex (89 up-, 139 down-regulated) and 555 genes in WM (223 up-, 332 down-regulated) in SVD patients. Pathway analyses revealed that upregulated genes were associated with inflammation and apoptosis in WM, suggesting active cell death. Downregulated genes were associated with coagulation and fatty and amino acids metabolisms. In the cortex, down-regulated genes were principally associated with neuronal functions. Our data revealed widespread changes in the transcriptome profiles in the cortex and WM of human SVD brains, with a predominance of changes in WM. We provide for the first time a comprehensive view of the molecular alterations in human SVD brains that seem to contribute to the neuropathogenesis of SVD.

Serum Neurofilament Light Chain Levels Are Associated with Clinical Characteristics and Outcome in Patients with Cervical Artery Dissection.

Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels represent a promising marker of neuroaxonal injury. They are elevated in several neurological conditions, but their importance in cerebrovascular diseases remains unclear. In a proof of concept study, we compared sNfL levels with clinical characteristics and outcome in patients with cervical artery dissection (CeAD).

Recanalization therapies in acute ischemic stroke patients: impact of prior treatment with novel oral anticoagulants on bleeding complications and outcome.

We explored the safety of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in patients with ischemic stroke on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, last intake <48 hours) in comparison with patients (1) taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or (2) without previous anticoagulation (no-OAC).

Reply: Stent Type and Risk of Late Cerebral Events After Carotid Artery Stenting.

Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of intracranial artery dissection.

Spontaneous intracranial artery dissection is an uncommon and probably underdiagnosed cause of stroke that is defined by the occurrence of a haematoma in the wall of an intracranial artery. Patients can present with headache, ischaemic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, or symptoms associated with mass effect, mostly on the brainstem. Although intracranial artery dissection is less common than cervical artery dissection in adults of European ethnic origin, intracranial artery dissection is reportedly more common in children and in Asian populations. Risk factors and mechanisms are poorly understood, and diagnosis is challenging because characteristic imaging features can be difficult to detect in view of the small size of intracranial arteries. Therefore, multimodal follow-up imaging is often needed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of intracranial artery dissections is empirical in the absence of data from randomised controlled trials. Most patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage undergo surgical or endovascular treatment to prevent rebleeding, whereas patients with intracranial artery dissection and cerebral ischaemia are treated with antithrombotics. Prognosis seems worse in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage than in those without.

Ischemic brain lesions after carotid artery stenting increase future cerebrovascular risk.

Brain lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are frequently found after carotid artery stenting (CAS), but their clinical relevance remains unclear.

Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial.

Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments.

Common variation in PHACTR1 is associated with susceptibility to cervical artery dissection.

Cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a mural hematoma in a carotid or vertebral artery, is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults although relatively uncommon in the general population (incidence of 2.6/100,000 per year). Minor cervical traumas, infection, migraine and hypertension are putative risk factors, and inverse associations with obesity and hypercholesterolemia are described. No confirmed genetic susceptibility factors have been identified using candidate gene approaches. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1,393 CeAD cases and 14,416 controls. The rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1) was associated with lower CeAD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69-0.82; P = 4.46 × 10(-10)), with confirmation in independent follow-up samples (659 CeAD cases and 2,648 controls; P = 3.91 × 10(-3); combined P = 1.00 × 10(-11)). The rs9349379[G] allele was previously shown to be associated with lower risk of migraine and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this pleiotropy might provide important information on the biological underpinnings of these disabling conditions.

Ipsilateral foetal-type posterior cerebral artery is associated with cognitive decline after carotid revascularisation.

Stenosis of the internal carotid artery has been associated with cognitive impairment and decline. However, studies testing the effect of carotid revascularisation on cognition have had conflicting results. This may in part be explained by variation in the flow territory of the carotid artery. In 12 to 36% of the patients, the posterior cerebral artery is mainly or exclusively supplied by the internal carotid artery via a foetal-type posterior cerebral artery. In these patients, ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis is likely to result in a larger area with hypoperfusion than in case of a normal posterior cerebral artery. Patients with a foetal-type posterior cerebral artery could therefore benefit more from revascularisation. We compared the effects of carotid revascularisation on cognition between patients with a foetal-type and those with a normal posterior cerebral artery.

Clinical import of Horner syndrome in internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection.

To study the prognostic importance of Horner syndrome (HS) in patients with internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) or vertebral artery dissection (VAD).

Dose-related effects of statins on symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and outcome after thrombolysis for ischemic stroke.

The aim of our study was to assess whether statins have dose-dependent effects on risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and outcome after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke.

Predictors of acute and persisting ischemic brain lesions in patients randomized to carotid stenting or endarterectomy.

We investigated predictors for acute and persisting periprocedural ischemic brain lesions among patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis randomized to stenting or endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study.

Carotid stenting: is there an operator effect? A pooled analysis from the carotid stenting trialists' collaboration.

Randomized clinical trials show higher 30-day risk of stroke or death after carotid artery stenting compared with surgery. We examined whether operator experience is associated with 30-day risk of stroke or death in the Carotid Stenting Trialists' Collaboration database.

Carotid stenosis.

Periprocedural hemodynamic depression is associated with a higher number of new ischemic brain lesions after stenting in the International Carotid Stenting Study-MRI Substudy.

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is associated with a higher risk of both hemodynamic depression and new ischemic brain lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging than carotid endarterectomy (CEA). We assessed whether the occurrence of hemodynamic depression is associated with these lesions in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis treated by CAS or CEA in the randomized International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS)-MRI substudy.

A clinical rule (sex, contralateral occlusion, age, and restenosis) to select patients for stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: systematic review of observational studies with validation in randomized trials.

Compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is associated with a higher risk of procedural stroke or death especially in patients with symptomatic stenosis. However, after the perioperative period, risk is similar with both treatments, suggesting that CAS could be an acceptable option in selected patients.

IV thrombolysis and renal function.

To investigate the association of renal impairment on functional outcome and complications in stroke patients treated with IV thrombolysis (IVT).