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Li Li - Top 30 Publications

Cover Image, Volume 118, Number 12, December 2017.

Cover: The cover image, by Duo Wang et al., is based on the Article Regulation of Histone Acetylation on Expression Profiles of Potassium Channels During Cardiomyocyte Differentiation From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.26102.

Clinical Profile and Significance of Mucocutaneous Lesions of Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Large Cross-sectional Study with 874 Patients.

Mucocutaneous lesions are common features of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), but only a few studies have focused on them. To demonstrate the profile of mucocutaneous lesions of pSS and further explore their potential clinical significance, we performed a cross-sectional study on 874 patients.

FOXK1 facilitates cell proliferation through regulating the expression of p21, and promotes metastasis in ovarian cancer.

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancer in the world. FOX family plays essential function in multiple cancers. In our work, FOXK1 was found to up-regulate in ovarian cancer tissue samples and cell lines; moreover, the expression of FOXK1 was correlated with tumor size, metastasis and poorly prognosis. To evaluate the function of FOXK1 in ovarian cancer, we performed colony formation analysis, CCK-8 assay and cell cycle analysis to determine the effect of FOXK1 on cell proliferation and cell cycle. We found that FOXK1 obviously improved the ability of cell proliferation through promoting cell cycle. Furthermore, ChIP assay and luciferase reporter assay indicated that FOXK1 facilitated cell cycle through regulating the expression of p21, but FOXK1 had no effect on cell apoptosis. In addition, wound healing assay and transwell invasion analysis demonstrated that FOXK1 promoted migration and invasion in ovarian cancer. In conclusion, our work indicate FOXK1 plays a key function in the ovarian cancer, it promotes cell proliferation and metastasis. FOXK1 serves as a novel molecular therapy target in ovarian cancer.

Incidence of venous thromboembolism following the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen for epithelial type of ovarian cancer.

This study aims to analyze the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).A retrospective audit was conducted examining 147 patients treated for EOC. Surgical treatment with curative intent, with or without NACT and adjuvant chemotherapy, is the treatment approach, which was modified according to the patient's condition. The incidence of VTE with the most commonly used chemotherapy regimen, carboplatin, cisplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, and others were evaluated.This study found a 13.6% incidence of VTE in patients undergoing therapy with curative intent for EOC. No association was seen between NACT and VTE compared to VTE after standard treatment: 2/16 (12.5%) vs 5/131 (3.8%) (P = .16). Univariate and multivariate analyses also demonstrated that NACT has no risk for VTE with odds ratio (OR) = 0.89 (95% CI = 0.18-4.28) and P = 1. Results did not vary significantly with the type of chemotherapy used. Furthermore, increased incidence of VTE as an incidental finding supports the well-established role of malignancy in VTE occurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that VTE occurred more frequently in menopausal women than nonmenopausal women (17.9% vs 5.8%) with OR = 3.55 (95% CI = 0.99-12.78) and P = .04 in patients aged ≥60 (19.3% vs 10%) with OR = 2.15 (95% CI = 0.83-5.57) and P = .13 but is not statistically significant.We conclude that NACT has no association with VTE and the currently used common chemotherapeutic drug combinations for ovarian cancer carry the minimal risk of thromboembolic events.

NRG1-dependent activation of HER3 induces primary resistance to trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.

This study was conducted to determine the role of neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-dependent human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) activation in trastuzumab primary resistance, and to observe the inhibitory effect of HER3 monoclonal antibody on HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. BT474 cells (trastuzumab sensitive) and MDA-MB-453 cells (trastuzumab resistant) were first stimulated with NRG1 and then treated with either trastuzumab, HER3 antibody, or a combination of both. The expression of phospho human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (p-HER2), phospho human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (p-HER3), phospho protein kinase B (p-Akt) and phospho mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) were detected by western blotting. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Without NRG1 stimulation, trastuzumab treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of p-HER2, increased early apoptosis, and decreased cell viability in BT474 cells. After NRG1 stimulation, the aforementioned effects weakened or disappeared in the trastuzumab treatment group, whereas in the HER3 antibody treatment group, there was significant downregulation in p-HER3 expression and increase in early apoptosis of BT474 cells. In MDA-MB-453 cells, the HER3 antibody significantly downregulated both p-HER2 and p-HER3 and promoted early apoptosis after NRG1 stimulation, however, trastuzumab hardly played a role. p-Akt and p-MAPK were also significantly downregulated by the HER3 antibody after NRG1 stimulation. The expressions of p-HER2, p-HER3, p-Akt and p-MAPK were all downregulated after HER3 gene silencing, compared to the control. NRG1-dependent activation of HER3 induces primary resistance to trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. HER3 monoclonal antibody combined with trastuzumab may serve as a treatment choice for patients with primary resistance to trastuzumab.

Design and numerical analysis of a THz square porous-core photonic crystal fiber for low flattened dispersion, ultrahigh birefringence.

We propose a kind of square porous-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for polarization-maintaining terahertz (THz) wave guidance. An asymmetry is introduced by implementing rectangular array air holes in the porous core of the PCF, and ultrahigh birefringence and low effective material loss (EML) can be achieved simultaneously. The properties of THz wave propagation are analyzed numerically in detail. The numerical results indicate that the proposed fiber offers a high birefringence of 0.063 and a low EML of 0.081  cm(-1) at 1 THz. Moreover, a very low flattened dispersion profile is observed over a wide frequency domain of 0.85-1.9 THz. The zero flattened dispersion can be controlled. It is predicted that this PCF would be used potentially in polarization maintaining and dispersion management of THz waves.

MiR-93-5p promotes gastric cancer-cell progression via inactivation of the Hippo signaling pathway.

MiR-93-5p has been previously found to be associated with gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis; however, the current understanding of its function in this context remains largely incomplete. In the present study, we showed that miR-93-5p was upregulated in GC tissues. We also demonstrated that miR-93-5p overexpression promoted the proliferation, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance of SGC-7901 cells in vitro, and conversely, that endogenously silencing miR-93-5p expression induced the opposite effects in HGC-27 cells. Overexpression of miR-93-5p was found to inactivate the Hippo pathway, and furthermore, miR-93-5p knockdown activated Hippo signaling. MiR-93-5p upregulation was also shown to inhibit the expression of two well-characterized Hippo pathway regulators, protocadherin Fat 4 (FAT4), and large tumor suppressors 2 (LATS2), at both the mRNA and protein level. Additionally, the results of bioinformatics analyses and luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-93-5p directly targets the 3'-UTR of FAT4 and LATS2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-93-5p promotes GC-cell progression via the inactivation of the Hippo signaling pathway, and thus, represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GC.

Neurexin gene family variants as risk factors for autism spectrum disorder.

Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synaptic function leads to neuronal developmental disorders and is an important component of the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that affect the function of synapses and mediate the conduction of nerve signals. Thus, neurexins are attractive candidate genes for autism. Since gene families have greater power to reveal genetic association than single genes, we designed this case-control study to investigate six genetic variants in three neurexin genes (NRXN1, NRXN2, and NRXN3) in a Chinese population including 529 ASD patients and 1,923 healthy controls. We found that two SNPs were significantly associated with ASD after false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment for multiple comparisons. The NRXN2 rs12273892 polymorphism T allele and AT genotype were significantly associated with increased risk of ASD (respectively: OR = 1.328, 95% CI = 1.133-1.557, P < 0.001; OR = 1.528; 95% CI = 1.249-1.868, P < 0.001). The dominant model showed the same association (OR = 1.495, 95% CI = 1.231-1.816, P < 0.001). The NRXN3 rs12879016 polymorphism played a significant role in ASD susceptibility under the dominant model (OR = 0.747, 95% CI= 0.615-0.908, P = 0.023), with the same trend detected for the G allele and GT genotype (respectively: OR = 0.811, 95% CI = 0.699-0.941, P = 0.036; OR = 0.755, 95% CI = 0.615-0.928, P = 0.035). In conclusion, this study supports the importance of two genetic variants in the neurexin gene family in ASD susceptibility in China. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Implication of decreased serum complement 3 in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

The serum complement 3 (C3) level was reduced in many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the clinical implications of such change are still less understood. This study was aimed to explore the association between C3 level and the baseline clinicopathological characteristics and the prognosis of T2DM patients with DN.

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells increase interleukin-9 production of CD4(+) T cells.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into cells of multiple lineage, and additionally act to modulate the immune response. Interleukin (IL)-9 is primarily produced by cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) T cells to regulate the immune response. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of human umbilical cord derived-MSC (UC-MSC) on IL-9 production of human CD4(+) T cells. It was demonstrated that the addition of UC-MSC to the culture of CD4(+) T cells significantly enhanced IL-9 production by CD4(+) T cells. Transwell experiments suggested that UC-MSC promotion of IL-9 production by CD4(+) T cells was dependent on cell-cell contact. Upregulated expression of CD106 was observed in UC-MSC co-cultured with CD4(+) T cells, and the addition of a blocking antibody of CD106 significantly impaired the ability of UC-MSC to promote IL-9 production by CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that UC-MSC promoted the generation of IL-9 producing cells, which may be mediated, in part by CD106. The findings may act to expand understanding and knowledge of the immune modulatory role of UC-MSC.

Studying aerosol light scattering based on aspect ratio distribution observed by fluorescence microscope.

Particle shape is crucial to the properties of light scattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. A method of fluorescence microscopy direct observation was introduced to determine the aspect ratio distribution of aerosol particles. The result is comparable with that of the electron microscopic analysis. The measured aspect ratio distribution has been successfully applied in modeling light scattering and further in simulation of polarization measurements of the sun/sky radiometer. These efforts are expected to improve shape retrieval from skylight polarization by using directly measured aspect ratio distribution.

Downregulation of miR-874-3p promotes chemotherapeutic resistance in colorectal cancer via inactivation of the Hippo signaling pathway.

Overcoming resistance to chemotherapy is an arduous challenge in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), particularly since the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we reported that miR‑874-3p was markedly downregulated in CRC tissues compared with that in adjacent normal colorectal epithelial tissues. Upregulation of miR-874-3p attenuated the chemoresistance of CRC cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, inhibition of miR-874-3p yielded an opposite effect. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that miR-874-3p directly inhibited the expression of transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ of the Hippo signaling pathway, resulting in the inactivation of the TEAD transcription. Thus, our findings clarify a novel mechanism by which miR-874-3p restores chemotherapeutic sensitivity of CRC to 5-FU, indicating that offering miR-874-3p mimics in combination with 5-FU may serve as a new therapeutic strategy to circumvent the chemoresistance in CRC.

RUNX3 plays an important role in mediating the BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Although bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is highly capable of promoting the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) both in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms involved remain to be fully elucidated. Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX)3 is an essential regulator of osteoblast/chondrocyte maturation. However, the exact role of RUNX3 in BMP9 osteoinductive activity is unknown. In this study, we sought to investigate the functional role of RUNX3 in the BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. We found that BMP9 upregulated the endogenous expression of RUNX3 in MSCs. The overexpression or/and knockdown of RUNX3 both increased the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) a marker of BMP9-induced early osteogenic differentiation. Nevertheless, matrix mineralization, a marker of BMP9-induced late osteogenic differentiation was enhanced by the overexpression of RUNX3, whereas it was inhibited by the knockdown of RUNX3. The BMP9-induced expression of osteogenic pivotal transcription factors [inhibitor of differentiation (Id)3, distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5) and RUNX2)] was further increased by the overexpression of RUNX3; however, it was reduced by the knockdown of RUNX3. However, the expression levels of Id1 and Id2 were both enhanced by the overexpression or/and knockdown of RUNX3. The BMP9-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was increased with the overexpression of RUNX3, and yet was decreased with the knockdown of RUNX3. Collectively, our findings suggest that RUNX3 is an essential modulator of the BMP9-induced osteoblast lineage differentiation of MSCs.

Uncovering exposures responsible for birth season - disease effects: a global study.

Birth month and climate impact lifetime disease risk, while the underlying exposures remain largely elusive. We seek to uncover distal risk factors underlying these relationships by probing the relationship between global exposure variance and disease risk variance by birth season.

CUX1 Stimulates APE1 Enzymatic Activity and Increases the Resistance of Glioblastoma Cells to the Mono-Alkylating Agent, Temozolomide.

CUX1, which encodes an auxiliary factor in base excision repair, resides on 7q22.1, the most frequently and highly amplified chromosomal region in glioblastomas. The resistance of glioblastoma cells to the mono-alkylating agent temozolomide is determined to some extent by the activity of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, APE1.

Sesquiterpenes from the Endophyte Glomerella cingulata.

From the cultured endophytic fungus Glomerella cingulata isolated from a toxic plant, Gelsemium elegans, one new phenanthrene (1), four new sesquiterpenes (2-5), and three known sesquiterpenes (6-8) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Based on the ECD calculations, the absolute configurations of the new compounds were determined. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in BV2 cells by 50.6, 36.1, and 29.4%, respectively, at 1 μM (positive control curcumin, IC50 = 4.0 μM).

Genome-Nuclear Lamina Interactions Regulate Cardiac Stem Cell Lineage Restriction.

Progenitor cells differentiate into specialized cell types through coordinated expression of lineage-specific genes and modification of complex chromatin configurations. We demonstrate that a histone deacetylase (Hdac3) organizes heterochromatin at the nuclear lamina during cardiac progenitor lineage restriction. Specification of cardiomyocytes is associated with reorganization of peripheral heterochromatin, and independent of deacetylase activity, Hdac3 tethers peripheral heterochromatin containing lineage-relevant genes to the nuclear lamina. Deletion of Hdac3 in cardiac progenitor cells releases genomic regions from the nuclear periphery, leading to precocious cardiac gene expression and differentiation into cardiomyocytes; in contrast, restricting Hdac3 to the nuclear periphery rescues myogenesis in progenitors otherwise lacking Hdac3. Our results suggest that availability of genomic regions for activation by lineage-specific factors is regulated in part through dynamic chromatin-nuclear lamina interactions and that competence of a progenitor cell to respond to differentiation signals may depend upon coordinated movement of responding gene loci away from the nuclear periphery.

Brown adipocytes can display a mammary basal myoepithelial cell phenotype in vivo.

Previous work has suggested that white adipocytes may also show a mammary luminal secretory cell phenotype during lactation. The capacity of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to display a mammary cell phenotype and the levels at which they demonstrate such phenotypes in vivo is currently unknown.

The genetically engineered drug rhCNB induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial route in tumor cells.

The calcineurin B subunit (CNB) has antitumor activity. We showed previously that recombinant human CNB (rhCNB) also had strong anti-tumor activity in vivo, and was thus a promising candidate anti-tumor drug. It appeared to kill tumor cells via immunomodulation. Here, we show that rhCNB inhibits the proliferation of human hepatoma HepG-2 cells, resulting in their apoptosis. Exogenous CNB was found to localize to mitochondria in tumor cells and activate the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, as indicated by a decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome C and activation of caspase-9, which then activates caspase-3. At the same time Bcl-2 &Bcl-xL expression decreased, Bim expression increased, and Bax was activated. Interaction between rhCNB and Bcl-xL was detected, which may inhibit the function of Bcl-xL. Long-term tumor targeting was also observed in nude mice. These data deepened our understanding of the anti-tumor mechanism of rhCNB and provided guidance for its drug development.

The effects of head-cooling on brain function during passive hyperthermia: an fMRI study.

To investigate the effect of head-cooling on resting-state spontaneous brain activity during passive hyperthermia.

Clinical features and outcomes in secondary adult hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by an infrequent but immune-mediated life-threatening disease, with confusing clinical manifestations, rapidly deteriorating health, high morbidity and mortality and challenging diagnosis.

Bypassing the Kohn-Sham equations with machine learning.

Last year, at least 30,000 scientific papers used the Kohn-Sham scheme of density functional theory to solve electronic structure problems in a wide variety of scientific fields. Machine learning holds the promise of learning the energy functional via examples, bypassing the need to solve the Kohn-Sham equations. This should yield substantial savings in computer time, allowing larger systems and/or longer time-scales to be tackled, but attempts to machine-learn this functional have been limited by the need to find its derivative. The present work overcomes this difficulty by directly learning the density-potential and energy-density maps for test systems and various molecules. We perform the first molecular dynamics simulation with a machine-learned density functional on malonaldehyde and are able to capture the intramolecular proton transfer process. Learning density models now allows the construction of accurate density functionals for realistic molecular systems.Machine learning allows electronic structure calculations to access larger system sizes and, in dynamical simulations, longer time scales. Here, the authors perform such a simulation using a machine-learned density functional that avoids direct solution of the Kohn-Sham equations.

LncRNA CCAT1/miR-130a-3p axis increases cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer cell line by targeting SOX4.

Colon cancer-associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) has been demonstrated to act as an oncogene and promote chemoresistance in several cancers. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism of CCAT1 in cisplatin (DDP) resistance of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

Decalin-Containing Tetramic acids and 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity from the Fungus Coniochaeta cephalothecoides Collected in Tibetan Plateau (Medog).

New tetramic acid derivatives, (±)-conipyridoins A-D (1-4), conipyridoins E (5) and F (6), as well as new 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone alkaloids (±)-didymellamide E (7), (+)-didymellamide B (8), (+)-N-hydroxyapiosporamide (9), and didymellamides F-H (10-12) were isolated and identified from the solid culture of the fungus Coniochaeta cephalothecoides. Chiral resolution of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 gave five pairs of enantiomers, 1a/1b, 2a/2b, 3a/3b, 4a/4b, and 7a/7b, respectively. Stereochemistry of 1a and 1b, 2a and 2b, was established and confirmed by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) methods. Absolute configuration in 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 7a, and 7b was assigned by ECD calculations, respectively. Compounds 1-6 possess an unprecedented chemical skeleton featuring with a decalin ring and a tetramic acid moiety. Compound 11 significantly inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus with MIC of 3.13 and 1.56 μM, respectively, and was further confirmed to be a new chitin synthesis inhibitor. Compound 5 exhibited the strongest activity against the growth of both S. aureus and MRSA with MIC value of 0.97 μM. In the light of a co-occurrence of 3-acyl tetramic acids and biogenetically related pyridine alkaloids, the biosynthetic pathway for 1-12 was postulated.

Anthraquinones from the saline-alkali plant endophytic fungus Eurotium rubrum.

Phosphine inhibits transcription of the catalase gene through the DRE/DREF system in Drosophila melanogaster.

Phosphine (PH3) is a toxin commonly used for pest control. Its toxicity is attributed primarily to its ability to induce oxidative damage. Our previous work showed that phosphine could disrupt the cell antioxidant defence system by inhibiting expression of the catalase gene in Drosophila melanogaster (DmCAT). However, the exact mechanism of this inhibition remains unclear. Here, we implemented a luciferase reporter assay driven by the DmCAT promoter in D. melanogaster S2 cells and showed that this reporter could be inhibited by phosphine treatment. A minimal fragment of the promoter (-94 to 0 bp), which contained a DNA replication-related element (DRE) consensus motif (-78 to -85 bp), was sufficient for phosphine-mediated reporter inhibition, suggesting the involvement of the transcription factor DREF. Furthermore, phosphine treatment led to a reduction in DREF expression and consequent repression of DmCAT transcription. Our results provide new insights on the molecular mechanism of phosphine-mediated catalase inhibition. Phosphine treatment leads to reduced levels of the transcription factor DREF, a positive regulator of the DmCAT gene, thereby resulting in the repression of DmCAT at transcriptional level.

Internal Light Source-Driven Photoelectrochemical 3D-rGO/Cellulose Device Based on Cascade DNA Amplification Strategy Integrating Target Analog Chain and DNA Mimic Enzyme.

In this work, a chemiluminescence-driven collapsible greeting card-like photoelectrochemical lab-on-paper device (GPECD) with hollow channel was demonstrated, in which target-triggering cascade DNA amplification strategy was ingeniously introduced. The GPECD had the functions of reagents storage and signal collection, and the change of configuration could control fluidic path, reaction time and alterations in electrical connectivity. In addition, three-dimentional reduced graphene oxide affixed Au flower was in situ grown on paper cellulose fiber for achieving excellent conductivity and biocompatibility. The cascade DNA amplification strategy referred to the cyclic formation of target analog chain and its trigger action to hybridization chain reaction (HCR), leading to the formation of numerous hemin/G-quadruplex DNA mimic enzyme with the presence of hemin. Subjected to the catalysis of hemin/G-quadruplex, the strong chemiluminiscence of luminol-H2O2 system was obtained, which then was used as internal light source to excite photoactive materials realizing the simplification of instrument. In this analyzing process, thrombin served as proof-of-concept, and the concentration of target was converted into the DNA signal output by the specific recognition of aptamer-protein and target analog chain recycling. The target analog chain was produced in quantity with the presence of target, which further triggered abundant HCR and introduced hemin/G-quadruplex into the system. The photocurrent signal was obtained after the nitrogen-doped carbon dots sensitized ZnO was stimulated by chemiluminescence. The proposed GPECD exhibited excellent specificity and sensitivity toward thrombin with a detection limit of 16.7 fM. This judiciously engineered GPECD paved a luciferous way for detecting other protein with trace amounts in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine.

Dynamic transcriptomic analysis in hircine longissimus dorsi muscle from fetal to neonatal development stages.

Muscle growth and development from fetal to neonatal stages consist of a series of delicately regulated and orchestrated changes in expression of genes. In this study, we performed whole transcriptome profiling based on RNA-Seq of caprine longissimus dorsi muscle tissue obtained from prenatal stages (days 45, 60, and 105 of gestation) and neonatal stage (the 3-day-old newborn) to identify genes that are differentially expressed and investigate their temporal expression profiles. A total of 3276 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified (Q value < 0.01). Time-series expression profile clustering analysis indicated that DEGs were significantly clustered into eight clusters which can be divided into two classes (Q value < 0.05), class I profiles with downregulated patterns and class II profiles with upregulated patterns. Based on cluster analysis, GO enrichment analysis found that 75, 25, and 8 terms to be significantly enriched in biological process (BP), cellular component (CC), and molecular function (MF) categories in class I profiles, while 35, 21, and 8 terms to be significantly enriched in BP, CC, and MF in class II profiles. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that DEGs from class I profiles were significantly enriched in 22 pathways and the most enriched pathway was Rap1 signaling pathway. DEGs from class II profiles were significantly enriched in 17 pathways and the mainly enriched pathway was AMPK signaling pathway. Finally, six selected DEGs from our sequencing results were confirmed by qPCR. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms during goat skeletal muscle development from fetal to neonatal stages and valuable information for future studies of muscle development in goats.

Light-Harvesting Organic Nanocrystals Capable of Photon Upconversion.

Harvesting and converting low energy photons into higher ones through upconversion have great potential in solar energy conversion. A light-harvesting nanocrystal assembled from 9,10-distyrylanthracene and palladium(II) meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin as the acceptor and the sensitizer, respectively effects red-to-green upconversion under incoherent excitation of low power density. An upconversion quantum yield of 0.29±0.02 % is obtained upon excitation with 640 nm laser of 120 mW cm(-2) . The well-organized packing of acceptor molecules with aggregation-induced emission in the nanocrystals dramatically reduces the nonradiative decay of the excited acceptor, benefits the triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion and guides the consequent upconverted emission. This work provides a straightforward strategy to develop light-harvesting nanocrystals based on TTA upconversion, which is attractive for energy conversion and photonic applications.

Mechanisms of inhibiting human leukemia cell lines by serum of rats treated with compound banmao capsule.

Compound banmao capsule (CBC) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula composed of extracts from 11 organisms. The present study investigated the mechanism of CBC on the biological behavior of human leukemia cell lines using seropharmacological methods. CBC-containing rat serum was prepared by intragastrical administration of CBC to rats. The proliferation of human leukemia HL60 and K562 cell lines was assayed by measuring cell viability with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium method, while cell cycle distribution and the rate of apoptosis were evaluated with flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and chemotactic and inflammatory genes in human leukemia cell lines was examined using reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction methods. It was revealed that the proliferation of K562 and HL60 cells was significantly inhibited by the CBC-containing rat serum at 72 h. The CBC-containing serum also promoted the apoptosis of K562 and HL60 cell lines. The CBC-containing serum altered the cell cycle progression of K562 and HL60, increasing the proportion of the cells in G1 phase and decreasing the proportion of the cells in S phase. Attenuated expression of VEGF-A and a decreasing trend in the expression of chemotactic and inflammatory genes were identified following treatment with CBC-containing serum in HL60 and K562 cells. In conclusion, CBC-containing serum exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of K562 and HL60 cells by decreasing cellular proliferation, promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and decreasing the expression of VEGF-A, and chemotactic and inflammatory genes.