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Mario Teo - Top 30 Publications

Progressive blurred vision in a 44 year old woman.

Improper Use of Case Control Study in Neurosurgery: How Do We Improve?

Keyhole retrosigmoid approach for large vestibular schwannomas: strategies to improve outcomes.

OBJECTIVE There are numerous treatment strategies in the management for large vestibular schwannomas, including resection only, staged resections, resections followed by radiosurgery, and radiosurgery only. Recent evidence has pointed toward maximal resection as being the optimum strategy to prevent tumor recurrence; however, durable tumor control through aggressive resection has been shown to occur at the expense of facial nerve function and to risk other approach-related complications. Through a retrospective analysis of their single-institution series of keyhole neurosurgical approaches for large vestibular schwannomas, the authors aim to report and justify key techniques to maximize tumor resection and reduce surgical morbidity. METHODS A retrospective chart review was performed at the Centre for Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery. All patients who had undergone a keyhole retrosigmoid approach for the resection of large vestibular schwannomas, defined as having a tumor diameter of ≥ 3.0 cm, were included in this review. Patient demographics, preoperative cranial nerve status, perioperative data, and postoperative follow-up were obtained. A review of the literature for resections of large vestibular schwannomas was also performed. The authors' institutional data were compared with the historical data from the literature. RESULTS Between 2004 and 2017, 45 patients met the inclusion criteria for this retrospective chart review. When compared with findings in a historical cohort in the literature, the authors' minimally invasive, keyhole retrosigmoid technique for the resection of large vestibular schwannomas achieved higher rates of gross-total or near-total resection (100% vs 83%). Moreover, these results compare favorably with the literature in facial nerve preservation (House-Brackmann I-II) at follow-up after gross-total resections (81% vs 47%, p < 0.001) and near-total resections (88% vs 75%, p = 0.028). There were no approach-related complications in this series. CONCLUSIONS It is the experience of the senior author that complete or near-complete resection of large vestibular schwannomas can be successfully achieved via a keyhole approach. In this series of 45 large vestibular schwannomas, a greater extent of resection was achieved while demonstrating high rates of facial nerve preservation and low approach-related and postoperative complications compared with the literature.

The Prevalence of Cerebrovascular Abnormalities Detected in Various Diagnostic Subgroups of Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Modern Era.

To determine prevalence of cerebrovascular abnormalities in diagnostic subgroups of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a regional neurosurgical center in the modern era.

Adenosine-induced cardiac arrest as an alternative to temporary clipping during intracranial aneurysm surgery.

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of adenosine-induced cardiac arrest (AiCA) on temporary clipping (TC) and the postoperative cerebral infarction rate among patients undergoing intracranial aneurysm surgery. METHODS In this retrospective matched-cohort study, 65 patients who received adenosine for decompression of aneurysms during microsurgical clipping were identified (Group A) and randomly matched with 65 selected patients who underwent clipping but did not receive adenosine during surgery (Group B). The matching criteria included age, Fisher grade, aneurysm size, rupture status, and location of aneurysms. The primary outcomes were TC time and the postoperative infarction rate. The secondary outcome was the incidence of intraoperative aneurysm rupture (IAR). RESULTS In Group A, 40 patients underwent clipping with AiCA alone and 25 patients (38%) received AiCA combined with TC, and in Group B, 60 patients (92%) underwent aneurysm clipping under the protection of TC (OR 0.052; 95% CI 0.018-0.147; p < 0.001). Group A required less TC time (2.04 minutes vs 4.46 minutes; p < 0.001). The incidence of postoperative lacunar infarction was equal in both groups (6.2%). There was an insignificant between-group difference in the incidence of IAR (1.5% in Group A vs 6.1% in Group B; OR 0.238; 95% CI 0.026-2.192; p = 0.171). CONCLUSIONS AiCA is a useful technique for microneurosurgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms. AiCA can minimize the use of TC and does not increase the risk of IAR and postoperative infarction.

Implications of Antiangiogenic Therapy on Radiographic Assessment of Brain Tumors.

Management of Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Developmental Venous Anomalies: A Literature Review and Report of 2 Cases.

Classification of cerebrovascular malformations has revealed intermediary lesions that warrant further review owing to their unusual presentation and management. We present 2 cases of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) associated with a developmental venous anomaly (DVA), and discuss the efficacy of previously published management strategies.

Strategies for and Outcome of Repeat Revascularization Surgery for Moyamoya Disease: An American Institutional Series.

Revascularization for moyamoya disease (MMD) effectively prevents future ischemic events. However, small subsets of patients with persistent or new symptoms due to inadequate collateralization require repeat revascularizations.

What Factors Determine Treatment Outcome in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Modern Era? A Post Hoc STASH Analysis.

The management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has changed dramatically in the last few decades with the publication of a few major studies, including ISAT (International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial, the International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery Study). The aim of this study is to analyze the outcome of patients with aSAH based on a contemporary series, identify the risk factors for poor outcome, and focus on patients with good-grade aSAH (to match the ISAT cohort).

Surgeon Adherence to Medical Ethics as Contingent on Their Leadership in the Changing Economics of Health Care.

Brainstem arteriovenous malformations: lesion characteristics and treatment outcomes.

OBJECTIVE Brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions that are difficult to diagnose and treat. They are often more aggressive in their behavior when compared with their supratentorial counterparts. The consequence of a brainstem hemorrhage is often devastating, and many patients are in poor neurological status at presentation. The authors examine the factors associated with angiographically confirmed cure and those affecting management outcomes for these complex lesions. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of data gathered from the prospectively maintained Stanford AVM database. Lesions were grouped based on their location in the brainstem (medulla, pons, or midbrain) and the quadrant they occupied. Angiographic cure was dichotomized as completely obliterated or not, and functional outcome was dichotomized as either independent or not independent at last follow-up. RESULTS Over a 23-year period, 39 lesions were treated. Of these, 3 were located in the medulla, 14 in the pons, and 22 in the midbrain. At presentation, 92% of the patients had hemorrhage, and only 43.6% were functionally independent. Surgery resulted in the best radiographic cure rates, with a morbidity rate of 12.5%. In all, 53% of patients either improved or remained stable after surgery. Absence of residual nidus and female sex correlated with better outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Brainstem AVMs usually present with hemorrhage. Surgery offers the best chance of cure, either in isolation or in combination with other modalities as appropriate.

"Dirty coagulation" technique as an alternative to microclips for control of bleeding from deep feeders during brain arteriovenous malformation surgery.

Meticulous haemostasis is one of the most important factors during microneurosurgical resection of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Controlling major arterial feeders and draining veins with clips and bipolar coagulation are well-established techniques, while managing with bleeding from deep tiny vessels still proves to be challenging. This technical note describes a technique used by the senior author in AVM surgery for last 20 years in dealing with the issue highlighted.

Microneurosurgical Management of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: A Contemporary Series from Helsinki.

The objectives of this study were to analyze microsurgical techniques and to determine correlations between microsurgical techniques and the radiographic findings in the microneurosurgical treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms (PCoAAs).

Interventional therapy for brain arteriovenous malformations before and after ARUBA.

The ARUBA trial (2014) concluded that medical management alone is superior to medical management plus interventional therapy for the treatment of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). This sparked considerable controversy among involved healthcare providers. Here, we evaluated the impact of ARUBA on the volume, type, and treatment modality of bAVMs referred to a large tertiary care center. This was achieved by conducting a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all bAVMs treated at Stanford Health Care and Stanford Children's Health from January 2012 through July 2015. The case volume of bAVMs treated at Stanford has been relatively unchanged in the period of time leading up to and after ARUBA. Furthermore, there has been no significant change in the proportion of unruptured AVMs treated. Although differences existed in types of interventions administered, these differences are best explained by variations in the SM grades of AVMs treated during each study period, rather than by underlying changes in treatment strategy. Additional research is warranted to more thoroughly characterize the impact of ARUBA on the treatment patterns of bAVMS.

Comparative surgical outcome associated with the management of brain arteriovenous malformation in a regional neurosurgical centre.

Microsurgical resection of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) is challenging, however, expert surgical series from large volume centres, have reported over 95% occlusion rates with 2 to 8% risk of morbidity & mortality. Data from a regional neurosurgical unit was analysed and compared with published series for the purposes of quality control. We also compared our surgical result with other treatment modalities from the whole AVM cohort managed over the same study period.

Surgical outcomes of Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II with intracranial vascular anomalies.

OBJECTIVE Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic disorder. Features of it include extremely small stature, severe microcephaly, and normal or near-normal intelligence. Previous studies have found that more than 50% of patients with MOPD II have intracranial vascular anomalies, but few successful surgical revascularization or aneurysm-clipping cases have been reported because of the diminutive arteries and narrow surgical corridors in these patients. Here, the authors report on a large series of patients with MOPD II who underwent surgery for an intracranial vascular anomaly. METHODS In conjunction with an approved prospective registry of patients with MOPD II, a prospectively collected institutional surgical database of children with MOPD II and intracranial vascular anomalies who underwent surgery was analyzed retrospectively to establish long-term outcomes. RESULTS Ten patients with MOPD II underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012; 5 patients had moyamoya disease (MMD), 2 had intracranial aneurysms, and 3 had both MMD and aneurysms. Patients presented with transient ischemic attack (TIA) (n = 2), ischemic stroke (n = 2), intraparenchymal hemorrhage from MMD (n = 1), and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), and 4 were diagnosed on screening. The mean age of the 8 patients with MMD, all of whom underwent extracranial-intracranial revascularization (14 indirect, 1 direct) was 9 years (range 1-17 years). The mean age of the 5 patients with aneurysms was 15.5 years (range 9-18 years). Two patients experienced postoperative complications (1 transient weakness after clipping, 1 femoral thrombosis that required surgical repair). During a mean follow-up of 5.9 years (range 3-10 years), 3 patients died (1 of subarachnoid hemorrhage, 1 of myocardial infarct, and 1 of respiratory failure), and 1 patient had continued TIAs. All of the surviving patients recovered to their neurological baseline. CONCLUSIONS Patients with MMD presented at a younger age than those in whom aneurysms were more prevalent. Microneurosurgery with either intracranial bypass or aneurysm clipping is extremely challenging but feasible at expert centers in patients with MOPD II, and good long-term outcomes are possible.

Editorial: Direct versus indirect bypass for moyamoya disease: ongoing controversy.

The Outcome of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Large Vestibular Schwannomas.

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for large vestibular schwannomas (VS) remains controversial. We studied the tumor local control and toxicity rates after hypofractionated SRS for VS > 3 cm.

Radiologic Surveillance of Untreated Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Single Surgeon's Experience.

The management of untreated unruptured intracranial aneurysms remains controversial. The natural history is still not well understood and many patients are not routinely followed up. We present a single surgeon's data on radiologic surveillance of these lesions.

Time for BARBADOS after ARUBA trial.

Defending a traditional practice in the modern era: The use of lumbar puncture in the investigation of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

Acute severe headache is a common medical presentation, and a common area of diagnostic uncertainty. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is the cause in a minority of patients and has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, its conclusive diagnosis with computed tomography (CT) or lumbar puncture (LP) is paramount. With advancement in imaging technology, emerging evidence now suggests that LP is no longer required for a subset of patients as CT has 100% sensitivity in detecting SAH, when performed under specific conditions.

Results of surgical clipping in a neurointerventional dominant department.

It has been 10 years since the publication of International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) (1-3) and the first-line treatment for cerebral aneurysms in many UK neurosurgical centres is endovascular occlusion. Local audit has shown a significant reduction in surgical clipping cases since 2002, with a fall from over 150 cases per year pre ISAT, to approximately 25 cases per year currently. More so the cases referred for surgical occlusion represent more challenging lesions. With such a reduction in surgical numbers we felt it prudent to review our recent surgical outcomes.

Spontaneous Resolution of Radiotherapy-induced Craniopharyngioma Cyst.

Craniopharyngioma cyst enlargement after surgery and radiation therapy is often presumed to represent a treatment failure, instigating further management strategies. We present an eight-year-old girl with a small intrasellar residuum post-resection who then developed cystic enlargement post-radiotherapy. With close surveillance, the cyst spontaneously resolved.

The Diagnosis and Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in a Single Regional Center.

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations are vascular abnormalities in which arteriovenous shunting occurs through an abnormal vascular network (nidus) in the parenchyma. These lesions typically present by the third decade of life with cerebral bleeding, seizures, headache, or neurologic deficits; however, they are sometimes found incidentally.

The effectiveness of percutaneous balloon compression in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is more common in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients than in the general population and among the former has an incidence of approximately 2%. The pathophysiology of TN in MS patients is believed to be caused by a demyelinating plaque at the root entry zone, and therefore procedures that cause direct nerve damage are thought to be the most effective surgical modality. The authors aimed to compare the efficacy of percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) in TN patients with and without MS.

Effective management of lower divisional pain in trigeminal neuralgia using balloon traction.

Percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) of the trigeminal ganglion uses a differential injury of axons to interfere with the nerve's ability to transmit signals. In our experience, patients with lower divisional pain (V3) are often more difficult to control using PBC. We describe a modification to the PBC technique for patients with lower division (V3) pain, and present our experience to date.

Clinical features and long-term outcomes of moyamoya disease: a single-center experience with 528 cases in China.

The aim of this study was to describe the baseline clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) based on a 25-year period at a single center in China.

Neck transfixion for sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts without spinal nerve root fibers.

This prospective study analyzes clinical characteristics and outcomes of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts (SESMC) without spinal nerve root fibers (SNRF) undergoing neck transfixion.

Risk of cerebral arteriovenous malformation rupture during pregnancy and puerperium.

To determine whether the risk of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture is increased during pregnancy and puerperium.

Comparative outcomes of the two types of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts using different operation methods: a prospective clinical study.

This prospective study compares different clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with two types of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts (SESMC) undergoing different means of surgical excision. Using the relationship between the cysts and spinal nerve roots fibers (SNRF) as seen under microscope, SESMCs were divided into two types: cysts with SNRF known as Tarlov cysts and cysts without. The surgical methods were tailored to the different types of SESMCs. The improved Japanese Orthopedic Association (IJOA) scoring system was used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative neurological function of the patients. Preoperative IJOA scores were 18.5 ± 1.73, and postoperative IJOA scores were 19.6 ± 0.78. The difference between preoperative and postoperative IJOA scores was statistically significant (t = -4.52, p = 0.0001), with a significant improvement in neurological function after surgery. Among the improvements in neurological functions, the most significant was sensation (z=-2.74, p=0.006), followed by bowel/bladder function (z=-2.50, p=0.01). There was a statistically significant association between the types of SESMC and the number (F=12.57, p=0.001) and maximum diameter (F=8.08, p=0.006) of the cysts. SESMC with SNRF are often multiple and small, while cysts without SNRF tend to be solitary and large. We advocate early surgical intervention for symptomatic SESMCs in view of significant clinical improvement postoperatively.