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Nan Zhou - Top 30 Publications

Circulating asprosin concentrations are increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus and independently associated with fasting glucose and triglyceride.

Asprosin has been identified as a novel hormone enriched in white adipose tissue and is pathologically increased in insulin-resistant mice and humans. However, information regarding the role of asprosin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unavailable. Via conducting a hospital-based study, we purposed to ascertain the potential relationship between circulating asprosin concentrations and T2DM.

Functional and structural neural alterations in Internet gaming disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

This meta-analytic study aimed to identify the common and specific neural alterations in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) across different domains and modalities. Two separate meta-analyses for functional neural activation and gray-matter volume were conducted. Sub-meta-analyses for the domains of reward, cold-executive, and hot-executive functions were also performed, respectively. IGD subjects, compared with healthy controls, showed: (1) hyperactivation in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, caudate, posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which were mainly associated with studies measuring reward and cold-executive functions; and, (2) hypoactivation in the anterior IFG in relation to hot-executive function, the posterior insula, somatomotor and somatosensory cortices in relation to reward function. Furthermore, IGD subjects showed reduced gray-matter volume in the anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and premotor cortices. These findings suggest that IGD is associated with both functional and structural neural alterations in fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate regions. Moreover, multi-domain assessments capture different aspects of neural alterations in IGD, which may be helpful for developing effective interventions targeting specific functions.

The Role of Maternal and Child Characteristics in Chinese Children's Dietary Intake Across Three Groups.

To examine whether mothers' early-life food insecurity (ELFI), pressuring to eat feeding practices (PEP), and child effortful control (EC) are associated with child dietary intake within and across three Chinese ethnic groups.

Endotracheal intubation in elective cervical surgery: A randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded study.

We compared the effectiveness and safety of endotracheal intubation using the GlideScope (GS) video laryngoscope, CTrach laryngeal mask airway (LMA), or Shikani optical stylet rigid laryngoscope (SOS) during elective cervical surgery.

Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis can evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict late xerostomia degree in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased (P < 0.001, = 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively), but all other ADC histogram parameters increased (all P < 0.001, except P = 0.006 for standard deviation [SD]). From time point 2 to 3, parotid volume continued to decrease (P = 0.022), and SD, 75(th) and 90(th) percentiles continued to increase (P = 0.024, 0.010, and 0.006, respectively). Early change rates of parotid ADCmean, ADCmin, kurtosis, and 25(th), 50(th), 75(th), 90(th) percentiles (from time point 1 to 2) correlated with late parotid atrophy rate (from time point 1 to 3) (all P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed correlations among parotid volume, time point, and ADC histogram parameters. Early mean change rates for bilateral parotid SD and ADCmax could predict late xerostomia degrees at seven months after radiotherapy (three months after time point 3) with AUC of 0.781 and 0.818 (P = 0.014, 0.005, respectively). ADC histogram parameters were reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.830 - 0.999). ADC histogram analysis could be used to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage noninvasively, and predict late xerostomia degrees of NPC patients treated with radiotherapy.

Compact tunable electromagnetically induced transparency and Fano resonance on silicon platform.

We propose and demonstrate an on-chip coupling resonant system to generate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect and Fano resonance on silicon platform. It is composed of a microring resonator (MRR) and two cascaded Sagnac-loop mirrors (SLMs) assisted Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity on silicon-on-insulator. According to the coupling conditions of the MRR, two cases are studied theoretically. When the MRR is over coupling, EIT-like transmission can be observed. In contrast, Fano resonances can be generated by the condition of under coupling. In the experiment, the add-drop MRR is under coupling, leading to a sharp asymmetric line shape for Fano resonance. The resonance wavelength of the MRR can be dynamically tuned based on thermal-optic effects by tuning the micro-heater. The experiment results show Fano resonances with maximum extinction ratio (ER) of 23.22 dB and maximum slope rate (SR) of 252 dB/nm. Moreover, the wavelength of Fano resonance can be shifted widely with a tuning efficiency of 0.2335 nm/mW.

Chinese college freshmen's mental health problems and their subsequent help-seeking behaviors: A cohort design (2005-2011).

Based on cohort data obtained from 13,085 college freshmen's (2005 to 2011) SCL-90 (the Symptom Check-List-90) reports and their subsequent 4-year psychological counseling help-seeking records, this study examined the association between college students' mental health problems and help-seeking behaviors across four college years. Female students' mental health problems and help-seeking behaviors increased from the 2005 to the 2011 cohorts and no changes emerged for male students across cohorts. Overall, male students reported higher levels of mental health problems than did female students in the first college year, whereas female students reported more help-seeking behaviors than did male students in the following four college years. College students' mental health problems was associated positively with help-seeking behaviors. College students were more likely to seek help from the college psychological counselling center when they experienced relatively few or quite a lot of mental health issues (i.e., an inversed U shape). Implications for future studies and practices are discussed.

Incremental Theory of Intelligence Moderated the Relationship between Prior Achievement and School Engagement in Chinese High School Students.

School engagement plays a prominent role in promoting academic accomplishments. In contrast to the relative wealth of research that examined the impact of students' school engagement on their academic achievement, considerably less research has investigated the effect of high school students' prior achievement on their school engagement. The present study examined the relationship between prior achievement and school engagement among Chinese high school students. Based on the Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation, we further examined the moderating effect of students' theories of intelligence (TOIs) on this relationship. A total of 4036 (2066 girls) students from five public high school enrolled in grades 10 reported their high school entrance exam achievement in Chinese, Math and English, school engagement, and TOIs. Results showed that (a) students' prior achievement predicted their behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, respectively, and (b) the association between prior achievement and behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement is strong for students with an incremental theory but not for those with an entity theory in the emotional and cognitive engagement. These findings suggest that prior achievement and incremental theory were implicated in relation to adolescents' school engagement. Implications and future research directions were discussed.

Sexual Minority Stress and Same-Sex Relationship Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis of Research Prior to the U.S. Nationwide Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage.

Meta-analytic methods were used to analyze 179 effect sizes retrieved from 32 research reports on the implications that sexual minority stress may have for same-sex relationship well-being. Sexual minority stress (aggregated across different types of stress) was moderately and negatively associated with same-sex relationship well-being (aggregated across different dimensions of relationship well-being). Internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively associated with same-sex relationship well-being, whereas heterosexist discrimination and sexual orientation visibility management were not. Moreover, the effect size for internalized homophobia was significantly larger than those for heterosexist discrimination and sexual orientation visibility management. Sexual minority stress was significantly and negatively associated with same-sex relationship quality but not associated with closeness or stability. Sexual minority stress was significantly and negatively associated with relationship well-being among same-sex female couples but not among same-sex male couples. The current status of research approaches in this field was also summarized and discussed.

Examining pathways linking maternal depressive symptoms in infancy to children's behavior problems: The role of maternal unresponsiveness and negative behaviors.

The extent to which maternal depressive symptoms in the first 6 months of life is linked with internalizing and externalizing behaviors in childhood through specific insensitive maternal behaviors (unresponsive and overtly negative behaviors) was examined in a sample of 259 mother-infant dyads. In addition, the extent to which these paths were moderated by infant negative emotionality was also examined. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and when infants were 6 months and 2 years old. Maternal unresponsive and overtly negative behaviors and infant negative emotionality were observed when infants were 6 months old. Mothers reported on infant's internalizing and externalizing behaviors when infants were 2 years old. Maternal depressive symptoms were directly associated with higher internalizing behaviors; this path was not mediated by maternal behaviors. Depressive symptoms were unrelated to externalizing symptoms. Infant negative emotionality did not moderate these effects, but was related positively to overtly negative maternal behaviors, and temperament interacted with maternal depressive symptoms to predict unresponsive maternal behaviors. Results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms, infant negative emotionality, and negative maternal behavior pose risk for infants' later internalizing behaviors, but the proposed moderated mediation model was not supported.

Mutational signatures efficiently identify different mutational processes underlying cancers with similar somatic mutation spectra.

Compared to analyzing mutations with conventional spectra, deciphering mutational signatures provides much greater resolution of biological processes that generate somatic mutations during cancer development. Previous studies of bladder urothelial cancer (BLCA) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CESC) mutational signatures failed to uncover different mutational processes underlying the two cancers, which diminishes the capability of mutational signature to differentiate between the two cancers. In this study, we deciphered and compared the mutational signatures of BLCA and CESC. Four BLCA mutational signatures were deciphered from 37,098 somatic mutations of 130 exomes. Five CESC mutational signatures were deciphered from 44,206 somatic mutations of 194 exomes. Three BLCA mutational signatures were very similar to the three CESC signatures. These mutational signatures exhibited common endogenous mutational processes during BLCA and CESC development. The respective BLCA and CESC mutational signature 4 revealed the role of viral infection in both cancers. Noticeably, CESC mutational signature 4 is a novel one that has not been described in other studies. In summary, we have demonstrated the similarities and differences between BLCA and CESC by deciphering mutational signatures. This study will shed light on the use of mutational signatures to clarify the mechanisms of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens that cause somatic mutations in human cancers.

Multiple transmission chains of coxsackievirus A4 co-circulating in China and neighboring countries in recent years: Phylogenetic and spatiotemporal analyses based on virological surveillance.

Coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4) has been reported frequently in association with many infectious diseases and cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease potentially associated with CV-A4 infection are also identified. This study summarized the Shandong CV-A4 strains isolated from 25years acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, with an emphasis on exploring the phylogenetic analyses and spatiotemporal dynamics of CV-A4 at the global scale. We sampled 43 CV-A4 isolates and utilized VP1 gene to construct phylogenetic trees. Further extensive Bayesian phylogeographic analysis was carried out to investigate the evolution of CV-A4 and understand the spatiotemporal diffusion around the world using BEAST and SPREAD software. Phylogenetic trees showed that CV-A4 emerged to be more active in recent decades and multiple transmission chains were co-circulating. The molecular clock analysis estimated a mean evolutionary rate of 6.4×10(-3) substitutions/site/year, and the estimated origin of CV-A4 around 1944. The phylogeographic analyses suggested the origin of CV-A4 could be in the USA, however regional dissemination was mainly located around the Asia-Europe region. The spatiotemporal dynamics of CV-A4 exhibited frequent viral traffic among localities, and virus from Shandong province seemed to have played a central role in spreading around China and neighboring countries. Our phylogenetic description and phylogeographic analyses indicate the importance of large spatial- and temporal-scale studies in understanding epidemiological dynamics of CV-A4, particularly the diffusion routes will be of great importance to global control efforts.

Targeting the apoptotic Mcl-1-PUMA interface with a dual-acting compound.

Despite intensive efforts in the search for small molecules with anti-cancer activity, it remains challenging to achieve both high effectiveness and safety, since many agents lack the selectivity to only act on cancer cells. The interface of two apoptotic proteins, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), has been recently affirmed as a target for treating cancers, as the disruption of Mcl-1-PUMA binding can reduce cancer cell survival and protect normal cells from apoptosis. However, therapeutic agents that target this interface are yet to be found. In this work, we combined pharmacophore modelling and biological tests to seek small molecules which target the Mcl-1-PUMA interface. For the first time, a small-molecule compound was identified. Its dual activity has been validated to reduce PUMA-dependent apoptosis while deactivating Mcl-1-mediated anti-apoptosis in cancer cells. Our results would provide a new avenue for the development of effective and safe anti-cancer agents.

Salidroside, a scavenger of ROS, enhances the radioprotective effect of Ex-RAD® via a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway.

Salidroside (Sal), the predominant component of a Chinese medicinal herb, Rhodiola rosea L., has become an attractive bioagent due to its significant anti-radiation, antioxidant and immune adjustment effects. We explored the radioprotective effect of Sal to ascertain whether it could enhance the anti-radiation effect of ON 01210.Na (Ex-RAD®) in vivo and in vitro, and elucidate its underlying mechanism. Our data demonstrated that Sal inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased the DNA damage of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Sal downregulated the expression of Bax and p53 and increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, which indicated that Sal inhibited the radiation-induced apoptosis through p53-dependent pathways. The radioprotection of the Sal pretreatment was also evidenced by an increasing survival rate of the mice, maintaining antioxidant enzyme levels in the liver, and accelerating hematopoietic recovery. The results suggest that Sal exhibits an excellent radioprotective effect with powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. Sal enhanced the radioprotective effect of Ex-RAD by improving the antioxidant effect, the scavenging of ROS, by accelerating hematopoietic recovery and DNA repair as well as by regulating apoptotic and repair signaling pathways. Combined modality treatments were more effective than single-agent treatments, demonstrating the value of multiple-agent radioprotectants.

Sine wave gating silicon single-photon detectors for multiphoton entanglement experiments.

Silicon single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for detecting single photons in the visible wavelength range. Here we present high detection efficiency silicon SPDs dedicated to the generation of multiphoton entanglement based on the technique of high-frequency sine wave gating. The silicon single-photon avalanche diode components are acquired by disassembling 6 commercial single-photon counting modules (SPCMs). Using the new quenching electronics, the average detection efficiency of SPDs is increased from 68.6% to 73.1% at a wavelength of 785 nm. These sine wave gating SPDs are then applied in a four-photon entanglement experiment, and the four-fold coincidence count rate is increased by 30% without degrading its visibility compared with the original SPCMs.

Novel peptide MT23 for potent penetrating and selective targeting in mouse melanoma cancer cells.

Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have a great potential for intracellular delivery of cell-impermeable biological macromolecules in clinical therapy. However, their lack of cell and tissue specificity remains the primary limitation for their clinical development as drug delivery vehicles. In this study, based on phage display and an in silico approach, we found a novel CPP-MT23 with mouse melanoma cell specificity, it can only enter B16 melanoma cancer cells and without any cytotoxicity, Moreover, MT23 showed higher penetration efficiency based on fluorescence microcopy and quantitative assay, and it has capability for mediating functional Apoptin into cells in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, MT23-Apoptin can significantly inhibit tumor growth and induce the cell apoptosis in B16 tumor bearing mice. To sum up, all the results implicated that MT23 has the potential to deliver exogenous therapeutic proteins for further use and it also expected to lay the foundation for developing human melanoma cancer cell specific CPP.

Urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma with pseudomyxoma peritonei: A case report.

Pseudomyxoma peritonei is an unusual clinical condition, and the appendix and ovaries are reported as the primary sites.

Transcrestal sinus floor augmentation with immediate implant placement applied in three types of fresh extraction sockets: A clinical prospective study with 1-year follow-up.

Immediate implant insertion and transcrestal sinus augmentation both can provide a lot of advantages for patients and clinicians.

Effects of postnatal overfeeding and fish oil diet on energy expenditure in rats.

BackgroudEarly life nutrition may have a role in the regulation of metabolism in adulthood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of postnatal overfeeding and a postweaning fish oil diet on energy expenditure.MethodsOn postnatal day 3, rat litters were adjusted to a litter size of three (small litters, SLs) or ten (normal litters, NLs). After weaning, SLs were fed the standard diet or a fish oil diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (SL-FOs) for 10 weeks. The metabolic parameters of rats were monitored using the TSE LabMaster at postnatal week 3 (W3) and postnatal week 13 (W13).ResultsAt W3, the O2 consumption and heat production in SLs were lower than those in NLs, while the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was higher than NLs. SLs showed obesity, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance at W13. The postweaning fish oil diet in SLs not only increased O2 consumption, CO2 production, heat production, and reduced the RER but it also reduced weight gain, serum triglycerides, and improved glucose tolerance at W13.ConclusionPostnatal overfeeding can decrease the level of body energy expenditure and induce obesity, but a fish oil diet can increase the energy expenditure and prevent the development of metabolic dysregulation in adults.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 4 October 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.207.

A Novel Partial Discharge Localization Method in Substation Based on a Wireless UHF Sensor Array.

Effective Partial Discharge (PD) localization can detect the insulation problems of the power equipment in a substation and improve the reliability of power systems. Typical Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) PD localization methods are mainly based on time difference information, which need a high sampling rate system. This paper proposes a novel PD localization method based on a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) fingerprint to quickly locate the power equipment with potential insulation defects. The proposed method consists of two stages. In the offline stage, the RSSI fingerprint data of the detection area is measured by a wireless UHF sensor array and processed by a clustering algorithm to reduce the PD interference and abnormal RSSI values. In the online stage, when PD happens, the RSSI fingerprint of PD is measured via the input of pattern recognition for PD localization. To achieve an accurate localization, the pattern recognition process is divided into two steps: a preliminary localization is implemented by cluster recognition to reduce the localization region, and the compressed sensing algorithm is used for accurate PD localization. A field test in a substation indicates that the mean localization error of the proposed method is 1.25 m, and 89.6% localization errors are less than 3 m.

Adolescents' responses to marital conflict: The role of cooperative marital conflict.

Not all youth exposed to hostile marital interactions develop negative responses to marital conflict. Cooperative marital conflict has long been considered as an important way of managing conflict and may serve as an important context in which hostility might convey during marital interactions. In light of little prior attention placed on the positive side of conflict processes, the main and moderating effects of cooperative marital conflict on youth responses to marital conflict were examined in a sample of 416 2-parent families using a multimethod, 2-year prospective design. Cooperative marital conflict was associated with decreases in youth emotional dysregulation, perceived threat, and behavioral dysregulation, and increases in constructive family representations and coping efficacy. As a specific dimension of cooperation, effective conflict resolution was associated uniquely with elevated youth coping efficacy, and decreased emotional and behavioral dysregulation; marital warmth was associated uniquely with increased constructive family representations. Significant interactions between marital hostility and marital cooperation also were found. These findings highlight the importance of examining cooperation above and beyond hostility in studies of marital conflict in order to better understand youth development during early adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record

Discovery of a tetrahydroisoquinoline-based HDAC inhibitor with improved plasma stability.

Histone deacetylase inhibitors with desirable pharmacokinetic profiles which can be delivered to solid tumor tissues in large amount might be promising to treat solid tumor effectively. Herein, structural modification of a previously reported tetrahydroisoquinoline-based HDAC inhibitor 1 was carried out to improve its plasma stability for more feasible drug delivery. Among three newly synthesized analogs, the in vitro rat plasma stability of compound 2 (t1/2=630min) was over 5-fold improved than its parent 1 (t1/2=103min). In vitro activity evaluation showed that compound 2 and 1 exhibited similar HDACs inhibitory activity, which was validated by western blot analysis and antiproliferative assay. Moreover, compared with 1, compound 2 exhibited comparable, if not higher, in vivo antitumor activity in a human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) xenograft model.

Added Value of Parotid R2* Values for Evaluation of Sjögren Syndrome: A Preliminary Study.

To explore the application of parotid R2* values for evaluating Sjögren syndrome (SS).

Compact tunable photonic comb filter on a silicon platform.

We propose and demonstrate a compact wavelength- and bandwidth-tunable photonic comb filter on a silicon platform. It is a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity fabricated on silicon-on-insulator, which is composed of two cascaded Sagnac loop mirrors (SLMs) with multimode-interferometer-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) couplers. The effective length of the FP cavity and the reflectivity of the SLMs can be dynamically changed based on thermal-optical effects by tuning three phase shifters along the cavity length and MZI arms, leading to center wavelength tuning and bandwidth tuning of the comb filter. Three tuning cases are investigated. By independently or simultaneously tuning three microheaters, center wavelength tuning with a tuning efficiency of ∼0.017  nm/mW and bandwidth tuning from 4.37 to 27.6 GHz are achieved in the experiment.

Course constructions: A case-base of forensic toxicology.

Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication. This essay reviews the construction process of said cases-base, which is intended to set an example of forensic toxicology education.

Eg5 Overexpression Is Predictive of Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.

Eg5 (kinesin spindle protein) plays an essential role in mitosis. Inhibition of Eg5 function results in cell cycle arrest at mitosis, which leads to cell death. To date, Eg5 expression and its prognostic significance have not been studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, 26 freshly frozen HCC tissue samples and matched peritumoral tissue samples were evaluated with a one-step qPCR test and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was conducted on 156 HCC samples to investigate the relationships among Eg5 expression, clinicopathological factors, and prognosis. Eg5 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in HCC tissues relative to matched noncancerous tissues (p < 0.05). High Eg5 protein expression was significantly related to liver cirrhosis (p = 0.038) and TNM stage (p = 0.008). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses revealed that Eg5 overexpression (p = 0.001), liver cirrhosis (p = 0.009), and TNM stage (p = 0.025) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. These findings indicate that Eg5 expression can be used as a biomarker of poor prognosis and as a novel therapeutic target for HCC.

Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of lignin: Effects of process and upgrading parameters.

Effects of process parameters on the yield and chemical profile of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of lignin and the processes for lignin-derived bio-oil upgrading were reviewed. Various process parameters including pyrolysis temperature, reactor types, lignin characteristics, residence time, and feeding rate were discussed and the optimal parameter conditions for improved bio-oil yield and quality were concluded. In terms of lignin-derived bio-oil upgrading, three routes including pretreatment of lignin, catalytic upgrading, and co-pyrolysis of hydrogen-rich materials have been investigated. Zeolite cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) treatment are two main methods for catalytic upgrading of lignin-derived bio-oil. Factors affecting zeolite activity and the main zeolite catalytic mechanisms for lignin conversion were analyzed. Noble metal-based catalysts and metal sulfide catalysts are normally used as the HDO catalysts and the conversion mechanisms associated with a series of reactions have been proposed.

Changes in 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase and Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression in Kawasaki Disease.

This study aims to investigate the significance of changes in the expression 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) for the development of Kawasaki disease (KD).

Retinoid acid-induced microRNA-31-5p suppresses myogenic proliferation and differentiation by targeting CamkIIδ.

We previously reported that Wnt5a/CaMKIIδ (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta) pathway was involved in the embryonic tongue deformity induced by excess retinoic acid (RA). Our latest study found that the expression of miR-31-5p, which was predicted to target the 3'UTR of CamkIIδ, was raised in the RA-treated embryonic tongue. Thus, we hypothesized that the excess RA regulated Wnt5a/CaMKIIδ pathway through miR-31-5p in embryonic tongue.

Circulating neuregulin 4 concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.