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Peter J Hutchinson - Top 30 Publications

Decompressive craniectomy for traumatic intracranial hypertension: application in children.

Traumatic brain injury remains prevalent in children, particularly within the adolescent age group. In severe injury, the priority of treatment is to stabilise the patient initially and prevent the evolution of brain swelling and secondary ischaemia using tiers of medical therapy. The final stage of intervention for such patients is a decompressive craniectomy. Here in, we identify the current evidence for performing decompressive crainectomy in children including the results from the RESCUEicp study.

The British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative: Five years on.

Since its inception in 2012, the British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative (BNTRC) has established itself as a robust example of a trainee-led research collaborative. This article summarises the work of the collaborative over its first 5 years of existence, outlining the structure, its research projects, impact and future directions.

Multi-modality neuromonitoring in severe pediatric traumatic brain injury Monitoring pediatric TBI.

Each year, the annual hospitalization rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children in the US are 57.7 per 100 K less than 5 years of age and 23.1 per 100 K in the 5-14 year age group. Despite this, little is known about the pathophysiology of TBI in children and how to manage it most effectively. Historically, TBI management has been guided by clinical examination. This has been assisted progressively by clinical imaging, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and finally software that can calculate optimal brain physiology. Multi-modality monitoring affords clinicians an early indication of secondary insults to the recovering brain including raised ICP and decreased cerebral perfusion pressure. From variables as ICP and arterial blood pressure (ABP), correlations can be drawn to determine parameters of cerebral autoregulation (PRx) and 'optimal CPP' (CPPopt) at which the vasculature is most reactive. More recently, significant advances using both direct and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) derived brain oxygenation plus cerebral microdialysis to drive management have been described. Here in, we provide a perspective on the state of the art techniques recently implemented in clinical practice for pediatric TBI.Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 30 October 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.215.

Prospective, multicentre study of external ventricular drainage-related infections in the UK and Ireland.

External ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is a common neurosurgical procedure. EVD-related infection (ERI) is a major complication that can lead to morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to establish a national ERI rate in the UK and Ireland and determine key factors influencing the infection risk.

We are not the same people we used to be: An exploration of family biographical narratives and identity change following traumatic brain injury.

Subjective changes are increasingly recognised as important in recovery and rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Accumulation of subjective changes over time has led many to examine the question of "continuity of self" post-injury. Vacillation between feeling the same and different is common and often at odds with the medical narrative preparing families for permanent change. This position of ambiguity was examined in a qualitative narrative study. The aim of this paper is to describe the narrative structures used by uninjured members of a family to understand change. These changes relate primarily, to their perspective of whether and how the injured person had changed, but also secondarily to whether and why they themselves felt they had changed in the first year post-injury. Nine uninjured family members from three families took part in three unstructured interviews during the first twelve months post-injury. In-depth narrative analysis showed family members used biographical attendance; biographical disruption; biographical continuity; and biographical reconstruction to understand change. Drawing on these findings it is argued that concentrating on a narrative of change is too limiting and that engaging in biographical narratives may help humanise care provided to injured individuals and their families. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Glycemia Is Related to Impaired Cerebrovascular Autoregulation after Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Retrospective Observational Study.

A strong association exists between hyperglycemia and outcome in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we describe observations of serum markers of glucose metabolism in a cohort of pediatric TBI patients and how these variables are related to parameters of intracranial pathophysiology.

A systematic review of cerebral microdialysis and outcomes in TBI: relationships to patient functional outcome, neurophysiologic measures, and tissue outcome.

To perform a systematic review on commonly measured cerebral microdialysis (CMD) analytes and their association to: (A) patient functional outcome, (B) neurophysiologic measures, and (C) tissue outcome; after moderate/severe TBI. The aim was to provide a foundation for next-generation CMD studies and build on existing pragmatic expert guidelines for CMD.

Elucidating Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Responses after Traumatic Brain Injury in a Human Stem Cell Model.

Cytokine mediated inflammation likely plays an important role in secondary pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to elucidate secondary cytokine responses in an in vitro enriched (>80%) human stem cell-derived neuronal model. We exposed neuronal cultures to pre-determined and clinically relevant pathophysiological levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), shown to be present in the inflammatory aftermath of TBI. Data from this reductionist human model were then compared with our in vivo data. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons were exposed to recombinant TNF (1-10,000 pg/mL), IL-1β (1-10,000 pg/mL), and IL-6 (0.1-1000 ng/mL). After 1, 24, and 72 h, culture supernatant was sampled and analyzed using a human cytokine/chemokine 42-plex Milliplex kit on the Luminex platform. The culture secretome revealed both a dose- and/or time-dependent release of cytokines. The IL-6 and TNF exposure each resulted in significantly increased levels of >10 cytokines over time, while IL-1β increased the level of C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10/IP10) alone. Importantly, these patterns are consistent with our in vivo (human) TBI data, thus validating our human stem cell-derived neuronal platform as a clinically useful reductionist model. Our data cumulatively suggest that IL-6 and TNF have direct actions, while the action of IL-1β on human neurons likely occurs indirectly through inflammatory cells. The hESC-derived neurons provide a valuable platform to model cytokine mediated inflammation and can provide important insights into the mechanisms of neuroinflammation after TBI.

Assessing Metabolism and Injury in Acute Human Traumatic Brain Injury with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Current and Future Applications.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a series of complex pathophysiological processes. These include abnormalities in brain energy metabolism; consequent to reduced tissue pO2 arising from ischemia or abnormal tissue oxygen diffusion, or due to a failure of mitochondrial function. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows non-invasive interrogation of brain tissue metabolism in patients with acute brain injury. Nuclei with "spin," e.g., (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C, are detectable using MRS and are found in metabolites at various stages of energy metabolism, possessing unique signatures due to their chemical shift or spin-spin interactions (J-coupling). The most commonly used clinical MRS technique, (1)H MRS, uses the great abundance of hydrogen atoms within molecules in brain tissue. Spectra acquired with longer echo-times include N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine, and choline. NAA, a marker of neuronal mitochondrial activity related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is reported to be lower in patients with TBI than healthy controls, and the ratio of NAA/creatine at early time points may correlate with clinical outcome. (1)H MRS acquired with shorter echo times produces a more complex spectrum, allowing detection of a wider range of metabolites.(31) P MRS detects high-energy phosphate species, which are the end products of cellular respiration: ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr). ATP is the principal form of chemical energy in living organisms, and PCr is regarded as a readily mobilized reserve for its replenishment during periods of high utilization. The ratios of high-energy phosphates are thought to represent a balance between energy generation, reserve and use in the brain. In addition, the chemical shift difference between inorganic phosphate and PCr enables calculation of intracellular pH.(13) C MRS detects the (13)C isotope of carbon in brain metabolites. As the natural abundance of (13)C is low (1.1%), (13)C MRS is typically performed following administration of (13)C-enriched substrates, which permits tracking of the metabolic fate of the infused (13)C in the brain over time, and calculation of metabolic rates in a range of biochemical pathways, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glutamate-glutamine cycling. The advent of new hyperpolarization techniques to transiently boost signal in (13)C-enriched MRS in vivo studies shows promise in this field, and further developments are expected.

The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic subdural haematoma.

The screening and management of pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury in adults: British Neurotrauma Group guidance.

Pituitary dysfunction is a recognised, but potentially underdiagnosed complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) can have major consequences for patients physically, psychologically, emotionally and socially, leading to reduced quality of life, depression and poor rehabilitation outcome. However, studies on the incidence of PTHP have yielded highly variable findings. The risk factors and pathophysiology of this condition are also not yet fully understood. There is currently no national consensus for the screening and detection of PTHP in patients with TBI, with practice likely varying significantly between centres. In view of this, a guidance development group consisting of expert clinicians involved in the care of patients with TBI, including neurosurgeons, neurologists, neurointensivists and endocrinologists, was convened to formulate national guidance with the aim of facilitating consistency and uniformity in the care of patients with TBI, and ensuring timely detection or exclusion of PTHP where appropriate. This article summarises the current literature on PTHP, and sets out guidance for the screening and management of pituitary dysfunction in adult patients with TBI. It is hoped that future research will lead to more definitive recommendations in the form of guidelines.

Cerebrospinal Fluid and Microdialysis Cytokines in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Scoping Systematic Review.

To perform two scoping systematic reviews of the literature on cytokine measurement in cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, aiming to summarize the evidence relating cytokine levels to pathophysiology, disease progression, and outcome.

Monitoring the Neuroinflammatory Response Following Acute Brain Injury.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. Following the initial insult, patients may deteriorate due to secondary brain damage. The underlying molecular and cellular cascades incorporate components of the innate immune system. There are different approaches to assess and monitor cerebral inflammation in the neuro intensive care unit. The aim of this narrative review is to describe techniques to monitor inflammatory activity in patients with TBI and SAH in the acute setting. The analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in compartments of the central nervous system (CNS), including the cerebrospinal fluid and the extracellular fluid, represent the most common approaches to monitor surrogate markers of cerebral inflammatory activity. Each of these compartments has a distinct biology that reflects local processes and the cross-talk between systemic and CNS inflammation. Cytokines have been correlated to outcomes as well as ongoing, secondary injury progression. Alongside the dynamic, focal assay of humoral mediators, imaging, through positron emission tomography, can provide a global in vivo measurement of inflammatory cell activity, which reveals long-lasting processes following the initial injury. Compared to the innate immune system activated acutely after brain injury, the adaptive immune system is likely to play a greater role in the chronic phase as evidenced by T-cell-mediated autoreactivity toward brain-specific proteins. The most difficult aspect of assessing neuroinflammation is to determine whether the processes monitored are harmful or beneficial to the brain as accumulating data indicate a dual role for these inflammatory cascades following injury. In summary, the inflammatory component of the complex injury cascade following brain injury may be monitored using different modalities. Using a multimodal monitoring approach can potentially aid in the development of therapeutics targeting different aspects of the inflammatory cascade and improve the outcome following TBI and SAH.

Ultrasound non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure in neurointensive care: A prospective observational study.

The invasive nature of the current methods for monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has prevented their use in many clinical situations. Several attempts have been made to develop methods to monitor ICP non-invasively. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between ultrasound-based non-invasive ICP (nICP) and invasive ICP measurement in neurocritical care patients.

Temporal profile of intracranial pressure and cerebrovascular reactivity in severe traumatic brain injury and association with fatal outcome: An observational study.

Both intracranial pressure (ICP) and the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity represent the dysregulation of pathways directly involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathogenesis and have been used to inform clinical management. However, how these parameters evolve over time following injury and whether this evolution has any prognostic importance have not been studied.

Cerebrovascular pressure reactivity monitoring using wavelet analysis in traumatic brain injury patients: A retrospective study.

After traumatic brain injury (TBI), the ability of cerebral vessels to appropriately react to changes in arterial blood pressure (pressure reactivity) is impaired, leaving patients vulnerable to cerebral hypo- or hyperperfusion. Although, the traditional pressure reactivity index (PRx) has demonstrated that impaired pressure reactivity is associated with poor patient outcome, PRx is sometimes erratic and may not be reliable in various clinical circumstances. Here, we introduce a more robust transform-based wavelet pressure reactivity index (wPRx) and compare its performance with the widely used traditional PRx across 3 areas: its stability and reliability in time, its ability to give an optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) recommendation, and its relationship with patient outcome.

Cerebrospinal Fluid and Microdialysis Cytokines in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Scoping Systematic Review.

To perform two scoping systematic reviews of the literature on cytokine measurement in: 1. cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and 2. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients.

Heparin-gold nanoparticles for enhanced microdialysis sampling.

Cerebral microdialysis is a sampling technique which offers much potential for understanding inflammatory pathophysiology following traumatic brain injury (TBI). At present, the recovery of cytokines via microdialysis in clinical studies is not straightforward primarily due to their size, steric properties and low concentrations. Heparin and heparin-coated microspheres have previously shown promise as cytokine-binding agents for enhanced microdialysis sampling in animal models (Duo and Stenken in Anal Bioanal Chem 399(2):773-82, 2011; Anal Bioanal Chem 399(2):783-93, 2011). However, there are several factors limiting application for microdialysis in patients. The aim of this study was to produce heparin-coated gold nanoparticles as cytokine capture agents for enhanced microdialysis sampling, potentially applicable to a clinical setting. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were chemically conjugated to heparin via a bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker. The heparin-AuNP (AuNP-Hep) were characterised, demonstrating the successful addition of heparin to the gold surface. The performance of the AuNP-Hep during in vitro testing was compared both to current methodology (Helmy et al. in J Neurotrauma 26(4):549-61, 2009) and to the heparin-coated microspheres developed by Duo and Stenken (Anal Bioanal Chem 399(2):773-82, 2011; Anal Bioanal Chem 399(2):783-93, 2011). The AuNP-Hep yielded a higher recovery of cytokines compared to current methodology and heparin-coated microspheres, during in vitro testing designed to mimic the human environment and the intensive care unit. In this study, AuNP-Hep were developed for enhanced microdialysis sampling of cytokines, potentially applicable in a clinical setting. Based on the success of the AuNP-Hep in vitro, the proposed method offers an alternative to the use of current protocols that rely on a blood product (albumin) for microdialysis sampling of cytokines in patients.

A Retrospective Cohort Study to Assess Patient and Physician Reported Outcome Measures After Decompressive Hemicraniectomy for Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke.

Decompressive hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is known to reduce mortality. However, there are on-going concerns in terms of the quality of life in survivors. We aimed to examine the correlation between patient and physician reported outcome measures in decompressive hemicraniectomy.

Pathophysiology of chronic subdural haematoma: inflammation, angiogenesis and implications for pharmacotherapy.

Chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is an encapsulated collection of blood and fluid on the surface of the brain. Historically considered a result of head trauma, recent evidence suggests there are more complex processes involved. Trauma may be absent or very minor and does not explain the progressive, chronic course of the condition. This review focuses on several key processes involved in CSDH development: angiogenesis, fibrinolysis and inflammation. The characteristic membrane surrounding the CSDH has been identified as a source of fluid exudation and haemorrhage. Angiogenic stimuli lead to the creation of fragile blood vessels within membrane walls, whilst fibrinolytic processes prevent clot formation resulting in continued haemorrhage. An abundance of inflammatory cells and markers have been identified within the membranes and subdural fluid and are likely to contribute to propagating an inflammatory response which stimulates ongoing membrane growth and fluid accumulation. Currently, the mainstay of treatment for CSDH is surgical drainage, which has associated risks of recurrence requiring repeat surgery. Understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes has been applied to developing potential drug treatments. Ongoing research is needed to identify if these therapies are successful in controlling the inflammatory and angiogenic disease processes leading to control and resolution of CSDH.

Succinate supplementation improves metabolic performance of mixed glial cell cultures with mitochondrial dysfunction.

Mitochondrial dysfunction, the inability to efficiently utilise metabolic fuels and oxygen, contributes to pathological changes following traumatic spinal cord or traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that succinate supplementation can improve cellular energy state under metabolically stressed conditions in a robust, reductionist in vitro model of mitochondrial dysfunction in which primary mixed glial cultures (astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes) were exposed to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Cellular response was determined by measuring intracellular ATP, extracellular metabolites (glucose, lactate, pyruvate), and oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Rotenone produced no significant changes in glial ATP levels. However, it induced metabolic deficits as evidenced by lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) elevation (a clinically-established biomarker for poor outcome in TBI) and decrease in OCR. Succinate addition partially ameliorated these metabolic deficits. We conclude that succinate can improve glial oxidative metabolism, consistent our previous findings in TBI patients' brains. The mixed glial cellular model may be useful in developing therapeutic strategies for conditions involving mitochondrial dysfunction, such as TBI.

Improved long-term survival with subdural drains following evacuation of chronic subdural haematoma.

Chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is a common condition that is effectively managed by burrhole drainage but requires repeat surgery in a significant minority of patients. The Cambridge Chronic Subdural Haematoma Trial (CCSHT) was a randomised controlled study that showed placement of subdural drains for 48 h following burrhole evacuation significantly reduces the incidence of reoperation and improves survival at 6 months. The present study examined the long-term survival of the patients in the trial.

Tests of Eustachian Tube Function: the Effect of Testing Technique on Tube Opening in Healthy Ears.

There is no agreement on the best clinical test for Eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction. Numerous tests have been developed to detect ET opening, and all require a patient to perform a Valsalva, Toynbee or sniff maneuver, or to swallow on demand. We aimed to characterize existing tests of ET function in healthy ears, and identify the optimal method and patient maneuver for each test. Our own normative data is presented alongside published comparisons.

The management and outcome for patients with chronic subdural hematoma: a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in the United Kingdom.

OBJECTIVE Symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) will become an increasingly common presentation in neurosurgical practice as the population ages, but quality evidence is still lacking to guide the optimal management for these patients. The British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative (BNTRC) was established by neurosurgical trainees in 2012 to improve research by combining the efforts of trainees in each of the United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland's neurosurgical units (NSUs). The authors present the first study by the BNTRC that describes current management and outcomes for patients with CSDH throughout the UK and Ireland. This provides a resource both for current clinical practice and future clinical research on CSDH. METHODS Data on management and outcomes for patients with CSDH referred to UK and Ireland NSUs were collected prospectively over an 8-month period and audited against criteria predefined from the literature: NSU mortality < 5%, NSU morbidity < 10%, symptomatic recurrence within 60 days requiring repeat surgery < 20%, and unfavorable functional status (modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6) at NSU discharge < 30%. RESULTS Data from 1205 patients in 26 NSUs were collected. Bur-hole craniostomy was the most common procedure (89%), and symptomatic recurrence requiring repeat surgery within 60 days was observed in 9% of patients. Criteria on mortality (2%), rate of recurrence (9%), and unfavorable functional outcome (22%) were met, but morbidity was greater than expected (14%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that failure to insert a drain intraoperatively independently predicted recurrence and unfavorable functional outcome (p = 0.011 and p = 0.048, respectively). Increasing patient age (p < 0.00001), postoperative bed rest (p = 0.019), and use of a single bur hole (p = 0.020) independently predicted unfavorable functional outcomes, but prescription of high-flow oxygen or preoperative use of antiplatelet medications did not. CONCLUSIONS This is the largest prospective CSDH study and helps establish national standards. It has confirmed in a real-world setting the effectiveness of placing a subdural drain. This study identified a number of modifiable prognostic factors but questions the necessity of some common aspects of CSDH management, such as enforced postoperative bed rest. Future studies should seek to establish how practitioners can optimize perioperative care of patients with CSDH to reduce morbidity as well as minimize CSDH recurrence. The BNTRC is unique worldwide, conducting multicenter trainee-led research and audits. This study demonstrates that collaborative research networks are powerful tools to interrogate clinical research questions.

The reporting of study and population characteristics in degenerative cervical myelopathy: A systematic review.

Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent condition. Variable reporting in interventional trials of study design and sample characteristics limits the interpretation of pooled outcomes. This is pertinent in DCM where baseline characteristics are known to influence outcome. The present study aims to assess the reporting of the study design and baseline characteristics in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set.

The repeatability of tests of eustachian tube function in healthy ears.

Many objective tests of eustachian tube (ET) function have been devised for clinical and research use but they have not been directly compared or characterized. As a first step to identifying tests to incorporate into an outcome set for ET dysfunction, we assessed repeatability of a panel of eight of these tests in healthy ears.

Advanced monitoring in traumatic brain injury: microdialysis.

Here, we review the present state-of-the-art of microdialysis for monitoring patients with severe traumatic brain injury, highlighting the newest developments. Microdialysis has evolved in neurocritical care to become an established bedside monitoring modality that can reveal unique information on brain chemistry.

Chronic subdural haematoma: disseminating and implementing best practice.

Microdialysis Monitoring in Clinical Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Role in Neuroprotective Drug Development.

Injuries to the central nervous system continue to be vast contributors to morbidity and mortality; specifically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death during the first four decades of life. Several modalities are used to monitor patients suffering from TBI in order to prevent detrimental secondary injuries. The microdialysis (MD) technique, introduced during the 1990s, presents the treating physician with a robust monitoring tool for brain chemistry in addition to conventional intracranial pressure monitoring. Nevertheless, some limitations remain, such as limited spatial resolution. Moreover, while there have been several attempts to develop new potential pharmacological therapies in TBI, there are currently no available drugs which have shown clinical efficacy that targets the underlying pathophysiology, despite various trials investigating a plethora of pharmaceuticals. Specifically in the brain, MD is able to demonstrate penetration of the drug through the blood-brain barrier into the brain extracellular space at potential site of action. In addition, the downstream effects of drug action can be monitored directly. In the future, clinical MD, together with other monitoring modalities, can identify specific pathological substrates which require tailored treatment strategies for patients suffering from TBI.

Craniectomy for Traumatic Intracranial Hypertension.