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Peter Ludman - Top 30 Publications

Aortic stenosis and non-cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Aortic stenosis (AS) poses a perioperative management dilemma to physicians looking after patients who require non-cardiac surgery. The objective of this review is to investigate mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients with and without AS who underwent non-cardiac surgery.

Choice of Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Saphenous Vein Grafts.

There are limited data on comparison of contemporary drug-eluting stent (DES) platforms, previous generation DES, and bare-metal stents (BMS) for percutaneous coronary intervention in saphenous vein grafts (SVG). We aimed to assess clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention to SVG in patients receiving bare-metal stents (BMS), first-generation DES, and newer generation DES in a large unselected national data set from the BCIS (British Cardiovascular Intervention Society).

Vascular Access Site and Outcomes Among 26,807 Chronic Total Coronary Occlusion Angioplasty Cases From the British Cardiovascular Interventions Society National Database.

The aim of this study was to assess, using a national percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) database, access-site choice and outcomes after chronic total occlusion (CTO) PCI.

Total Center Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Volume and 30-Day Mortality: A Contemporary National Cohort Study of 427 467 Elective, Urgent, and Emergency Cases.

The relationship between procedural volume and prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains uncertain, with some studies finding in favor of an inverse association and some against. This UK study provides a contemporary reassessment in one of the few countries in the world with a nationally representative PCI registry.

Variation in emergency percutaneous coronary intervention in ventilated patients in the UK: Insights from a national database.

Pre-procedural ventilation is a marker of high risk in PCI patients. Causes include out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and cardiogenic shock. OHCA occurs in approximately 60,000 patients in the UK per annum. No consensus exists regarding the need/timing of coronary angiography ± revascularization without ST elevation. The aim was to describe the national variation in the rate of emergency PCI in ventilated patients.

Inadequacy of existing clinical prediction models for predicting mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

The performance of emerging transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) clinical prediction models (CPMs) in national TAVI cohorts distinct from those where they have been derived is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the performance of the German Aortic Valve, FRANCE-2, OBSERVANT and American College of Cardiology (ACC) TAVI CPMs compared with the performance of historic cardiac CPMs such as the EuroSCORE and STS-PROM, in a large national TAVI registry.

Pre-Implantation Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty and Clinical Outcomes Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Propensity Score Analysis of the UK Registry.

Aortic valve predilation with balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is recommended before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), despite limited data around the requirement of this preprocedural step and the potential risks of embolization. This study aimed to investigate the trends in practice and associations of BAV on short-term outcomes in the UK TAVI registry.

Increased Radial Access Is Not Associated With Worse Femoral Outcomes for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the United Kingdom.

The radial artery is increasingly adopted as the primary access site for cardiac catheterization because of patient preference, lower bleeding rates, cost effectiveness, and reduced risk of mortality in high-risk patient groups. Concerns have been expressed that operators/centers have become increasingly unfamiliar with transfemoral access. The aim of this study was to assess whether a change in access site practice toward transradial access nationally has led to worse outcomes in percutaneous coronary intervention procedures performed through the transfemoral access approach.

The European Society of Cardiology ACCA-EAPCI Registry on ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Impact of Incomplete Percutaneous Revascularization in Patients With Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Up to half of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention have multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) with conflicting data regarding optimal revascularization strategy in such patients. This paper assesses the evidence for complete revascularization (CR) versus incomplete revascularization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and its prognostic impact using meta-analysis.

Gender Differences in Outcomes and Predictors of All-Cause Mortality After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Data from United Kingdom and Sweden).

To determine gender differences and predictors of all-cause mortality (30 days and 1 year) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with stable angina pectoris and acute coronary syndrome (non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina pectoris and ST-elevation myocardial infarction) in the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) and Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) data sets, an analysis of prospectively collected data from 2007 to 2011 was performed. In total, 458,261 patients (BCIS: n = 368,492 [25.9% women]; Sweden: n = 89,769 [27.2% women]) who underwent PCI were included in this analysis. Using multiple regression analysis, in the BCIS registry, female gender was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.22, p <0.0001) and at 1 year (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12, p <0.0001) after PCI for all patients. Likewise, in the SCAAR registry, female gender was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.26, p = 0.002) and 1 year (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17, p = 0.006) after PCI for all patients. In both data sets, there was no statistically significant interaction between age and gender for all-cause mortality at 30 days (BCIS, p = 0.59; SCAAR, p = 0.40) and at 1 year (BCIS, p = 0.11; SCAAR, p = 0.83). In conclusion, despite advances in care, women compared with men continue to experience higher all-cause mortality after PCI for coronary artery disease. The patient's age at the time of PCI remains a strong predictive factor of mortality in this population. Strategies and further research are warranted to better address the management of coronary artery disease in women with possibly earlier diagnosis and more tailored treatments.

Assessing flow limitation in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

The scientific value of TAVI surveys: insights and perspectives from European centres and European patients.

Response by Farooq et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Relationship Between Femoral Vascular Closure Devices and Short-Term Mortality From 271 845 Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Procedures Performed in the United Kingdom Between 2006 and 2011: A Propensity Score-Corrected Analysis From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society".

Percutaneous Device Closure of Paravalvular Leak: Combined Experience From the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Paravalvular leak (PVL) occurs in 5% to 17% of patients following surgical valve replacement. Percutaneous device closure represents an alternative to repeat surgery.

Meta-Analysis of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Isolated Proximal Left Anterior Descending Coronary Disease.

We performed a meta-analysis of the studies comparing the efficacy and safety of coronary artery bypass surgery against percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (PCI-DES) in patients with isolated LAD disease. Because of the limited randomized trial data, the optimal revascularization strategy for patients with isolated LAD disease remains uncertain. Using MEDLINE and EMBASE to source data, 11 studies (3 randomized trials and 8 cohort studies) including 5,044 participants were identified. No significant difference in mortality between PCI-DES and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG; 111 of 2,122 [5.2%] and 120 of 2,574 [4.7%]; relative risk [RR] 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90 to 1.69) was detected. For MACE, PCI-DES was associated with significant increase in adverse events (RR 1.41; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.93, 8 studies, 4,230 participants). There were no significant differences in the risk of myocardial infarction (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.26) or stroke (RR 2.36; 95% CI 0.54 to 10.43) between the 2 groups. There were 239 target vessel revascularization (TVR) events among 2,237 participants in the PCI-DES group (10.7%) and 145 TVR events among 2,793 participants in the CABG group (5.2%) with a significant increased risk of TVR in the PCI group (RR 2.52; 95% CI 1.69 to 3.77, 5,030 participants) compared with CABG. In conclusion, for patients with isolated disease of the LAD, meta-analysis of the available data suggests revascularization with a PCI-DES strategy offers similar mortality, MI, and stroke rates to CABG at the expense of increased TVR. Much of the data are derived from registries using first-generation DES, and further randomized trials with more contemporary platforms are needed.

Incidence, Determinants, and Outcomes of Coronary Perforation During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the United Kingdom Between 2006 and 2013: An Analysis of 527 121 Cases From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society Database.

As coronary perforation (CP) is a rare but serious complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) the current evidence base is limited to small series. Using a national PCI database, the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of CP as a complication of PCI were defined.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation With or Without Preimplantation Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Preimplantation balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is considered a routine procedure during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) to facilitate prosthesis implantation and expansion; however, it has been speculated that fewer embolic events and/or less hemodynamic instability may occur if TAVI is performed without preimplantation BAV. The aim of this study was to systematically review the clinical outcomes associated with TAVI undertaken without preimplantation BAV.

Impact of call-to-balloon time on 30-day mortality in contemporary practice.

Studies reporting an association between treatment delay and outcome for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have generally not included patients treated by a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) service that systematically delivers reperfusion therapy to all eligible patients. We set out to determine the association of call-to-balloon (CTB) time with 30-day mortality after PPCI in a contemporary series of patients treated within a national reperfusion service.

Relationship Between Femoral Vascular Closure Devices and Short-Term Mortality From 271 845 Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Procedures Performed in the United Kingdom Between 2006 and 2011: A Propensity Score-Corrected Analysis From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society.

The impact of vascular closure devices (VCDs) via the femoral arterial access site on short-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is currently unknown.

The 2011-2012 pilot European Society of Cardiology Sentinel Registry of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: 12-month clinical outcomes.

Our aim was to assess one-year outcomes of patients enrolled in the pilot European Sentinel Registry of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI).

Determinants and Outcomes of Stroke Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention by Indication.

Stroke after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a serious complication, but its determinants and outcomes after PCI in different clinical settings are poorly documented.

Is There a Relationship of Operator and Center Volume With Access Site-Related Outcomes? An Analysis From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society.

Transradial access is associated with reduced access site-related bleeding complications and mortality post percutaneous coronary intervention. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between access site practice and clinical outcomes and how this may be influenced by operator and center experience/expertise.

Outcomes Following Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

There are limited data on outcomes of patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We report outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI with or without previous CABG surgery in a large real-world, all-comer population.

Changes in Arterial Access Site and Association With Mortality in the United Kingdom: Observations From a National Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Database.

The transradial access (TRA) site has become the default access site for percutaneous coronary intervention in the United Kingdom, with randomized trials and national registry data showing reductions in mortality associated with TRA use. This study evaluates regional changes in access site practice in England and Wales over time, examines whether changes in access site practice have been uniform nationally and across different patient subgroups, and provides national estimates for the potential number of lives saved or lost associated with regional differences in access site practice.

A contemporary risk model for predicting 30-day mortality following percutaneous coronary intervention in England and Wales.

The current risk model for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the UK is based on outcomes of patients treated in a different era of interventional cardiology. This study aimed to create a new model, based on a contemporary cohort of PCI treated patients, which would: predict 30 day mortality; provide good discrimination; and be well calibrated across a broad risk-spectrum.

Outcomes From Selective Use of Thrombectomy in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: An Analysis of the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society/National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (BCIS-NICOR) Registry, 2006-2013.

This study used a large national cohort to examine patterns of thrombectomy use in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and the relationship to mortality.

Revascularization for Left Anterior Descending Artery Stenosis: A Review of the Evidence That Supports Practice.

Disease of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery is a common pathological finding often combined with disease in other coronary arteries. In this article, we review specifically the evidence (and the guidelines arising from the data) for lesions isolated to the proximal LAD only. Critical review of the data reveals limitations with few trials that reflect contemporary practice. Much of the data are observational rather than from randomized trials, and therefore subject to bias. We identified 2 randomized trials of drug-eluting stents versus left internal mammary artery grafting for isolated lesions of the proximal LAD. One reported no difference in major adverse cardiovascular events, but at an early timepoint (6 months), which is likely to be too early to reveal treatment differences. In the second trial, target lesion revascularization excess was noted in the drug-eluting stent arm. Therefore, at the current time, there are little data available to inform interventional cardiologists as to the best revascularization strategy for isolated lesions of the proximal LAD. Further randomized, controlled trials are needed.

Bivalirudin, glycoprotein inhibitor, and heparin use and association with outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the United Kingdom.

The HORIZONS trial reported a survival advantage for bivalirudin over heparin-with-glycoprotein inhibitors (GPIs) in primary PCI for ST elevation myocardial infarction. This drove an international shift in clinical practice. Subsequent studies have produced divergent findings on mortality benefits with bivalirudin. We investigated this issue in a larger population than studied in any of these trials, using the United Kingdom national PCI registry.

Comparative survival after transapical, direct aortic, and subclavian transcatheter aortic valve implantation (data from the UK TAVI registry).

Many patients have iliofemoral vessel anatomy unsuitable for conventional transfemoral (TF) transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Safe and practical alternatives to the TF approach are, therefore, needed. This study compared outcomes of alternative nonfemoral routes, transapical (TA), direct aortic (DA), and subclavian (SC), with standard femoral access. In this retrospective study, data from 3,962 patients in the UK TAVI registry were analyzed. All patients who received TAVI through a femoral, subclavian, TA, or DA approach were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome measure was survival up to 2 years. Median Logistic EuroSCORE was similar for SC, DA, and TA but significantly lower in the TF cohort (22.1% vs 20.3% vs 21.2% vs 17.0%, respectively, p <0.0001). Estimated 1-year survival rate was similar for TF (84.6 ± 0.7%) and SC (80.5 ± 3%, p = 0.27) but significantly worse for TA (74.7 ± 1.6%, p <0.001) and DA (75.2 ± 3.3%, p <0.001). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze survival up to 2 years. Survival in the SC group was not significantly different from the TF group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 1.70, p = 0.24). In contrast, survival in the TA (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.11; p <0.001) and DA (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.14; p <0.01) cohorts was significantly reduced compared with TF. In conclusion, TA and DA TAVI were associated with similar survival, both significantly worse than with the TF route. In contrast, subclavian access was not significantly different from TF and may represent the safest nonfemoral access route for TAVI.