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Peter Ludman - Top 30 Publications

Relative Survival After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: How Do Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Fare Relative to the General Population?

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is indicated for patients with aortic stenosis who are intermediate-high surgical risk. Although all-cause mortality rates after TAVI are established, survival attributable to the procedure is unclear because of competing causes of mortality. The aim was to report relative survival (RS) after TAVI, which accounts for background mortality risks in a matched general population.

Standardized definitions of structural deterioration and valve failure in assessing long-term durability of transcatheter and surgical aortic bioprosthetic valves: a consensus statement from the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS).

Coronary Perforation Complicating Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With a History of Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: An Analysis of 309 Perforation Cases From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society Database.

The evidence base for coronary perforation (CP) occurring during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with a history of coronary artery bypass surgery (PCI-CABG) is limited and the long-term effects unclear. Using a national PCI database, the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of CP during PCI-CABG were defined.

Standardized definitions of structural deterioration and valve failure in assessing long-term durability of transcatheter and surgical aortic bioprosthetic valves: a consensus statement from the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS).

Dialysis Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation, Risk Factors and Outcomes: An Analysis From the UK TAVI Registry (Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) Registry.

The study sought to determine the risk factors for post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) dialysis and to determine the impact of pre-TAVR or post-TAVR dialysis on mortality.

Relative survival and excess mortality following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

High survival rates are commonly reported following primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, with most contemporary studies reporting overall survival.

The Relationship of Body Mass Index to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Outcomes: Does the Obesity Paradox Exist in Contemporary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Cohorts? Insights From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society Registry.

The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to determine the relevance of different clinical presentations requiring PCI to this relationship.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation With or Without Percutaneous Coronary Artery Revascularization Strategy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Recent recommendations suggest that in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation and coexistent significant coronary artery disease, the latter should be treated before the index procedure; however, the evidence basis for such an approach remains limited. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to study the clinical outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease who did or did not undergo revascularization prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

United Kingdom: coronary and structural heart interventions from 2010 to 2015.

In the United Kingdom, a clinical data set is completed for every patient undergoing coronary intervention and certain structural interventions, and sent to central servers in the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) on behalf of the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS). These data are linked to the national mortality register. In addition, data are obtained about the structure of healthcare provision using an annual survey. Analyses of these data are provided for different audiences in several formats. Public reports of individual consultant operator activity and risk-adjusted outcomes from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have also been produced annually since 2012. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been performed since 2007. Over 2,000 cases were performed in 2015, giving a rate of 30 per million population. Complications to discharge have fallen as case mix has changed and technologies improved. While the mean age has remained about 81 years, the logistic EuroSCORE of patients treated by TAVI has fallen from about 22 in 2010 to 18 in 2015. Tracked 30-day mortality was 3.7% in 2014. Left atrial appendage occlusion and patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for stroke, and the use of the MitraClip® system (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA) for mitral regurgitation have been funded through a process called "commissioning through evaluation".

Legacy Effect of Coronary Perforation Complicating Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusive Disease: An Analysis of 26 807 Cases From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society Database.

Coronary perforation (CP) during chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina (CTO-PCI) is a rare but serious event. The evidence base is limited, and the long-term effects are unclear. Using a national PCI database, the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of CP during CTO-PCI were defined.

Aortic stenosis and non-cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Aortic stenosis (AS) poses a perioperative management dilemma to physicians looking after patients who require non-cardiac surgery. The objective of this review is to investigate mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients with and without AS who underwent non-cardiac surgery.

Choice of Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Saphenous Vein Grafts.

There are limited data on comparison of contemporary drug-eluting stent (DES) platforms, previous generation DES, and bare-metal stents (BMS) for percutaneous coronary intervention in saphenous vein grafts (SVG). We aimed to assess clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention to SVG in patients receiving bare-metal stents (BMS), first-generation DES, and newer generation DES in a large unselected national data set from the BCIS (British Cardiovascular Intervention Society).

Vascular Access Site and Outcomes Among 26,807 Chronic Total Coronary Occlusion Angioplasty Cases From the British Cardiovascular Interventions Society National Database.

The aim of this study was to assess, using a national percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) database, access-site choice and outcomes after chronic total occlusion (CTO) PCI.

Total Center Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Volume and 30-Day Mortality: A Contemporary National Cohort Study of 427 467 Elective, Urgent, and Emergency Cases.

The relationship between procedural volume and prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains uncertain, with some studies finding in favor of an inverse association and some against. This UK study provides a contemporary reassessment in one of the few countries in the world with a nationally representative PCI registry.

Variation in emergency percutaneous coronary intervention in ventilated patients in the UK: Insights from a national database.

Pre-procedural ventilation is a marker of high risk in PCI patients. Causes include out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and cardiogenic shock. OHCA occurs in approximately 60,000 patients in the UK per annum. No consensus exists regarding the need/timing of coronary angiography ± revascularization without ST elevation. The aim was to describe the national variation in the rate of emergency PCI in ventilated patients.

Inadequacy of existing clinical prediction models for predicting mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

The performance of emerging transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) clinical prediction models (CPMs) in national TAVI cohorts distinct from those where they have been derived is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the performance of the German Aortic Valve, FRANCE-2, OBSERVANT and American College of Cardiology (ACC) TAVI CPMs compared with the performance of historic cardiac CPMs such as the EuroSCORE and STS-PROM, in a large national TAVI registry.

Pre-Implantation Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty and Clinical Outcomes Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Propensity Score Analysis of the UK Registry.

Aortic valve predilation with balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is recommended before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), despite limited data around the requirement of this preprocedural step and the potential risks of embolization. This study aimed to investigate the trends in practice and associations of BAV on short-term outcomes in the UK TAVI registry.

Increased Radial Access Is Not Associated With Worse Femoral Outcomes for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the United Kingdom.

The radial artery is increasingly adopted as the primary access site for cardiac catheterization because of patient preference, lower bleeding rates, cost effectiveness, and reduced risk of mortality in high-risk patient groups. Concerns have been expressed that operators/centers have become increasingly unfamiliar with transfemoral access. The aim of this study was to assess whether a change in access site practice toward transradial access nationally has led to worse outcomes in percutaneous coronary intervention procedures performed through the transfemoral access approach.

The European Society of Cardiology ACCA-EAPCI Registry on ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Impact of Incomplete Percutaneous Revascularization in Patients With Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Up to half of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention have multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) with conflicting data regarding optimal revascularization strategy in such patients. This paper assesses the evidence for complete revascularization (CR) versus incomplete revascularization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and its prognostic impact using meta-analysis.

Gender Differences in Outcomes and Predictors of All-Cause Mortality After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (Data from United Kingdom and Sweden).

To determine gender differences and predictors of all-cause mortality (30 days and 1 year) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with stable angina pectoris and acute coronary syndrome (non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina pectoris and ST-elevation myocardial infarction) in the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) and Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR) data sets, an analysis of prospectively collected data from 2007 to 2011 was performed. In total, 458,261 patients (BCIS: n = 368,492 [25.9% women]; Sweden: n = 89,769 [27.2% women]) who underwent PCI were included in this analysis. Using multiple regression analysis, in the BCIS registry, female gender was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.22, p <0.0001) and at 1 year (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12, p <0.0001) after PCI for all patients. Likewise, in the SCAAR registry, female gender was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.26, p = 0.002) and 1 year (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17, p = 0.006) after PCI for all patients. In both data sets, there was no statistically significant interaction between age and gender for all-cause mortality at 30 days (BCIS, p = 0.59; SCAAR, p = 0.40) and at 1 year (BCIS, p = 0.11; SCAAR, p = 0.83). In conclusion, despite advances in care, women compared with men continue to experience higher all-cause mortality after PCI for coronary artery disease. The patient's age at the time of PCI remains a strong predictive factor of mortality in this population. Strategies and further research are warranted to better address the management of coronary artery disease in women with possibly earlier diagnosis and more tailored treatments.

Assessing flow limitation in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

The scientific value of TAVI surveys: insights and perspectives from European centres and European patients.

Response by Farooq et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Relationship Between Femoral Vascular Closure Devices and Short-Term Mortality From 271 845 Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Procedures Performed in the United Kingdom Between 2006 and 2011: A Propensity Score-Corrected Analysis From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society".

Percutaneous Device Closure of Paravalvular Leak: Combined Experience From the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Paravalvular leak (PVL) occurs in 5% to 17% of patients following surgical valve replacement. Percutaneous device closure represents an alternative to repeat surgery.

Meta-Analysis of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Isolated Proximal Left Anterior Descending Coronary Disease.

We performed a meta-analysis of the studies comparing the efficacy and safety of coronary artery bypass surgery against percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (PCI-DES) in patients with isolated LAD disease. Because of the limited randomized trial data, the optimal revascularization strategy for patients with isolated LAD disease remains uncertain. Using MEDLINE and EMBASE to source data, 11 studies (3 randomized trials and 8 cohort studies) including 5,044 participants were identified. No significant difference in mortality between PCI-DES and coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG; 111 of 2,122 [5.2%] and 120 of 2,574 [4.7%]; relative risk [RR] 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90 to 1.69) was detected. For MACE, PCI-DES was associated with significant increase in adverse events (RR 1.41; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.93, 8 studies, 4,230 participants). There were no significant differences in the risk of myocardial infarction (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.26) or stroke (RR 2.36; 95% CI 0.54 to 10.43) between the 2 groups. There were 239 target vessel revascularization (TVR) events among 2,237 participants in the PCI-DES group (10.7%) and 145 TVR events among 2,793 participants in the CABG group (5.2%) with a significant increased risk of TVR in the PCI group (RR 2.52; 95% CI 1.69 to 3.77, 5,030 participants) compared with CABG. In conclusion, for patients with isolated disease of the LAD, meta-analysis of the available data suggests revascularization with a PCI-DES strategy offers similar mortality, MI, and stroke rates to CABG at the expense of increased TVR. Much of the data are derived from registries using first-generation DES, and further randomized trials with more contemporary platforms are needed.

Incidence, Determinants, and Outcomes of Coronary Perforation During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the United Kingdom Between 2006 and 2013: An Analysis of 527 121 Cases From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society Database.

As coronary perforation (CP) is a rare but serious complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) the current evidence base is limited to small series. Using a national PCI database, the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of CP as a complication of PCI were defined.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation With or Without Preimplantation Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Preimplantation balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is considered a routine procedure during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) to facilitate prosthesis implantation and expansion; however, it has been speculated that fewer embolic events and/or less hemodynamic instability may occur if TAVI is performed without preimplantation BAV. The aim of this study was to systematically review the clinical outcomes associated with TAVI undertaken without preimplantation BAV.

Impact of call-to-balloon time on 30-day mortality in contemporary practice.

Studies reporting an association between treatment delay and outcome for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have generally not included patients treated by a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) service that systematically delivers reperfusion therapy to all eligible patients. We set out to determine the association of call-to-balloon (CTB) time with 30-day mortality after PPCI in a contemporary series of patients treated within a national reperfusion service.

Relationship Between Femoral Vascular Closure Devices and Short-Term Mortality From 271 845 Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Procedures Performed in the United Kingdom Between 2006 and 2011: A Propensity Score-Corrected Analysis From the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society.

The impact of vascular closure devices (VCDs) via the femoral arterial access site on short-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is currently unknown.