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Philippe A Lyrer - Top 30 Publications

Vascular Anatomy Predicts the Risk of Cerebral Ischemia in Patients Randomized to Carotid Stenting Versus Endarterectomy.

Complex vascular anatomy might increase the risk of procedural stroke during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Randomized controlled trial evidence that vascular anatomy should inform the choice between CAS and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been lacking.

Genetic Imbalance in Patients with Cervical Artery Dissection.

Genetic and environmental risk factors are assumed to contribute to the susceptibility to cervical artery dissection (CeAD). To explore the role of genetic imbalance in the etiology of CeAD, copy number variants (CNVs) were identified in high-density microarrays samples from the multicenter CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) study and from control subjects from the CADISP study and the German PopGen biobank. Microarray data from 833 CeAD patients and 2040 control subjects (565 subjects with ischemic stroke due to causes different from CeAD and 1475 disease-free individuals) were analyzed. Rare genic CNVs were equally frequent in CeAD-patients (16.4%; n=137) and in control subjects (17.0%; n=346) but differed with respect to their genetic content. Compared to control subjects, CNVs from CeAD patients were enriched for genes associated with muscle organ development and cell differentiation, which suggests a possible association with arterial development. CNVs affecting cardiovascular system development were more common in CeAD patients than in control subjects (p=0.003; odds ratio (OR) =2.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) =1.4-4.5) and more common in patients with a familial history of CeAD than in those with sporadic CeAD (p=0.036; OR=11.2; 95% CI=1.2-107).

Frequency and Determinants of Adherence to Oral Anticoagulants in Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Clinical Practice.

Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are beneficial in patients with stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about frequency and determinants of adherence to NOACs/VKAs in clinical practice.

Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients Dependent on the Daily Help of Others Before Stroke.

We compared outcome and complications in patients with stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) who could not live alone without help of another person before stroke (dependent patients) versus independent ones.

Serum Neurofilament Light Chain Levels Are Associated with Clinical Characteristics and Outcome in Patients with Cervical Artery Dissection.

Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels represent a promising marker of neuroaxonal injury. They are elevated in several neurological conditions, but their importance in cerebrovascular diseases remains unclear. In a proof of concept study, we compared sNfL levels with clinical characteristics and outcome in patients with cervical artery dissection (CeAD).

Recanalization therapies in acute ischemic stroke patients: impact of prior treatment with novel oral anticoagulants on bleeding complications and outcome.

We explored the safety of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in patients with ischemic stroke on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, last intake <48 hours) in comparison with patients (1) taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or (2) without previous anticoagulation (no-OAC).

Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of intracranial artery dissection.

Spontaneous intracranial artery dissection is an uncommon and probably underdiagnosed cause of stroke that is defined by the occurrence of a haematoma in the wall of an intracranial artery. Patients can present with headache, ischaemic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, or symptoms associated with mass effect, mostly on the brainstem. Although intracranial artery dissection is less common than cervical artery dissection in adults of European ethnic origin, intracranial artery dissection is reportedly more common in children and in Asian populations. Risk factors and mechanisms are poorly understood, and diagnosis is challenging because characteristic imaging features can be difficult to detect in view of the small size of intracranial arteries. Therefore, multimodal follow-up imaging is often needed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of intracranial artery dissections is empirical in the absence of data from randomised controlled trials. Most patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage undergo surgical or endovascular treatment to prevent rebleeding, whereas patients with intracranial artery dissection and cerebral ischaemia are treated with antithrombotics. Prognosis seems worse in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage than in those without.

Diagnosis and treatment of cervical artery dissection.

Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is a major cause of stroke in the young. A mural hematoma is detected in most CAD patients. The intramural blood accumulation should not be considered a reason to withhold intravenous thrombolysis in patients with CAD-related stroke. Because intravenous-thrombolyzed CAD patients might not recover as well as other stroke patients, acute endovascular treatment is an alternative. Regarding the choice of antithrombotic agents, this article discusses the findings of 4 meta-analyses across observational data, the current status of 3 randomized controlled trials, and arguments and counterarguments favoring anticoagulants over antiplatelets. Furthermore, the role of stenting and surgery is addressed.

Ischemic brain lesions after carotid artery stenting increase future cerebrovascular risk.

Brain lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are frequently found after carotid artery stenting (CAS), but their clinical relevance remains unclear.

Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial.

Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments.

Common variation in PHACTR1 is associated with susceptibility to cervical artery dissection.

Cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a mural hematoma in a carotid or vertebral artery, is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults although relatively uncommon in the general population (incidence of 2.6/100,000 per year). Minor cervical traumas, infection, migraine and hypertension are putative risk factors, and inverse associations with obesity and hypercholesterolemia are described. No confirmed genetic susceptibility factors have been identified using candidate gene approaches. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 1,393 CeAD cases and 14,416 controls. The rs9349379[G] allele (PHACTR1) was associated with lower CeAD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69-0.82; P = 4.46 × 10(-10)), with confirmation in independent follow-up samples (659 CeAD cases and 2,648 controls; P = 3.91 × 10(-3); combined P = 1.00 × 10(-11)). The rs9349379[G] allele was previously shown to be associated with lower risk of migraine and increased risk of myocardial infarction. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this pleiotropy might provide important information on the biological underpinnings of these disabling conditions.

Familial occurrence and heritable connective tissue disorders in cervical artery dissection.

In a large series of patients with cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a major cause of ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged adults, we aimed to examine frequencies and correlates of family history of CeAD and of inherited connective tissue disorders.

Clinical import of Horner syndrome in internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection.

To study the prognostic importance of Horner syndrome (HS) in patients with internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) or vertebral artery dissection (VAD).

Dose-related effects of statins on symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and outcome after thrombolysis for ischemic stroke.

The aim of our study was to assess whether statins have dose-dependent effects on risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and outcome after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke.

Predictors of acute and persisting ischemic brain lesions in patients randomized to carotid stenting or endarterectomy.

We investigated predictors for acute and persisting periprocedural ischemic brain lesions among patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis randomized to stenting or endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study.

IV thrombolysis and renal function.

To investigate the association of renal impairment on functional outcome and complications in stroke patients treated with IV thrombolysis (IVT).

Validation of the DRAGON score in 12 stroke centers in anterior and posterior circulation.

The DRAGON score predicts functional outcome in the hyperacute phase of intravenous thrombolysis treatment of ischemic stroke patients. We aimed to validate the score in a large multicenter cohort in anterior and posterior circulation.

Effect of white-matter lesions on the risk of periprocedural stroke after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): a prespecified analysis of data from a randomised trial.

Findings from randomised trials have shown a higher early risk of stroke after carotid artery stenting than after carotid endarterectomy. We assessed whether white-matter lesions affect the perioperative risk of stroke in patients treated with carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy.

Cervical artery dissection: trauma and other potential mechanical trigger events.

To examine the import of prior cervical trauma (PCT) in patients with cervical artery dissection (CeAD).

Safety of thrombolysis in stroke mimics: results from a multicenter cohort study.

Intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is beneficial within 4.5 hours of symptom onset, but the effect rapidly decreases over time, necessitating quick diagnostic in-hospital work-up. Initial time strain occasionally results in treatment of patients with an alternate diagnosis (stroke mimics). We investigated whether intravenous thrombolysis is safe in these patients.

Long-term outcome in stroke patients treated with IV thrombolysis.

Data on long-term outcome after IV thrombolysis (IVT) are sparse. Our goals were to 1) estimate annual survival, and 2) evaluate determinants for an unfavorable long-term outcome after IVT for stroke.

Characteristics of ischemic brain lesions after stenting or endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis: results from the international carotid stenting study-magnetic resonance imaging substudy.

In a substudy of the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS), more patients had new ischemic brain lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after stenting (CAS) than after endarterectomy (CEA). In the present analysis, we compared characteristics of diffusion-weighted MRI lesions.

Carotid artery stenting.

Atherosclerotic narrowing (stenosis) of the internal carotid artery accounts for about 10-15% of ischaemic strokes. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) reduces the risk of stroke in patients with symptomatic stenosis and - to a lesser degree - with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Endovascular treatment including balloon angioplasty and carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged as an alternative to CEA to treat carotid stenosis. The present review summarises the existing evidence on risks and benefits of CAS in comparison with CEA, with a focus on evidence from randomised clinical trials. Across all randomised trials, CEA was associated with a lower risk of peri-procedural stroke or death than CAS, while CAS had lower risks of myocardial infarction, cranial nerve palsy and access site haematoma. The increased stroke risk with CAS is mainly observed in elderly patients; therefore, CAS appears to be a safe option to CEA in younger patients. In the first few years following treatment, both procedures are equally effective in preventing ipsilateral recurrent strokes. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up of ongoing trials must be awaited to investigate whether a potential increase in recurrent stenosis following CAS might limit the long-term effectiveness in stroke prevention. The optimal treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis remains to be determined in ongoing clinical trials.

Death has a preference for birthdays-an analysis of death time series.

To examine the relation between the day of death and the day of birth. To determine whether the "death postponement" hypothesis or the "anniversary reaction" hypothesis is more appropriate.

Copy number variation in patients with cervical artery dissection.

Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) occurs in healthy young individuals and often entails ischemic stroke. Skin biopsies from most CeAD-patients show minor connective tissue alterations. We search for rare genetic deletions and duplication that may predispose to CeAD. Forty-nine non-traumatic CeAD-patients with electron microscopic (EM) alterations of their dermal connective tissue (EM+ patients) and 21 patients with normal connective tissue in skin biopsies (EM- patients) were analyzed. Affymetrix 6.0 microarrays (Affymetrix) from all patients were screened for copy number variants (CNVs). CNVs absent from 403 control subjects and from 2402 published disease-free individuals were considered as CeAD-associated. The genetic content of undentified CNVs was analyzed by means of the Gene Ontology (GO) Term Mapper to detect associations with biological processes. In 49 EM+ patients we identified 13 CeAD-associated CNVs harboring 83 protein-coding genes. In 21 EM- patients we found five CeAD-associated CNVs containing only nine genes (comparison of CNV gene density between the groups: Mann-Whitney P=0.039). Patients' CNVs were enriched for genes involved in extracellular matrix organization (COL5A2, COL3A1, SNTA1, P=0.035), collagen fibril organization COL5A2, COL3A1, (P=0.0001) and possibly for genes involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-beta receptor signaling pathway (COL3A1, DUPS22, P=0.068). We conclude that rare genetic variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of CeAD, in particular in patients with a microscopic connective tissue phenotype.

Etiological classifications of transient ischemic attacks: subtype classification by TOAST, CCS and ASCO--a pilot study.

In patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIA), etiological classification systems are not well studied. The Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), the Causative Classification System (CCS), and the Atherosclerosis Small Vessel Disease Cardiac Source Other Cause (ASCO) classification may be useful to determine the underlying etiology. We aimed at testing the feasibility of each of the 3 systems. Furthermore, we studied and compared their prognostic usefulness.

Age-dependent differences in cervical artery dissection.

The goal of this work was to explore age-dependent differences in cervical artery dissection (CeAD). This study is based on the Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients population comprising 983 consecutive CeAD patients and 658 control patients with a non-CeAD ischemic stroke (IS), frequency-matched for age and gender. Patients were divided into three age categories: ≤33 (for CeAD, n = 150), 34-54 (n = 688), and ≥55 (n = 145) years, and the youngest and oldest groups were compared. The youngest patients were mostly women and the oldest men. The frequency of internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) versus vertebral artery dissection (VAD) increased with age from 44 to 75 %. This age-related shift remained significant after adjustment for sex. The frequency of a transient ischemic event as the CeAD symptom declined from 33 % in the youngest age group, to 19 % in the oldest. Vascular risk factors increased in frequency with advancing age in both groups, but for hypertension the increase was steeper for non-CeAD IS patients. For CeAD patients, but not for patients with non-CeAD IS, preceding infection was more common in the oldest group. The youngest non-CeAD IS patients had better functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-1) than the oldest, while the similar trend was not statistically significant among CeAD patients. Younger age seems to be associated with VAD and female gender, and older age with ICAD and male gender. Age-related changes in the frequencies of hypertension and recent infection were different between the CeAD and non-CeAD IS groups. Age does not seem to be an important outcome predictor in CeAD strokes.

Towards understanding seasonal variability in cervical artery dissection (CeAD).

Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) occurs more often in autumn or winter than in spring or summer. We searched for clinical variables associated with this seasonality by comparing CeAD patients with onset of symptoms in autumn–winter (September 22–March 21) versus those with first CeAD symptom in spring–summer (March 22–September 21). We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the multicenter CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) registry. Age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke attributable to a cause other than CeAD (non-CeAD patients) were analyzed to study the specificity of our findings. Autumn–winter CeAD patients had a higher median brachial pulse pressure at admission (55 vs. 52 mmHg; p = 0.01) and more recent infections (22.0% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.047), but prevalence of trauma was not associated with seasonal onset. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher pulse pressure was significantly associated with autumn–winter CeAD (p = 0.01), while age, gender, history of hypertension, recent infection, and recent trauma were not. No association between pulse pressure and seasonal occurrence was found in non-CeAD ischemic stroke patients. Increased pulse pressure was associated with the higher frequency of CeAD in autumn or winter.

Safety and functional outcome of thrombolysis in dissection-related ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

The safety and efficacy of thrombolysis in cervical artery dissection (CAD) are controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to pool all individual patient data and provide a valid estimate of safety and outcome of thrombolysis in CAD.

Outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis in posterior versus anterior circulation stroke.

Intravenous thrombolysis is an approved treatment for anterior (ACS) and posterior (PCS) circulation stroke. However, no randomized controlled trial has investigated safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis according to stroke territory, although PCS is assumed to differ from ACS in many ways. We aimed to compare the safety and clinical outcome of intravenous thrombolysis applied to patients with PCS and ACS.