A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Richard D Gelber - Top 30 Publications

Concerns about cardiotoxicity in the HERA trial - Authors' reply.

Extended adjuvant intermittent letrozole versus continuous letrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer (SOLE): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

In animal models of breast cancer, resistance to continuous use of letrozole can be reversed by withdrawal and reintroduction of letrozole. We therefore hypothesised that extended intermittent use of adjuvant letrozole would improve breast cancer outcome compared with continuous use of letrozole in postmenopausal women.

Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with breast cancer: a reply to Maratia et al.

Oncology Physicians' Perspectives on Practices and Barriers to Fertility Preservation and the Feasibility of a Prospective Study of Pregnancy After Breast Cancer.

POSITIVE (Pregnancy Outcome and Safety of Interrupting Therapy for women with endocrine responsIVE breast cancer) is a prospective clinical trial assessing safety and pregnancy outcomes in premenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer survivors (age ≤42) who interrupt endocrine therapy (ET) to attempt pregnancy. We sought to assess interest in this study and perspectives on fertility preservation (FP) among United States medical oncologists who had previously enrolled women at their institutions on select premenopausal endocrine studies.

Treatment Efficacy, Adherence, and Quality of Life Among Women Younger Than 35 Years in the International Breast Cancer Study Group TEXT and SOFT Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy Trials.

Purpose To describe benefits and toxicities of adjuvant endocrine therapies in women younger than 35 years with breast cancer (n = 582) enrolled in the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT) and Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT). Methods In SOFT, women still premenopausal after surgery with or without chemotherapy were randomly assigned to tamoxifen alone, tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression (OFS), or exemestane plus OFS. In TEXT, all received OFS with or without concomitant chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to exemestane plus OFS or tamoxifen plus OFS. We summarize treatment efficacy, quality of life, and adherence of the cohort of women younger than 35 years in SOFT and TEXT, alongside data from the cohort of older premenopausal women. Results For 240 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years enrolled in SOFT after receiving chemotherapy, the 5-year breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was 67.1% (95% CI, 54.6% to 76.9%) with tamoxifen alone, 75.9% with tamoxifen plus OFS (95% CI, 64.0% to 84.4%), and 83.2% with exemestane plus OFS (95% CI, 72.7% to 90.0%). For 145 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years in TEXT, 5-year BCFI was 79.2% (95% CI, 66.2% to 87.7%) with tamoxifen plus OFS and 81.6% (95% CI, 69.8% to 89.2%) with exemestane plus OFS. The most prominent quality of life symptom for patients younger than 35 years receiving OFS was vasomotor symptoms, with the greatest worsening from baseline at 6 months (on the order of 30 to 40 points), but loss of sexual interest and difficulties in becoming aroused were also clinically meaningful (≥ 8-point change). The level of symptom burden was similar in older premenopausal women. A total of 19.8% of women younger than 35 years stopped all protocol-assigned endocrine therapy early. Conclusion In women younger than 35 years with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, adjuvant OFS combined with tamoxifen or exemestane produces large improvements in BCFI compared with tamoxifen alone. Menopausal symptoms are significant but are not worse than those seen in older premenopausal women.

Adjuvant Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab in Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

Pertuzumab increases the rate of pathological complete response in the preoperative context and increases overall survival among patients with metastatic disease when it is added to trastuzumab and chemotherapy for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. In this trial, we investigated whether pertuzumab, when added to adjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy, improves outcomes among patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer.

Designing Clinical Trials That Accept New Arms: An Example in Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Purpose The majority of randomized oncology trials are two-arm studies that test the efficacy of new therapies against a standard of care, thereby assigning a large proportion of patients to nonexperimental therapies. In contrast, multiarm studies efficiently share a common control arm while evaluating multiple experimental therapies. A major bottleneck for traditional multiarm trials is the requirement that all therapies-often drugs from different companies-have to be available at the same time when the trial starts. We evaluate the potential gains of a platform design-the rolling-arms design-that adds and removes arms on a rolling basis. Methods We define the rolling-arms design with the goal of minimizing the complexity of random assignment and data analyses of a platform trial. We then evaluate its potential advantages in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. Multiple pharmaceutical companies currently test CDK4/6 inhibitors in combination with letrozole in independent two-arm trials. We conducted a simulation study to quantify the reduction in sample size, number of patients treated with the standard of care, and the average time to treatment discovery if these therapies had been tested in a rolling-arms trial. Results A rolling-arms platform design with two to five experimental treatments can reduce the overall sample size requirement by up to 30% compared with standard two-arm studies. It assigns up to 60% fewer patients to the control arm compared with five independent trials that test distinct treatments. Moreover, under realistic scenarios, effective experimental treatments are discovered up to 15 months earlier compared with separate two-arm trials. Conclusion The rolling-arms platform design is applicable to a broad variety of diseases, and under realistic scenarios, it is substantially more efficient than standard two-arm randomized trials.

Cholesterol, Cholesterol-Lowering Medication Use, and Breast Cancer Outcome in the BIG 1-98 Study.

Purpose Cholesterol-lowering medication (CLM) has been reported to have a role in preventing breast cancer recurrence. CLM may attenuate signaling through the estrogen receptor by reducing levels of the estrogenic cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol. The impact of endocrine treatment on cholesterol levels and hypercholesterolemia per se may counteract the intended effect of aromatase inhibitors. Patients and Methods The Breast International Group (BIG) conducted a randomized, phase III, double-blind trial, BIG 1-98, which enrolled 8,010 postmenopausal women with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer from 1998 to 2003. Systemic levels of total cholesterol and use of CLM were measured at study entry and every 6 months up to 5.5 years. Cumulative incidence functions were used to describe the initiation of CLM in the presence of competing risks. Marginal structural Cox proportional hazards modeling investigated the relationships between initiation of CLM during endocrine therapy and outcome. Three time-to-event end points were considered: disease-free-survival, breast cancer-free interval, and distant recurrence-free interval. Results Cholesterol levels were reduced during tamoxifen therapy. Of 789 patients who initiated CLM during endocrine therapy, the majority came from the letrozole monotherapy arm (n = 318), followed by sequential tamoxifen-letrozole (n = 189), letrozole-tamoxifen (n = 176), and tamoxifen monotherapy (n = 106). Initiation of CLM during endocrine therapy was related to improved disease-free-survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.95; P = .01), breast cancer-free interval (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.97; P = .02), and distant recurrence-free interval (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.97; P = .03). Conclusion Cholesterol-lowering medication during adjuvant endocrine therapy may have a role in preventing breast cancer recurrence in hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. We recommend that these observational results be addressed in prospective randomized trials.

11 years' follow-up of trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive early breast cancer: final analysis of the HERceptin Adjuvant (HERA) trial.

Clinical trials have shown that trastuzumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody against HER2 receptor, significantly improves overall survival and disease-free survival in women with HER2-positive early breast cancer, but long-term follow-up data are needed. We report the results of comparing observation with two durations of trastuzumab treatment at a median follow-up of 11 years, for patients enrolled in the HERA (HERceptin Adjuvant) trial.

Reply to L. Moscetti.

Impact of CYP19A1 and ESR1 variants on early-onset side effects during combined endocrine therapy in the TEXT trial.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and cytochrome P450 19A1 (CYP19A1) genes have been associated with breast cancer risk, endocrine therapy response and side effects, mainly in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. This analysis aimed to assess the association of selected germline CYP19A1 and ESR1 SNPs with early-onset hot flashes, sweating and musculoskeletal symptoms in premenopausal patients enrolled in the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT).

Poor Prognosis After Second Locoregional Recurrences in the CALOR Trial.

Isolated locoregional recurrences (ILRRs) of breast cancer confer a significant risk for the development of distant metastasis. Management practices and second ILRR events in the Chemotherapy as Adjuvant for LOcally Recurrent breast cancer (CALOR) trial were investigated.

Timing of Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Node-Positive Breast Cancer: Long-Term Results From International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VI and VII.

To update the previous report from 2 randomized clinical trials, now with a median follow-up of 16 years, to analyze the effect of radiation therapy timing on local failure and disease-free survival.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a powerful prognostic marker in patients with triple-negative breast cancer enrolled in the IBCSG phase III randomized clinical trial 22-00.

The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic and predictive value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cohort of the phase III IBCSG trial 22-00, comparing low-dose oral 'metronomic' cyclophosphamide-methotrexate maintenance chemotherapy (CM-maintenance) to no-CM-maintenance in early breast cancer. TILs were evaluated in full-face hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections of tumor samples confirmed centrally as TNBC (< 1 % of ER and PgR immunoreactivity and absence of HER2 overexpression or amplification). Mononuclear cells were evaluated in the stromal area within the borders of the invasive tumor. The primary endpoint was breast cancer-free interval (BCFI). Cox proportional hazards regression model assessed the association of BCFI and secondary endpoints with TILs score. In the 647 tumor samples, the median percentage of TILs was 18 % (IQR = 8-40 %), with 18 % having TILs ≥ 50 % (lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer, LPBC). At a median follow-up of 6.9 years, TILs were associated with better prognosis. For every 10 % increase of TILs, BCFI risk reduction was 13 % (HR 0.87, 95 % CI 0.79-0.95,P = 0.003). DFS, DRFI, and OS risk reductions were 11 % (P = 0.005), 16 % (P = 0.003), and 17 % (P < 0.001), respectively. Multivariable analysis confirmed the independent prognostic value of TILs. No significant TILs-by-treatment interaction was observed (P = 0.39) for associations of TILs with BCFI, although patients with LPBC receiving CM-maintenance had a greater breast cancer risk reduction (HR 0.64,95 % CI 0.23-1.78) than those with non-LPBC (TILs < 50 %) (HR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.67-1.40). TILs score is a potent prognostic factor in patients with TNBC. Low-dose chemotherapy confers a greater (not statistically significant) clinical benefit in patients with LPBC.

Low-Dose Oral Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Maintenance for Hormone Receptor-Negative Early Breast Cancer: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial 22-00.

To evaluate the benefit of low-dose cyclophosphamide and methotrexate (CM) maintenance, which previously demonstrated antitumor activity and few adverse effects in advanced breast cancer, in early breast cancer.

Treatment Adherence and Its Impact on Disease-Free Survival in the Breast International Group 1-98 Trial of Tamoxifen and Letrozole, Alone and in Sequence.

To investigate adherence to endocrine treatment and its relationship with disease-free survival (DFS) in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 clinical trial.

Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis for continuous, binary, and count outcomes.

For the past few decades, randomized clinical trials have provided evidence for effective treatments by comparing several competing therapies. Their successes have led to numerous new therapies to combat many diseases. However, since their conclusions are based on the entire cohort in the trial, the treatment recommendation is for everyone, and may not be the best option for an individual. Medical research is now focusing more on providing personalized care for patients, which requires investigating how patient characteristics, including novel biomarkers, modify the effect of current treatment modalities. This is known as heterogeneity of treatment effects. A better understanding of the interaction between treatment and patient-specific prognostic factors will enable practitioners to expand the availability of tailored therapies, with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) approach was developed to allow researchers to investigate the heterogeneity of treatment effects on survival outcomes across values of a (continuously measured) covariate, such as a biomarker measurement.

Adjuvant ovarian function suppression and cognitive function in women with breast cancer.

To examine the effect on cognitive function of adjuvant ovarian function suppression (OFS) for breast cancer.

Meta-STEPP: subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot for individual patient data meta-analysis.

We have developed a method, called Meta-STEPP (subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot for meta-analysis), to explore treatment effect heterogeneity across covariate values in the meta-analysis setting for time-to-event data when the covariate of interest is continuous. Meta-STEPP forms overlapping subpopulations from individual patient data containing similar numbers of events with increasing covariate values, estimates subpopulation treatment effects using standard fixed-effects meta-analysis methodology, displays the estimated subpopulation treatment effect as a function of the covariate values, and provides a statistical test to detect possibly complex treatment-covariate interactions. Simulation studies show that this test has adequate type-I error rate recovery as well as power when reasonable window sizes are chosen. When applied to eight breast cancer trials, Meta-STEPP suggests that chemotherapy is less effective for tumors with high estrogen receptor expression compared with those with low expression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Absolute Benefit of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapies for Premenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Early Breast Cancer: TEXT and SOFT Trials.

Risk of recurrence is the primary consideration in breast cancer adjuvant therapy recommendations. The TEXT (Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial) and SOFT (Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial) trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, testing exemestane plus ovarian function suppression (OFS), tamoxifen plus OFS, and tamoxifen alone. We examined absolute treatment effect across a continuum of recurrence risk to individualize endocrine therapy decision making for premenopausal women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative disease.

Adjuvant Tamoxifen Plus Ovarian Function Suppression Versus Tamoxifen Alone in Premenopausal Women With Early Breast Cancer: Patient-Reported Outcomes in the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial.

The Suppression of Ovarian Function trial showed improved disease control for tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression (OFS) compared with tamoxifen alone for the cohort of premenopausal patients who received prior chemotherapy. We present the patient-reported outcomes.

Annual Hazard Rates of Recurrence for Breast Cancer During 24 Years of Follow-Up: Results From the International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials I to V.

Predicting the pattern of recurrence can aid in the development of targeted surveillance and treatment strategies. We identified patient populations that remain at risk for an event at a median follow-up of 24 years from the diagnosis of operable breast cancer.

Trastuzumab re-treatment following adjuvant trastuzumab and the importance of distant disease-free interval: the HERA trial experience.

This retrospective analysis conducted using data from patients enrolled onto the Herceptin Adjuvant has two objectives: The first is to evaluate the impact of the time interval between the end of adjuvant trastuzumab and distant recurrence (TDRI) upon overall survival (OS). The second is to describe the duration of trastuzumab-based regimens in the metastatic setting for patients previously treated with adjuvant trastuzumab. The first objective included 187 patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab and diagnosed with distant recurrence at 4-year median follow-up. The second objective included data from questionnaires sent to investigators retreating patients with trastuzumab upon distant recurrence: 144 of 156 questionnaires were returned (93 %), and 90 patients were selected based on available clinical information and consent for subsequent studies. There was no statistically significant relationship between TDRI following 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab and OS from distant recurrence: hazard ratio 0.991, p = 0.46. The median OS from distant recurrence was numerically longer among patients with a TDRI of ≥12 months (n = 103) than <12 months (n = 84) but not statistically significant (23.7 vs. 17.8 months, p = 0.47). The median duration of first-line trastuzumab-based regimens for patients previously treated with adjuvant trastuzumab and diagnosed with distant disease recurrence was 8.8 months (n = 88). This retrospective, exploratory study suggests that TDRI did not impact on OS measured from distant recurrence. We argue that prospective collection of treatment information beyond disease progression should be included in future clinical studies.

Reply to A. Oguz et al.

Adjuvant Lapatinib and Trastuzumab for Early Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer: Results From the Randomized Phase III Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization Trial.

Lapatinib (L) plus trastuzumab (T) improves outcomes for metastatic human epidermal growth factor 2-positive breast cancer and increases the pathologic complete response in the neoadjuvant setting, but their role as adjuvant therapy remains uncertain.

ESR1 and ESR2 polymorphisms in the BIG 1-98 trial comparing adjuvant letrozole versus tamoxifen or their sequence for early breast cancer.

Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and ESR2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with endocrine-mediated physiological mechanisms, and inconsistently with breast cancer risk and outcomes, bone mineral density changes, and hot flushes/night sweats. DNA was isolated and genotyped for six ESR1 and two ESR2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from tumor specimens from 3691 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in the BIG 1-98 trial to receive tamoxifen and/or letrozole for 5 years. Associations with recurrence and adverse events (AEs) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. 3401 samples were successfully genotyped for five SNPs. ESR1 rs9340799(XbaI) (T>C) variants CC or TC were associated with reduced breast cancer risk (HR = 0.82,95% CI = 0.67-1.0), and ESR1 rs2077647 (T>C) variants CC or TC was associated with reduced distant recurrence risk (HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.53-0.90), both regardless of the treatments. No differential treatment effects (letrozole vs. tamoxifen) were observed for the association of outcome with any of the SNPs. Letrozole-treated patients with rs2077647 (T>C) variants CC and TC had a reduced risk of bone AE (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.98, P interaction = 0.08), whereas patients with rs4986938 (G>A) genotype variants AA and AG had an increased risk of bone AE (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.01-1.84, P interaction = 0.07). We observed that (1) rare ESR1 homozygous polymorphisms were associated with lower recurrence, and (2) ESR1 and ESR2 SNPs were associated with bone AEs in letrozole-treated patients. Genes that are involved in estrogen signaling and synthesis have the potential to affect both breast cancer recurrence and side effects, suggesting that individual treatment strategies can incorporate not only oncogenic drivers but also SNPs related to estrogen activity.

Identifying treatment effect heterogeneity in clinical trials using subpopulations of events: STEPP.

Investigators conducting randomized clinical trials often explore treatment effect heterogeneity to assess whether treatment efficacy varies according to patient characteristics. Identifying heterogeneity is central to making informed personalized healthcare decisions. Treatment effect heterogeneity can be investigated using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP), a non-parametric graphical approach that constructs overlapping patient subpopulations with varying values of a characteristic. Procedures for statistical testing using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot when the endpoint of interest is survival remain an area of active investigation.

Predictive value and clinical utility of centrally assessed ER, PgR, and Ki-67 to select adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer: TEXT and SOFT trials.

The SOFT and TEXT randomized phase III trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer. We investigated the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and Ki-67 expression in women with HER2-negative disease. Of 5707 women enrolled, 4115 with HER2-negative (HR+/HER2-) disease had ER, PgR, and Ki-67 centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was defined from randomization to first invasive local, regional, or distant recurrence or contralateral breast cancer. The prognostic and predictive values of ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression levels were assessed using Cox modeling and STEPP methodology. In this HR+/HER2- population, the median ER, PgR, and Ki-67 expressions were 95, 90, and 18 % immunostained cells. As most patients had strongly ER-positive tumors, the predictive value of ER levels could not be investigated. Lower PgR and higher Ki-67 expression were associated with reduced BCFI. There was no consistent evidence of heterogeneity of the relative treatment effects according to PgR or Ki-67 expression levels, though there was a greater 5-year absolute benefit of exemestane + ovarian function suppression (OFS) versus tamoxifen with or without OFS at lower levels of PgR and higher levels of Ki-67. Women with poor prognostic features of low PgR and/or high Ki-67 have greater absolute benefit from exemestane + OFS versus tamoxifen + OFS or tamoxifen alone, but individually PgR and Ki-67 are of limited predictive value for selecting adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- early breast cancer.

Relative Effectiveness of Letrozole Compared With Tamoxifen for Patients With Lobular Carcinoma in the BIG 1-98 Trial.

To evaluate the relative effectiveness of letrozole compared with tamoxifen for patients with invasive ductal or lobular carcinoma.

Efficacy of Adjuvant Trastuzumab for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Early Breast Cancer and Tumors ≤ 2 cm: A Meta-Analysis of the Randomized Trastuzumab Trials.

We compared efficacy of trastuzumab versus no trastuzumab in patients with small (≤ 2 cm) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive breast cancer treated in randomized trials.