A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Ridgely Fisk Green - Top 30 Publications

BRCA Genetic Testing and Receipt of Preventive Interventions Among Women Aged 18-64 Years with Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas - United States, 2009-2014.

Genetic testing for breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene mutations can identify women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer. These testing results can be used to select preventive interventions and guide treatment. Differences between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan populations in rates of BRCA testing and receipt of preventive interventions after testing have not previously been examined.

A knowledge base for tracking the impact of genomics on population health.

We created an online knowledge base (the Public Health Genomics Knowledge Base (PHGKB)) to provide systematically curated and updated information that bridges population-based research on genomics with clinical and public health applications.

Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an "identify, inform, and integrate" model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects.

Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19 bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative ("risk genotypes") and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p = 0.017). We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential epigenetic mechanisms.

Association between maternal age and birth defects of unknown etiology: United States, 1997-2007.

Birth defects affect 3% of babies born, and are one of the leading causes of infant mortality. Both younger and older maternal age may pose increased risks for certain birth defects. This study assessed the relationship between maternal age at the estimated delivery date and the risk for birth defects.

Family history in public health practice: a genomic tool for disease prevention and health promotion.

Family history is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Professional guidelines usually include family history to assess health risk, initiate interventions, and motivate behavioral changes. The advantages of family history over other genomic tools include a lower cost, greater acceptability, and a reflection of shared genetic and environmental factors. However, the utility of family history in public health has been poorly explored. To establish family history as a public health tool, it needs to be evaluated within the ACCE framework (analytical validity; clinical validity; clinical utility; and ethical, legal, and social issues). Currently, private and public organizations are developing tools to collect standardized family histories of many diseases. Their goal is to create family history tools that have decision support capabilities and are compatible with electronic health records. These advances will help realize the potential of family history as a public health tool.

Association of paternal age and risk for major congenital anomalies from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997 to 2004.

The objective of this study was to examine the associations between paternal age and birth defects of unknown etiologies while carefully controlling for maternal age.

Maternal reports of family history from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2001.

To assess usefulness of family history information obtained in pediatric practice, we evaluated maternally reported family history data.

Summary of workgroup meeting on use of family history information in pediatric primary care and public health.

A workgroup meeting on the use of family history information in pediatric primary care and public health sponsored by the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was held February 24 to 25, 2006. The workgroup participants met to discuss how to improve the use of family history information in pediatric settings. Topics addressed at the meeting included current practices, needs, and barriers for use of family history information in pediatric primary care and public health. Other considerations included how available family history tools might be applicable to pediatric settings and which areas require additional research. Specific model conditions were presented that illustrated issues involved in the use of family history information in pediatric settings, including cystic fibrosis, fragile X syndrome, polycystic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease, and birth defects. Ethical, economic, and technologic concerns involved in integration of family history information into pediatric settings were discussed also.

Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B genotype and fetal alcohol syndrome: a HuGE minireview.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 1 of the most common developmental disabilities in the United States, occurs at a rate of 0.5-2.0:1000 live births. Animal model, family, and twin studies suggest a genetic component to FAS susceptibility. Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the rate-limiting step in alcohol metabolism. Studies of genetic associations with FAS have focused on the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, comparing mothers and children with the alleles ADH1B*2 or ADH1B*3, associated with faster ethanol metabolism, with those homozygous for ADH1B*1. While most studies have found a protective effect for genotypes containing ADH1B*2 or ADH1B*3, results have been conflicting, and further investigation into the association between the ADH1B genotype and FAS is needed. Whether increased alcohol intake accounts for the elevated risk reported for the ADH1B*1/ADH1B*1 genotype should be addressed, and future studies would benefit from consistent case definitions, enhanced exposure measurements, larger sample sizes, and careful study design.

Incorporating genetic analyses into birth defects cluster investigations: strategies for identifying candidate genes.

Incorporating genetic analyses into birth defect cluster investigations may increase understanding of both genetic and environmental risk factors for the defect. Current constraints of most birth defect cluster investigations make candidate gene selection the most feasible approach. Here, we describe strategies for choosing candidate genes for such investigations, which will also be applicable to more general gene-environment studies.