PubTransformer

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Rohit K Khosla - Top 30 Publications

Teaching Palatoplasty Using a High-Fidelity Cleft Palate Simulator.

Cleft palate repair is a challenging procedure for cleft surgeons to teach. A novel high-fidelity cleft palate simulator has been described for surgeon training. This study evaluates the simulator's effect on surgeon procedural confidence and palatoplasty knowledge among learners.

Cleft Lip Standardized Patient Examinations: The Role in Plastic Surgery Resident Education.

  Our institution has incorporated the use of objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) in our residency curriculum. The OSCE provides trainee education and evaluation while addressing the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies required within training programs. We report our program's experience with the first cleft OSCE ever conducted.

Rhinoplasty Education Using a Standardized Patient Encounter.

Comprehensive aesthetic surgery training continues to be a challenge for residency programs. Our residency program developed a rhinoplasty-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) based upon validated methods as part of the residency education curriculum. We report our experience with the rhinoplasty-based OSCE and offer guidance to its incorporation within residency programs.

Use of regenerative tissue matrix as an oral layer for the closure of recalcitrant anterior palatal fistulae: a pilot study.

To evaluate the effectiveness of regenerative tissue matrix (Alloderm) as an oral layer for difficult anterior palatal fistula closure.

Facial twist (asymmetry) in isolated unilateral coronal synostosis: does premature facial suture fusion play a role?

Unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS) often causes notable facial twist in affected patients. This condition occurs when the midface deviates toward the synostotic side, and the lower face deviates away from the synostotic side. The exact underlying mechanism for this phenomenon remains unclear. It has been proposed that premature fusion of facial sutures may play a role in the formation of facial twist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether asymmetrical facial suture fusion is present in patients with UCS.

Chondromyxoid fibroma of the mandible in an adolescent: case report and microsurgical reconstructive option.

Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare bony tumor that usually presents in the lower extremities of middle-aged adults. Involvement of the craniofacial skeleton is extremely rare. We present the unique case of an adolescent boy with a chondromyxoid fibroma of the mandible. The chondromyxoid fibroma in this patient recurred after initial treatment with curettage. We treated the recurrence with resection of the involved mandible and immediate reconstruction using a vascularized musculo-osseus seventh rib flap ("Eve procedure"). Despite complex reconstruction in adolescents due to skeletal immaturity, the rib flap has successfully grown with the patient up to 3 years postoperatively. Therefore, we believe the musculo-osseus rib flap is a feasible solution for complex ramus and condyle reconstruction of the growing mandible in the adolescent patient.

Contemporary concepts for the bilateral cleft lip and nasal repair.

The bilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity presents a complex challenge for repair. Surgical techniques continue to evolve and are focused on primary anatomic realignment of the tissues. This can be accomplished in a single-stage or two-stage repair early in infancy to provide a foundation for future growth of the lip and nasal tissue. Most cleft surgeons currently perform a single-stage repair for simplifying patient care. Certain institutions utilize presurgical orthopedics for alignment of the maxillary segments and nasal shaping. Methods for the bilateral cleft lip repair are combined with various open and closed rhinoplasty techniques to achieve improved correction of the primary nasal deformity. There is recent focus on shaping the nose for columellar and tip support, as well as alar contour and alar base position. The authors will present a new technique for closure of the nasal floor to prevent the alveolar cleft fistula. Although the alveolar fistula is closed, alveolar bone grafting is still required at the usual time in dental development to fuse the maxilla. It is paramount to try and minimize the stigmata of secondary deformities that historically have been characteristic of the repaired bilateral cleft lip. A properly planned and executed repair reduces the number of revisions and can spare a child from living with secondary deformities.

Cleft palate surgery: an evaluation of length of stay, complications, and costs by hospital type.

The purpose of this study was to assess length of stay (LOS), complication rates, costs, and charges of cleft palate repair by various hospital types. We hypothesized that pediatric hospitals would have shorter LOS, fewer complications, and lower costs and charges.

Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis.

Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is more commonly encountered than syndromic cases in pediatric craniofacial surgery. Affected children display characteristic phenotypes according to the suture or sutures involved. Restricted normal growth of the skull can lead to increased intracranial pressure and changes in brain morphology, which in turn may contribute to neurocognitive deficiency. Management has primarily focused on surgical correction of fused sutures prior to 12 months of age to optimize correction of the deformity and to ameliorate the effects of increased intracranial pressure. However, emphasis has recently shifted to better understanding the pathogenesis of neurocognitive impairment observed in these children, along with genetic mutations that contribute to premature suture fusion. Such understanding will provide opportunities for earlier and more specific neurocognitive interventions and for the development of targeted genetic therapy to prevent pathologic suture fusion. The authors review the common types of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and the epidemiological, genetic, and neurodevelopmental details that are currently known from the literature. In addition, they present the rationale for surgical correction, offer suggestions for timing of intervention, and present some nuances of techniques that they find important in producing consistent results.

Current concepts for eyelid reanimation in facial palsy.

The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Two distinct anatomical regions and functions are the focus of interest when managing facial palsy: (1) reanimation of the eyelids and (2) reconstruction of the smile. This review will focus on the treatment of ocular manifestations of facial palsy. The principles of eyelid rehabilitation will be presented along with a discussion of surgical and nonsurgical treatment options.

A national study on craniosynostosis surgical repair.

Objective : Our study aimed to use national data to assess the perioperative outcomes of craniosynostosis surgical repair. Design : Data were obtained from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids Inpatient Database from 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006. Setting : Community hospitals in the United States. Patients : The cohort was identified using the ICD-9-CM procedure codes for craniosynostosis surgical repair (2.01, 2.03, 2.04, 2.06). Main Outcome Measures(s) : We determined patient and hospital characteristics. We clustered patients by age group (<7 months, 7 to 12 months, 1 to 3 years) and assessed mortality, comorbidities, mean length of stay (LOS), and total charge. We performed logistic regression with our dependent variable being longer average hospital stay: LOS > 4.2 days. Results : We found 3426 patients. Average age at the time of surgery was 181 days (SD 84). Average length of stay was 4.2 days. The majority of the patients were boys (66%), white (71%), and insured (93%). Nearly all patients underwent surgery in a teaching hospital (98%) in urban centers (99%). Approximately 10% of patients experienced an acute complication, most commonly hemorrhages or hematomas and airway or respiratory failure. Patients ages 1 to 3 years had the highest rates of comorbidities and a longer LOS. Mortality rate was <1%. Conclusions : Craniosynostosis surgery is safe with low rates of mortality and acute complications. LOS >4.2 appears to be associated more with comorbidities than with complications. Higher rates of comorbidities and LOS >4.2 days for patients age 1 to 3 years warrant addition research to assess potential barriers to care.

Microsurgical reconstruction of the smile--contemporary trends.

The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Microsurgical innovation has introduced the modern age of dynamic reconstruction for facial palsy. This review will focus on microsurgical reconstruction for smile restoration in patients with long-standing facial palsy. The most common donor muscles and nerves will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of single-stage versus multi-stage reconstruction will be discussed. Contemporary trends will be highlighted and the authors' preferred practice outlined.

Emergency surgical treatment of an ulcerative and hemorrhagic congenital/infantile fibrosarcoma of the lower leg: case report and literature review.

Fibrosarcomas are rare malignant soft-tissue tumors occurring mostly in infants younger than 1 year of age. Fibrosarcomas can ulcerate and cause various complications, which could threaten a fetus in utero or a child in the early neonatal period. We report a unique case of congenital infantile fibrosarcoma of the lower leg, its treatment and pathology. The large expansive and destructive lesion was not appreciated on routine prenatal ultrasound exams at 20 and 33 weeks gestation. The newborn required immediate emergency surgical intervention after delivery to prevent death by hemorrhagic shock. Initial debulking of the tumor was performed and hemostasis was attained on the day of birth. The child was resuscitated and definitive treatment of the leg was deferred until a pathologic diagnosis was obtained. Given the extent of the fibrosarcoma, the lower leg was not salvageable and the patient received a through-the-knee amputation in the neonatal period. The patient is free of disease at 2 years of age.

Changes in frontal morphology after single-stage open posterior-middle vault expansion for sagittal craniosynostosis.

There is controversy regarding whether the frontal bossing associated with sagittal synostosis requires direct surgical correction or spontaneously remodels after isolated posterior cranial expansion. The authors retrospectively measured changes in frontal bone morphology in patients with isolated sagittal synostosis 2 years after open posterior and midvault cranial expansion and compared these changes with those occurring in age-comparable healthy control groups.

Combination Jessner's solution and trichloroacetic acid chemical peel: technique and outcomes.

Trichloroacetic acid is a commonly utilized agent for chemical resurfacing of the face. Jessner's solution in combination with trichloroacetic acid has been previously described for the treatment of facial rhytids in the dermatology literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the application technique and examine the clinical results of Jessner's solution in combination with trichloroacetic acid in a diverse plastic surgery patient population.

Bilateral cleft lip and nasal repair.

The bilateral cleft lip and nasal repair has remained a challenging endeavor. Techniques have evolved to address concerns over unsatisfactory features and stigmata of the surgery. The authors present an approach to this complex clinical problem that modifies traditional repairs described by Millard and Manchester. The senior author (H.S.B.) has developed this technique with over 25 years of surgical experience dealing with the bilateral cleft lip. This staged lip and nasal repair provides excellent nasal projection, lip function, and aesthetic outcomes. Lip repair is performed at 3 months of age. Columellar lengthening is performed at approximately 18 months of age. A key component of this repair focuses on reconstruction of the central tubercle. A triangular prolabial dry vermilion flap is augmented by lateral lip vermilion flaps that include the profundus muscle of the orbicularis oris. This minimizes lateral lip segment sacrifice and provides improved central vermilion fullness, which is often deficient in traditional repairs. The authors present the surgical technique and examples of their clinical results.

Quantification of the osmotic expansion in implants filled with polyethylene glycol.

High reoperation rates continue to agonize the field of breast augmentation surgery. Patient dissatisfaction is a contributing factor for reoperations. This is often attributable to patients' desire to be larger after the augmentation. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a potential alternative breast implant filler under investigation. It has been shown to swell secondary to osmotic expansion when it is placed in vivo. We hypothesize that there is a finite expansion in this process. An experimental study was designed utilizing an in vitro model to quantify the rate and volume of the osmotic expansion of PEG-filled implants. Seventeen silicone elastomer shells were filled with various percent concentration and molecular weight PEG/saline solutions. These implants were kept in saline baths at varying temperatures to assess the effect of temperature on osmotic expansion. Daily weights were recorded to quantify the expansion and determine if a plateau was reached. Implant expansion was observed to plateau in all groups tested. Implants filled with 85% concentration PEG solutions demonstrated a uniform expansion at a rate of 0.032 to 0.037 g/d. Implants filled with 85% concentration PEG stored at human core temperature (37 degrees C) gained on average 6.2% to 7.6% of their original weight. Implants stored at 4 degrees C expanded to a higher volume than implants stored at 37 degrees C (P < 0.01). Implants filled with 50% concentration PEG solution gained only 2.7% of their original weight (P < 0.01). PEG-filled implants undergo controlled osmotic expansion to a final predictable weight in vitro. Higher concentration PEG induces greater volume expansion. A colder environment also induces greater volume expansion. PEG is biologically inert and may be an alternative filler for breast implants. The predictable expansion process may be beneficial in breast augmentation that may alleviate patient dissatisfaction about breast size once postoperative edema resolves.

Clinical outcomes of the Furlow Z-plasty for primary cleft palate repair.

To review the clinical outcomes following the Furlow Z-plasty for primary cleft palate repair. The primary objective was to determine if the presence of an associated sequence or syndrome (i.e., Pierre Robin sequence), age at palate repair, cleft type, or surgeon experience influenced speech outcomes after a Furlow Z-plasty.