A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Xiao Huang - Top 30 Publications

Analysis of the Optimal Vaccination Age for Dengue in Brazil with a Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine.

In this paper we study a mathematical model to analyse the optimal vaccination age against Dengue in Brazil. Data from Brazil are used to estimate the basic reproduction numbers for each of the four Dengue serotypes and then the optimal vaccination age is calculated using a method due to Hethcote [1]. The vaccine has different efficacies against each serotype. Vaccination that is too early is ineffective as individuals are protected by maternal antibodies but leaving vaccination until later may allow the disease to spread. First of all the optimal vaccination ages are calculated where there is just one serotype in circulation and then when there are multiple serotypes. The calculations are done using data both assuming constant vaccine efficacy and age-dependent vaccine efficacy against a given serotype. The multiple serotype calculations are repeated assuming that the first infection is a risky infection and that it is not (to model Dengue Antibody Enhancement). The calculations are then repeated when any third or fourth Dengue infections are asymptomatic, so that two Dengue infections with different serotypes provide effective permanent immunity. The calculations are also repeated when the age-dependent risk function (fitted to Brazilian data) is hospitalisation from Dengue and when it is mortality due to Dengue. We find a wide variety of optimal vaccination ages depending on both the serotypes in circulation and the assumptions of the model.

Cost-of-illness of cholera to households and health facilities in rural Malawi.

Cholera remains an important public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Vaccination has been recommended as a possible intervention for the prevention and control of cholera. Evidence, especially data on disease burden, cost-of-illness, delivery costs and cost-effectiveness to support a wider use of vaccine is still weak. This study aims at estimating the cost-of-illness of cholera to households and health facilities in Machinga and Zomba Districts, Malawi. A cross-sectional study using retrospectively collected cost data was undertaken in this investigation. One hundred patients were purposefully selected for the assessment of the household cost-of-illness and four cholera treatment centres and one health facility were selected for the assessment conducted in health facilities. Data collected for the assessment in households included direct and indirect costs borne by cholera patients and their families while only direct costs were considered for the assessment conducted in health facilities. Whenever possible, descriptive and regression analysis were used to assess difference in mean costs between groups of patients. The average costs to patients' households and health facilities for treating an episode of cholera amounted to US$65.6 and US$59.7 in 2016 for households and health facilities, respectively equivalent to international dollars (I$) 249.9 and 227.5 the same year. Costs incurred in treating a cholera episode were proportional to duration of hospital stay. Moreover, 52% of households used coping strategies to compensate for direct and indirect costs imposed by the disease. Both households and health facilities could avert significant treatment expenditures through a broader use of pre-emptive cholera vaccination. These findings have direct policy implications regarding priority investments for the prevention and control of cholera.

Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.

The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China.

Conducting redox polymers with non-activated charge transport properties.

Non-activated charge transport has been demonstrated in terephthalate-functionalized conducting redox polymers. The transition from a temperature-activated conduction mechanism to a residual scattering mechanism was dependent on the doping level. The latter mechanism is associated with apparent negative activation barriers to charge transport and is generally found in polymer materials with a high degree of order. Crystallographic data, however, suggested a low degree of order in this polymer, indicating the existence of interconnected crystal domains in the predominantly amorphous polymer matrix through which the charge was transported. We have thus shown that the addition of bulky pendant groups to conducting polymers does not prevent efficient charge transport via the residual scattering mechanism with low barriers to charge transport.

Fibronectin Glomerulopathy: A Rare Autosomal Dominant Glomerular Disease.

Therapeutic Mechanism of Glucocorticoids on Cellular Crescent Formation in Patients With Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease.

This study aimed to explore the therapeutic mechanism of glucocorticoids (GCs) in antiglomerular basement membrane disease.

Twa1/Gid8 is a β-catenin nuclear retention factor in Wnt signaling and colorectal tumorigenesis.

Hyperactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the major causes of human colorectal cancer (CRC). A hallmark of Wnt signaling is the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Although β-catenin nuclear import and export have been widely investigated, the underlying mechanism of β-catenin's nuclear retention remains largely unknown. Here, we report that Twa1/Gid8 is a key nuclear retention factor for β-catenin during Wnt signaling and colorectal carcinogenesis. In the absence of Wnt, Twa1 exists together with β-catenin in the Axin complex and undergoes ubiquitination and degradation. Upon Wnt signaling, Twa1 translocates into the nucleus, where it binds and retains β-catenin. Depletion of Twa1 attenuates Wnt-stimulated gene expression, dorsal development of zebrafish embryos and xenograft tumor growth of CRC cells. Moreover, nuclear Twa1 is significantly upregulated in human CRC tissues, correlating with the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and poor prognosis. Thus, our results identify Twa1 as a previously undescribed regulator of the Wnt pathway for promoting colorectal tumorigenesis by facilitating β-catenin nuclear retention.Cell Research advance online publication 22 August 2017; doi:10.1038/cr.2017.107.

Detecting Traversable Area and Water Hazards for the Visually Impaired with a pRGB-D Sensor.

The use of RGB-Depth (RGB-D) sensors for assisting visually impaired people (VIP) has been widely reported as they offer portability, function-diversity and cost-effectiveness. However, polarization cues to assist traversability awareness without precautions against stepping into water areas are weak. In this paper, a polarized RGB-Depth (pRGB-D) framework is proposed to detect traversable area and water hazards simultaneously with polarization-color-depth-attitude information to enhance safety during navigation. The approach has been tested on a pRGB-D dataset, which is built for tuning parameters and evaluating the performance. Moreover, the approach has been integrated into a wearable prototype which generates a stereo sound feedback to guide visually impaired people (VIP) follow the prioritized direction to avoid obstacles and water hazards. Furthermore, a preliminary study with ten blindfolded participants suggests its effectivity and reliability.

Lipid levels and new-onset diabetes in a hypertensive population: the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial.

This study aimed to provide insights into the relationship between lipid levels and new-onset diabetes (NOD) in 14,864 Chinese hypertensive patients without diabetes (6056 men and 8808 women) aged 45-75 years from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT, led by Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China). NOD (defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L at the end of study or self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes or self-reported use of hypoglycemic agents during follow-up) was analyzed using multivariate analysis. Follow-up was censored on August 24, 2014. Among the 14,864 subjects, 1615 developed NOD (10.9%, men = 10.8% and women = 10.9%). Increased triglycerides (TG) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.25, P < 0.001], TG/HDL (OR = 1.12; 95%CI: 1.08-1.17, P < 0.001), and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) (OR = 0.79; 95%CI: 0.67-0.93, P = 0.005) were associated with NOD, independently from age, gender, body mass index, clinical center, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, FPG, smoking, and drinking. Compared to subjects with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 CC and TT genotypes, those with the CT genotype had a higher risk of NOD (OR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.30-1.81, P for interaction = 0.044) in subjects with high TG. These results suggested that TG and TG/HDL were independent risk factors for NOD in this Chinese hypertensive population. HDL was a protective factor for NOD.

Imatinib-induced interstitial pneumonitis successfully switched to nilotinib in a patient with prior history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Portable Sensor for the Detection of Choline and Its Derivatives Based on Silica Isoporous Membrane and Gellified Nanointerfaces.

A portable amperometric ion sensor was fabricated by integrating silica isoporous membrane (SIM) and organogel composed of polyvinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane (PVC-DCE) on a 3D-printed polymer chip. The detection of ionic species in aqueous samples could be accomplished by adding a microliter of sample droplet to the sensor and by identifying the ion-transfer potential and current magnitude at the water/organogel interface array templated by SIM. Thanks to the ultrasmall channel size (2-3 nm in diameter), high channel density (4 × 10(8) μm(-2)), and ultrathin thickness (80 nm) of SIM, the ensemble of nanoscopic water/organogel (nano-W/Gel) interface array behaved like a microinterface with two back-to-back hemispherical mass diffusion zones. So, the heterogeneous ion-transfer across the nano-W/Gel interface array generated a steady-state sigmoidal current wave. The detection of choline (Ch) and its derivatives, including acetylcholine (ACh), benzoylcholine (BCh), and atropine (AP), in aqueous samples was examined with this portable sensor. Using differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV), the quantification of these analytes was achieved with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 1 μM. Moreover, the portable ion sensor was insensitive to various potential interferents that might coexist in vivo, owing to size-/charge-based selectivity and antifouling capacity of SIM. With this priority, the portable ion sensor was able to quantitatively determine Ch and its derivatives in diluted urine and blood samples. The LODs for Ch, ACh, AP, and BCh in urine were 1.12, 1.30, 1.08, and 0.99 μM, and those for blood samples were 3.61, 3.38, 2.32, and 1.81 μM, respectively.

Defective CFTR leads to aberrant β-catenin activation and kidney fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), known as a cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel, is widely expressed at the apical membrane of epithelial cells in a wide variety of tissues. Of note, despite the abundant expression of CFTR in mammalian kidney, the role of CFTR in kidney disease development is unclear. Here, we report that CFTR expression is downregulated in the UUO (unilateral ureteral obstruction)-induced kidney fibrosis mouse model and human fibrotic kidneys. Dysfunction or downregulation of CFTR in renal epithelial cells leads to alteration of genes involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and kidney fibrosis. In addition, dysregulation of CFTR activates canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, whereas the β-catenin inhibitor reverses the effects of CFTR downregulation on EMT marker. More interestingly, CFTR interacts with Dishevelled 2 (Dvl2), a key component of Wnt signaling, thereby suppressing the activation of β-catenin. Compared to wild type, deltaF508 mice with UUO treatment exhibit significantly higher β-catenin activity with aggregated kidney fibrogenesis, which is reduced by forced overexpression of CFTR. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which CFTR regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pertinent to progression of kidney fibrosis and indicates a potential treatment target.

Comparison of phenotypic and global gene expression changes in Xenopus tropicalis embryos induced by agonists of RAR and RXR.

Retinoic acid functions through two classes of receptors, i.e., the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR). The difference in the role between RAR and RXR, however, are not well clarified. In the present study, we comparatively investigated the phenotypic and global gene expression changes in Xenopus tropicalis embryos induced by three different agonists, including a RAR selective ligand (all-trans retinoic acid, at-RA), a RXR selective ligand (fluorobexarotene, FBA) and their common ligand (9-cis retinoic acid, 9c-RA). All three agonists induced striking and similar malformations in X. tropicalis embryos at the concentrations of 5-50μg/L. Especially, the development of anterior structures and caudal region was dramatically altered. The hierarchical clustering analysis of phenotypes and gene profiles suggested that effects induced by 9c-RA separated from those by at-RA and FBA. The up-regulated genes were involved in multiple pathways while down-regulated genes were mainly related to phototransduction and tyrosine metabolism. at-RA primarily affected the retinol, glycolysis, starch and sucrose metabolisms while FBA led to disturbances in more wide-ranging pathways such as the PPAR, adipocytokine, insulin, FoxO signaling pathways, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism. RXR is a heterodimeric partner for several other nuclear receptors, which opens the possibility that additional retinoid effects could be mediated by FBA, such as RXR-PPAR. Our data indicates that not only RXR-RAR but also RXR-PPAR plays important roles in the control of metabolism with retinoid treatment in X. tropicalis embryos.

Scrolling up graphene oxide nanosheets assisted by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols.

We report a simple and novel method for the fabrication of high-quality nanoscrolls of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag) on a gold substrate through a scrolling process assisted by the self-assembly of alkanethiol monolayers. The yield and rate of the scrolling process were highly dependent on the lengths of the alkanethiol molecules, and could be well described by power law functions. Importantly, compared to nanosheets, nanoscrolls of GO and GO-Ag showed superior performance in humidity sensing due to their unique scrolled structures.

Synthesis of WOn -WX2 (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) Heterostructures for Highly Efficient Green Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes.

Preparation of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures is important not only fundamentally, but also technologically for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile colloidal method for the synthesis of WOn -WX2 (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WOn nanomaterials. The WOn -WX2 heterostructures are composed of WO2.9 nanoparticles (NPs) or WO2.7 nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX2 nanosheets (NSs). As a proof-of-concept application, the WOn -WX2 heterostructures are used as the anode interfacial buffer layer for green quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). The QLED prepared with WO2.9 NP-WSe2 NS heterostructures achieves external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.53 %. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency in the reported green QLEDs using inorganic materials as the hole injection layer.

Biological nutrient removal and molecular biological characteristics in an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater.

This study aimed to present an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater. The average COD, NH4(+)-N, TN, and TP removal efficiency were 91.81%, 96.26%, 83.73% and 94.49%, respectively. Temperature plunge and C/N decrease have a certain impact on the modified process. Characteristics of microbial community, function microorganism, and correlation of microbial community with environmental variables in five compartments were carried out by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The differences of microbial community were observed and Blastocatella, Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were the dominant genus. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira occupied a dominant position in AOB and NOB, respectively. Rhodospirillaceae and Rhodocyclaceae owned a considerable proportion in phosphorus removal bacteria. DO and COD played significant roles on affecting the microbial components. The A-MAO process in this study demonstrated a high potential for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater.

Placental glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 is down-regulated in preeclampsia.

Transplacental fetal glucose supply is predominantly regulated by glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1). Altered expression and/or function of GLUT1 may affect the intrauterine environment, which could compromise fetal development and may contribute to fetal programming. To date it is unknown whether placental GLUT1 is affected by preeclampsia, which is often associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We addressed the hypothesis that preeclampsia leads to decreased expression and function of placental GLUT1.

Smad7 protects against acute kidney injury by rescuing tubular epithelial cells from the G1 cell cycle arrest.

Smad7 plays a protective role in chronic kidney disease; however, its role in acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unexplored. Here, we report that Smad7 protects against AKI by rescuing the G1 cell cycle arrest of tubular epithelial cells (TECs) in ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI in mice in which Smad7 gene is disrupted or restored locally into the kidney. In Smad7 gene knockout (KO) mice, more severe renal impairment including higher levels of serum creatinine and massive tubular necrosis was developed at 48 h after AKI. In contrast, restored renal Smad7 gene locally into the kidney of Smad7 KO mice protected against AKI by promoting TEC proliferation identified by PCNA+ and BrdU+ cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that worsen AKI in Smad7 KO mice was associated with a marked activation of TGF-β/Smad3-p21/p27 signaling and a loss of CDK2/cyclin E activities, thereby impairing TEC regeneration at the G1 cell cycle arrest. In contrast, restored Smad7 locally into the kidneys of Smad7 KO mice protected TECs from the G1 cell cycle arrest and promoted TEC G1/S transition via a CDK2/cyclin E-dependent mechanism. In conclusion, Smad7 plays a protective role in AKI. Blockade of TGF-β/Smad3-p21/p27-induced G1 cell cycle arrest may be a key mechanism by which Smad7 treatment inhibits AKI. Thus, Smad7 may be a novel therapeutic agent for AKI.

Preparation and Characterization of Protein-Loaded Electrospun Fiber Mat and Its Release Kinetics.

For the enhancement of protein's bioavailability, a specific delivery system was developed by coaxial electrospinning. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as protein model, and the core-sheath fiber mat was fabricated using sodium alginate as shell layer and the BSA-loaded chitosan nanoparticle that was prepared previously as core layer. By optimizing electrospinning parameters, uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 200-600 nm were obtained, and transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed their core-sheath structures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis demonstrated that there existed molecular interaction between components, which enhanced the mat's thermal stability and mechanic property. It was found that the predominant release mechanism of BSA from fiber mat was erosion, and little change occurred in the secondary structure of encapsulated BSA indicated by FTIR and circular dichroism analysis. The study shows that the obtained fiber mat is a potential delivery system for protein.

Affinity-Based Assembly of Peptides on Plasmonic Nanoparticles Delivered Intracellularly with Light Activated Control.

We report a universal strategy for functionalizing near-infrared light-responsive nanocarriers with both a peptide "cargo" and an orthogonal cell-penetrating peptide. Modularity of both the cargo and the internalization peptide attachment is an important feature of these materials relying on the robust affinity of polyhistidine tags to nitrilotriacetic acid in the presence of nickel as well as the affinity of biotin labeled peptides to streptavidin. Attachment to the gold surface uses thiol-labeled scaffolds terminated with the affinity partner. These materials allow for unprecedented spatiotemporal control over the release of the toxic α-helical amphipathic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 which disrupts mitochondrial membranes and initiates apoptotic cell death. Laser treatment at benign near-infrared wavelengths releases peptide from the gold surface as well as breaches the endosome barrier for cytosolic activity (with 10(5)-fold improved response to peptide activity over the free peptide) and can be monitored in real time.

Interdiffusion Reaction-Assisted Hybridization of Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Frameworks and Ti3C2Tx Nanosheets for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution.

Two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets have been recently regarded as the model electrocatalysts due to their porous structure, fast mass and ion transfer through the thickness, and large portion of exposed active metal centers. Combining them with electrically conductive 2D nanosheets is anticipated to achieve further improved performance in electrocatalysis. In this work, we in situ hybridized 2D cobalt 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (CoBDC) with Ti3C2Tx (the MXene phase) nanosheets via an interdiffusion reaction-assisted process. The resulting hybrid material was applied in the oxygen evolution reaction and achieved a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at a potential of 1.64 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode and a Tafel slope of 48.2 mV dec(-1) in 0.1 M KOH. These results outperform those obtained by the standard IrO2-based catalyst and are comparable with or even better than those achieved by the previously reported state-of-the-art transition-metal-based catalysts. While the CoBDC layer provided the highly porous structure and large active surface area, the electrically conductive and hydrophilic Ti3C2Tx nanosheets enabled the rapid charge and ion transfer across the well-defined Ti3C2Tx-CoBDC interface and facilitated the access of aqueous electrolyte to the catalytically active CoBDC surfaces. The hybrid nanosheets were further fabricated into an air cathode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery, which was successfully used to power a light-emitting diode. We believe that the in situ hybridization of MXenes and 2D MOFs with interface control will provide more opportunities for their use in energy-based applications.

Electrospun core-shell structured nanofilm as a novel colon-specific delivery system for protein.

A novel core-shell structured nanofilm for the delivery of protein to the colon was developed by coaxial electrospinning using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as protein model. Firstly, the BSA-loaded chitosan nanoparticle was prepared by ionic gelation, and then the coaxial nanofilm was fabricated using alginate as shell layer and the BSA-loaded chitosan nanoparticle as core layer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the obtained nanofilm exhibited a smooth surface, and the core-shell structure was evidenced by the aid of transmission electron microscopy. There was little change in the secondary structure of encapsulated BSA and around 75% of BSA was released in the simulated colonic fluid. The corresponding kinetics models of BSA release in different simulated digestive fluids were built and the results revealed that the release of BSA in colon followed a complex mechanism. This study shows that electrospun nanofilm is a promising colon-specific delivery system for bioactive protein.

Establishment and characterization of primary astrocyte culture from adult mouse brain.

As a major class of glial cells, astrocytes have been indicated to play multi-roles in physiological and pathological brain. Astrocyte cultures derived from postnatal mouse brains have been extensively used to characterize their biological properties. However, the inability to culture adult mouse primary astrocytes has long stymied studies of function in adult brain. Here, we developed a protocol to successfully establish highly enriched astrocyte cultures from the brains of adult mouse. Cortical tissues were collected to prepare cell suspension by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation, and then plated onto vessels pre-coated with gelatin and matrigel and cultured in DMEM medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Forskolin (FSK) and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were use to promote astrocyte proliferation and survival respectively. These adult astrocyte cultures were identified by immunocytochemical, immunobloting and PCR analysis. Furthermore, biological and functional analysis indicated that they possess the biochemical and physiological properties of astrocytes, suggestive of a useful cell model for astroglial studies in adult brain.

A biocompatible and magnetic nanocarrier with a safe UV-initiated docetaxel release and cancer secretion removal properties increases therapeutic potential for skin cancer.

Cancer is a leading fatal disease worldwide. To increase its therapeutic efficiency, more effective with less side effect and patient acceptable administration approach is expected. Moreover, modification of tumor microenvironment is proved to be operative recently. In this paper, a nanocarrier named LDEDDS was developed for intelligent tropical administration of skin cancer, along with removal of hydrophobic cancerous secretion to change tumor microenvironment. It was made by coating of amphipathic polymer P(BA-co-HBA) on docetaxel (TXT, a model hydrophobic anticancer drug) loaded [email protected] Results showed that an optimal loading rate of TXT in [email protected] was 89.75±0.15%, corresponding to loading capacity of 17.95±2.97% when the mass ratio of [email protected] to TXT was 1:20. The LDEDDS had a narrow distribution size of 115.8nm in average and was superparamagnetic. Without UV radiation, it had low TXT release (<7% in 48h) and cytotoxicity (<14% in 96h) to both the normal and carcinoma skin cells. While under a UV with a dose much lower than physiological dose of normal sunlight, LDEDDS released around 60% and 90% of TXT in 1 and 48h. 1h UV treated LDEDDS removed up to 62% of cancer secreted epidermal growth factor (EGF), a model hydrophobic secretion in 96h. Consequently, 1h UV treated LDEDDS inhibited up to 60% of the growth of skin cancer cells in 96h, overriding those effects of the same concentration of TXT in in vitro cellular experiments. This is the first study to change tumor microenvironment by removal of cancerous secretion and is proved to be effective. Along with the superparamagnetic property, which provides potential for concentrating, increasing penetration and internalization into cancerated cells as well as removing from body under an external magnetic field, we predict LDEDDS will have potential applications in clinic skin cancer therapy.

Effect of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Abnormality on Chemothe-rapeutic Resistance of Multiple Myeloma.

To study the correlation between the excessive activation of Hedgehog signal and the drug resistance of multiple myeloma.

Glial cells function as neural stem cells and progenitor cells.

Glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NG2-glia, etc, are broadly distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Also, it has been well known that glial cells play multi-roles in physiological and pathological processes in the CNS, such as maintaining homeostasis, providing neurotrophins for neurons and regulating neural signal transmission. Recently, increasing evidence showed that glial cells may also function as neural stem/progenitor cells and contribute to adult neurogenesis or neuroregeneration. In pathological conditions, for instance, astrocytes and OPCs could be activated to proliferate and differentiate. When cultured in vitro, they could form neurospheres which possess the ability to differentiate into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. Additionally, forced expression of exogenous genes in astrocytes and NG2-glia can successfully reprogram them into neurons, which may also be suggestive of their stem/progenitor cell features. Here, we review current knowledge of the stem cell-like properties of glial cells, including what types of glial cells can function as stem/progenitor cells, how they can acquire the stem/progenitor potential and what progenies can be produced. These insights may foster a better understanding of glial cell biology and function in physiological or pathological processes in the CNS and lead to the idea of using the stem/progenitor-like glial cells as endogenous cell source for neural repair.

Surface-controlled preparation of EuWO4(OH) nanobelts and their hybrid with Au nanoparticles as a novel enzyme-free sensing platform towards hydrogen peroxide.

EuWO4(OH) nanobelts were synthesized for the first time via a thiourea-assisted hydrothermal reaction. The nanobelts were further hybridized with Au nanoparticles (NPs) and showed excellent performance in H2O2 detection, due to both the enzyme-mimic catalytic properties of Au NPs and the radical responsive -OH groups on the EuWO4(OH) nanobelt surfaces.

Hematology oncology practice in the Asia-Pacific APHCON survey results from the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference: bridging the gap 2015, Beijing, China.

This report serves as a snapshot of the state-of-knowledge in the Asia Pacific (APAC) Hematology Oncology community, and establishes a baseline for longitudinal investigations to follow changes in best practices over time. The objective of this study was to understand the approach to hematologic diseases, common standards of care and best practices, issues that remain controversial or debated, and educational or resource gaps that warrant attention. We used mobile application to disseminate and distribute questionnaires to delegates during the 6th international hematologic malignancies conference hosted by the APAC Hematology Consortium at Beijing, China. User responses were collected in an anonymous fashion. We report survey results in two ways: the overall responses, and responses as stratified between Chinese physicians and "Other" represented nationalities. Overall geographical concordance in survey responses was positive and strong. Perhaps more interesting than instances of absolute agreement, these data provide a unique opportunity to identify topics in which physician knowledge or opinions diverge. We assigned questions from all modules to broad categories of: patient information; diagnosis; treatment preference; transplantation; and general knowledge/opinion. On average, we observed a geographic difference of 15% for any particular answer choice, and this was fairly constant across survey modules. These results reveal utility and need for widespread and ongoing initiatives to assess knowledge and provide evidence-based education in real time. The data will be made more valuable by longitudinal participation, such that we can monitor changes in the state of the art over time.

Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Pain and Self-report Function in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Best-Evidence Synthesis.

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in pain and self-report function of patients with knee osteoarthritis on the basis of comparisons with hyaluronic acid or placebo.

Composition- and phase-controlled synthesis and applications of alloyed phase heterostructures of transition metal disulphides.

The facile tuning of the composition and structures of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets is essential for improving their performance in various applications, but remains difficult to realize via a direct solution process. Here, we report the one-step liquid-phase preparation of alloyed Mo1-χWχS2 nanosheets with tunable 1T/2H phase ratios. These alloyed nanosheets showed composition- and phase-dependent electrochemical and electronic properties. By tuning the Mo/W ratio, an optimized combination of high-density active sites for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and low charge transfer resistance can be achieved. Additionally, due to the formation of 1T/2H (metal/semiconductor) heterojunctions, the alloyed TMD nanosheets with an optimized 1T concentration exhibited much enhanced gas sensing capability compared to the highly metallic nanosheets or the annealed semiconducting nanosheets with the same chemical composition. Our findings suggest that the ability to tune the composition and crystal structures of 2D materials via a facile one-pot solution process may provide more opportunities to control their functional properties and thus widens their range of practical applications.