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Xue Li - Top 30 Publications

The interaction between NOLC1 and IAV NS1 protein promotes host cell apoptosis and reduces virus replication.

NS1 of the influenza virus plays an important role in the infection ability of the influenza virus. Our previous research found that NS1 protein interacts with the NOLC1 protein of host cells, however, the function of the interaction is unknown. In the present study, the role of the interaction between the two proteins in infection was further studied. Several analyses, including the use of a pull-down assay, Co-IP, western blot analysis, overexpression, RNAi, flow cytometry, etc., were used to demonstrate that the NS1 protein of H3N2 influenza virus interacts with host protein NOLC1 and reduces the quantity of NOLC1. The interaction also promotes apoptosis in A549 host cells, while the suppression of NOLC1 protein reduces the proliferation of the H3N2 virus. Based on these data, it was concluded that during the process of infection, NS1 protein interacts with NOLC1 protein, reducing the level of NOLC1, and that the interaction between the two proteins promotes apoptosis of host cells, thus reducing the proliferation of the virus. These findings provide new information on the biological function of the interaction between NS1 and NOLC1.

C-glycosides from the stems of Calophyllum membranaceum.

Three new C-glycosides, calophymembransides D-F (1-3), were isolated from the stems of Calophyllum membranaceum Gardn. et Champ.. The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data. RXRα transcriptional inhibition and α-glucosidase inhibition assays indicated that all the isolates were inactive.

BAPTA-AM Dramatically Improves Maturation and Development of Bovine Oocytes from Grade-3 Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes.

Intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) is essential for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. Here, we investigated the role of [Ca2+ ]i in oocytes from cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with respect to maturation and early embryonic development, using the calcium-buffering agent BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis[2-aminophenoxy]ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis [acetoxymethyl ester]). COCs were graded based on compactness of the cumulus mass and appearance of the cytoplasm, with Grade 1 indicating higher quality and developmental potential than Grade 3. Results showed that: (i) [Ca2+ ]i in metaphase-II (MII) oocytes from Grade-3 COCs was significantly higher than those from Grade-1 COCs, and was significantly reduced by BAPTA-AM; (ii) nuclear maturation of oocytes from Grade-3 COCs treated with BAPTA-AM was enhanced compared to untreated COCs; (iii) protein abundance of Cyclin B and oocyte-specific Histone 1 (H1FOO) was improved in MII oocytes from Grade-3 COCs treated with BAPTA-AM; (iv) Ca2+ transients were triggered in each group upon fertilization, and the amplitude of [Ca2+ ]i oscillations increasing in the Grade-3 group upon treatment with BAPTA-AM, with the magnitude approaching that of the Grade-1 group; and (v) cleavage rates and blastocyst formation rates were improved in the Grade-3 group treated with BAPTA-AM compared to untreated controls following in vitro fertilization and parthenogenetic activation. Therefore, BAPTA-AM dramatically improved oocyte maturation, oocyte quality, and embryonic development of oocytes from Grade-3 COCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Nanoelectronics enabled chronic multimodal neural platform in a mouse ischemic model.

Despite significant advancements of optical imaging techniques for mapping hemodynamics in small animal models, it remains challenging to combine imaging with spatially resolved electrical recording of individual neurons especially for longitudinal studies. This is largely due to the strong invasiveness to the living brain from the penetrating electrodes and their limited compatibility with longitudinal imaging.

Regulation of Leukocyte Recruitment to the Spleen and Peritoneal Cavity during Pristane-Induced Inflammation.

Chronic inflammation is associated with an increased number of leukocytes in the spleen, which are then redirected to the site of inflammation. However, it remains unknown how leukocyte recruitment is regulated. Herein, chronic inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pristane into mice. Leukocytes in the spleen or in the peritoneal cavity were quantified by flow cytometry. We found that the loss of IL-6 decreased macrophage recruitment to the spleen and the peritoneal cavity during pristane-induced inflammation. The loss of TNFα delayed the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the spleen and inhibited the recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, B cells, and T cells. The recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the spleen or peritoneal cavity was largely inhibited in the absence of LTα. The loss of TNFα receptor 1/2 resulted in reduced recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells into the spleen, but only neutrophil recruitment was inhibited in the peritoneal cavity. Similarly, a lack of B cells significantly impeded the recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells to the spleen. However, only macrophage recruitment was inhibited in the absence of T cells in the spleen. These data provide insight into the development of chronic inflammation induced by noninfectious substances.

Serum metabolic profiling of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese adults using an untargeted GC/TOFMS.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a huge burden in China. The Chinese patients with T2DM have several special clinical characteristics. Metabolomics studies predominantly have identified several distinguishing metabolites associated with T2DM in Western ancestry population. However, few previous metabolomics studies were conducted in Chinese populations.

Wetting agent dosage screening for traditional Chinese medicine pellet based on torque rheological property.

With lubricant and bonding effect simultaneously, wetting agent has direct effect on properties of wet mass and extrudate, thus affecting the forming quality of pellets in extrusion-spheronization process. In this research, 25 representative kinds of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) were selected as model drugs and 20%, 30% and 40% drug loading were set with MCC as their balling agent. The torque rheological curves were measured to get parameters such as maximum torque (Tmax) and corresponding water addition (WTmax) for these 75 raw materials by a mixer torque rheometer (MTR).The results showed that among 75 representative raw materials, 74 ones could be obtained for spherical pellets under the water addition of WTmax-2. corresponding to the second largest torque in torque rheological curve, suggesting that MTR could be used to select the optimal wetting agent dosage of TCM pellets. So the tedious and expensive pre-production work could be considerably reduced when TCM pellets were prepared.

Inflammatory microenvironment in the initiation and progression of bladder cancer.

Accumulating evidence suggests the idea that chronic inflammation may play a critical role in various malignancies including bladder cancer and long-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is significantly effective in reducing certain cancer incidence and mortality. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to malignant transformation and the progression of bladder cancer in a chronically inflammatory environment remain largely unknown. In this review, we will describe the role of inflammation in the formation and development of bladder cancer and summarize the possible molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation regulates cell immune response, proliferation and metastasis. Understanding the novel function orchestrating inflammation and bladder cancer will hopefully provide us insights into their future clinical significance in preventing bladder carcinogenesis and progression.

Infarct morphology assessment in patients with carotid artery/middle cerebral artery occlusion using fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH).

We aim to evaluate the value of fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) in assessing infarct morphology in patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions. Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) FLAIR sequences, and carotid/cerebral magnetic resonance angiography of 102 patients with symptomatic ICA or MCA occlusions were evaluated. The location and score of FVH were determined using Olindo's method; patients were classified as having Low or High FVHs based on FVH score, and either Distal or Proximal FVH based on FVH location. The differences between infarct morphologies were analyzed. FVH were detectable in 62 patients with High FVH and in 40 patients with Low FVHs based on the Olindo's scale. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking history, and vascular occlusive site between High and Low FVHs patients, except for infarct morphology (P<0.01). Patients with Distal FVH presented with significant (P<0.01) perforating artery and border zone infarcts, whereas those with Proximal FVH had significant (P<0.01) large territorial infarcts. The scores and locations of FVH could be a predictive imaging marker for infarct morphology in patients with symptomatic ICA or MCA occlusion.

Contrast-enhanced US for characterization of focal liver lesions: a comprehensive meta-analysis.

This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating malignant from benign focal liver lesions (FLLs).

Improving tuberculosis case detection in underdeveloped multi-ethnic regions with high disease burden: a case study of integrated control program in China.

In the underdeveloped multi-ethnic regions of China, high tuberculosis (TB) burden and regional inequity in access to healthcare service increase the challenge of achieving the End TB goals. Among all the provinces, the highest TB burden is reported in Xinjiang, where ethnic minorities and older people have suffered most. However, current case-finding strategy is inadequate given the complex social determinants and suboptimal case detection rates. Thus, we developed an integrated TB control program to improve case detection and conducted a pilot in Xinjiang from 2014 to 2015. In this case study, we summarized the activities and key findings. We also shared the experiences and challenges of implementing interventions and provided recommendations to inform the TB control program in the future.

Functional nanocarrier for drug and gene delivery via local administration in mucosal tissues.

Local administration has many advantages for treating diseases. However, the surface mucus layer becomes a major obstacle that easily traps and fast removes local administrated drugs and genes in mucosal tissues. Fortunately, the rapidly developing nanocarriers with special physical and chemical properties may help to refine the treatment of mucosal tissues via delivering drugs and genes to the target tissue, and prolong the drug action time. Therefore, this review focuses on the strategies to apply different nanocarriers for drug-delivery in mucosal tissues, including mucoadhesive and mucus-penetrating types. Delivering drugs and genes to anatomical sites with high mucus turnover becomes more feasible and effective, and maintains sufficient local drug concentration to improve treatment efficacy.

Refractive Status and Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Amblyopia risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are usually hard to detect in early childhood due to poor cooperation and has not been reported in the Chinese population. We screened 168 Chinese children with ASD, aged between 3 and 8 years, and 264 age-matched neurotypical children with Spot photoscreener and basic ophthalmologic examinations. Children with ASD were found to have normal refractive status but significantly higher incidence of strabismus (16.1%), compared with control children (1.5%) (p < 0.01). Most of the cases of strabismus found in children with ASD were classified as esodeviation. Strabismus in children with ASD should be considered more seriously as an amblyopia risk factor by ophthalmologists and other healthcare professionals.

Site specific labeling of two proteins in one system by atypical split inteins.

Atypical inteins have been used for protein site-specific labeling and modification. S1 or S11 intein contain a small N-intein or C-intein which can be chemically synthesized and added with desired labels or modifications. However, seldom reports have been found to develop multi-protein specific labeling in one system at the same time. Here, we established a specific labeling method for two proteins based on three pairs of atypical inteins, RBS1 (Rma DnaB S1)/SGS1 (Ssp GyrB S1) intein, TE3S11 (Ter DnaE-3 S11)/SGS11 (Ssp GyrB S11) intein, and RBS1/TE3S11 intein. Firstly, intein fragments were respectively fused with model proteins, expressed and purified as precursors. The non-cross reactivity between inteins was then determined by splicing reactions analysis through Western-blot. Finally, the model proteins were specifically labeled with fluorescent groups in one system mediating these intein pairs, and can be labeled even in the cell lysate. Our results for the first time report a method labeling the N/C-terminal of two proteins altogether in the same system based on above intein pairs with a marked splicing efficiency, which could potentially be used for protein structural and functional research or some specific applications.

Serum concentrations of Krebs von den Lungen-6, surfactant protein D, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 as diagnostic biomarkers in patients with asbestosis and silicosis: a case-control study.

Asbestosis and silicosis are progressive pneumoconioses characterized by interstitial fibrosis following exposure to asbestos or silica dust. We evaluated the potential diagnostic biomarkers for these diseases.

Psychotropic agent thioridazine elicits potent in vitro and in vivo anti-melanoma effects.

Psychotropic agents have been shown anti-tumor potential in recent years. In the present study, our in vitro pharmacological data indicated that thioridazine inhibited melanoma cells proliferation. The growth-arresting effect of thioridazine was accompanied by autophagy induction, as shown by immunoblotting of increased LC3II. Besides, certain apoptotic events had also occurred after thioridazine exposure. The in vivo anti-melanoma effect of thioridazine was confirmed by showing that intraperitoneally injection of thioriazine remarkably retarded tumor growth and reduced tumor vasculature. Our results imply that thioridazine might be an available therapeutic agent for melanoma patients with no better options.

Strengthening detoxication impacts of Coprinus comatus on nickel and fluoranthene co-contaminated soil by bacterial inoculation.

To develop an efficient and environmental-friendly approach to detoxicate nickel (Ni) and fluoranthene co-contaminated soil, the combined application of Coprinus comatus (C. comatus) with Serratia sp. FFC5 and/or Enterobacter sp. E2 was investigated. The pot experiment tested the influences of bacterial inoculation on the growth of C. comatus, content of Ni in C. comatus, Ni speciation in soil, fluoranthene dissipation, soil enzymatic activities, bacterial population and community structure. With the inoculation of bacteria, the fresh weights of C. comatus, concentration of Ni in C. comatus and the dissipation rates of fluoranthene were increased by 17.73-29.38%, 68.97-204.97% and 34.84-60.90%, respectively. Notably, results illustrated that the co-inoculation of FFC5 and E2 showed better effect in biomass enhancement, Ni accumulation and fluoranthene dissipation than solitary inoculation. Simultaneously, higher soil enzymatic and microbiological activities suggested that the integrated detoxication method of bacteria and C. comatus could improve soil quality. Therefore, we can infer that bacterial inoculation strengthened detoxication effect of C. comatus in Ni-fluoranthene co-contaminated soil, indicating that the combined application of C. comatus and bacteria can be an efficient alternative for detoxicating Ni and fluoranthene co-contaminated soil.

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of controlled-release matrix tablets of highly water-soluble drug applying different mw polyethylene oxides (PEO) as retardants.

The aim of the work presented is to prepare a controlled-release hydrophilic matrix tablet (CMT) controlling release of highly water-soluble drug applying pure combination of high- and low-Mw PEO as matrix materials, to avoid the lag time of drug release, and to overcome incomplete release in later stages. The influences of types and amounts of different Mw PEOs used, drug loading, pH of release medium and agitation rate on drug release were evaluated. The study of uptake and erosion of matrix was conducted and mechanism of improving drug release was discussed. In vivo pharmacokinetics of the CMT and reference preparation self-made controlled-release osmotic pump tablets (COPT) were performed in beagle dogs. The optimized formulation containing 43% PEO WSR 303 and 32% PEO N750 showed a zero order release from 1 h to 12 h. In vivo results demonstrated that the CMT had similar AUC0-48 h and Cmax with the COPT but smaller Tmax than the COPT and provided a more stable therapeutic concentration compared to the COPT. In conclusion, hydrophilic matrix tablet combining only different Mw PEOs as matrix materials had very good potential to be developed into a controlled-release drug delivery system for highly water-soluble drug. Besides, its manufacturing processes were succinct which would be preferable for modern medicine industry.

Magnesium boosts the memory restorative effect of environmental enrichment in Alzheimer's disease mice.

Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to enhance cognitive function in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Magnesium-L-threonate (MgT) is a compound with a newly discovered effect to rescue learning and memory function in aging and AD mice.

Recommendations for the Assessment and Management of Pre-existing Drug-Reactive Antibodies During Biotherapeutic Development.

Anti-drug antibodies (ADA) pose a potential risk to patient safety and efficacy and are routinely monitored during clinical trials. Pre-existing drug-reactive antibodies are present in patients without prior drug exposure and are defined by their ability to bind to a component of the drug. These pre-existing drug-reactive antibodies are frequently observed and could represent an adaptive immune response of an individual who has been previously exposed to antigens with structural similarities to the biotherapeutic. Clinical consequences of these antibodies can vary from no impact to adverse effects on patient safety, exposure, and efficacy, and are highly dependent on biotherapeutic modality, disease indications, and patient demographics. This paper describes how the immunogenicity risk assessment of a biotherapeutic integrates the existence of pre-existing drug-reactive antibodies, and provides recommendations for risk-based strategies to evaluate treatment-emergent ADA responses.

Relationship between mitochondrial DNA A10398G polymorphism and Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

Many studies have researched the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) A10398G in Parkinson's disease (PD) to determine the association between mtDNA A10398G and PD, but the results of their research were not consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to demonstrate the connection between mtDNA A10398G and the susceptibility of PD. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Springer Link, EMBASE and EBSCO databases up to identify relevant studies. Through strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, at last, 9 studies (total 3381 cases and 2810 controls) were included in our meta-analysis. We used the STATA 12.0 statistics software to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the genetic association between mtDNA A10398G and the risk of PD. We performed subgroup analysis to clarify the possible roles of the mtDNA A10398G polymorphism in the aetiology of PD in different ethnicities. Our meta-analysis indicates that although there was no significant association between mtDNA A10398G and PD in the Asian population (G vs. A: OR = 1.090, 95% CI = 0.939-1.284, P = 0.242), in the Caucasian population the G allele of mtDNA A10398G mutations may be a potential protective factor of PD (G vs. A: OR = 0.699, 95% CI = 0.546-0.895, P = 0.005). Further well-designed studies with larger samples are needed to validate these results.

Cleaning verification: A five parameter study of a Total Organic Carbon method development and validation for the cleaning assessment of residual detergents in manufacturing equipment.

A Total Organic Carbon (TOC) based analytical method to quantitate trace residues of clean-in-place (CIP) detergents CIP100® and CIP200® on the surfaces of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment was developed and validated. Five factors affecting the development and validation of the method were identified: diluent composition, diluent volume, extraction method, location for TOC sample preparation, and oxidant flow rate. Key experimental parameters were optimized to minimize contamination and to improve the sensitivity, recovery, and reliability of the method. The optimized concentration of the phosphoric acid in the swabbing solution was 0.05M, and the optimal volume of the sample solution was 30mL. The swab extraction method was 1min sonication. The use of a clean room, as compared to an isolated lab environment, was not required for method validation. The method was demonstrated to be linear with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9999. The average recoveries from stainless steel surfaces at multiple spike levels were >90%. The repeatability and intermediate precision results were ≤5% across the 2.2-6.6ppm range (50-150% of the target maximum carry over, MACO, limit). The method was also shown to be sensitive with a detection limit (DL) of 38ppb and a quantitation limit (QL) of 114ppb. The method validation demonstrated that the developed method is suitable for its intended use. The methodology developed in this study is generally applicable to the cleaning verification of any organic detergents used for the cleaning of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment made of electropolished stainless steel material.

Hydrogen and carbon dioxide mixed culture fermentation in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor at 25 °C.

There have been no reports of H2 and CO2 mixed-culture fermentation (MCF) at 25 °C in a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (HfMBR). In this study, H2 and CO2 MCF were conducted in an HfMBR at 25 °C producing metabolites including acetate, ethanol, butyrate, and caproate. Compared to pure culture fermentation (i.e., Clostridium carboxidivorans P7), the MCF in HfMBR at 25 °C produced a higher concentration of caproate in this study (3.4 g/L in batch 1 and 5.7 g/L in batch 2). The dominant genera were Clostridium_sensu_stricto_12 and Prevotella_7. The caproate was more likely formed from the pathway of acetate and ethanol rather than via butyrate and ethanol. Since caproate is more valuable than acetate and low temperature fermentation consumes less energy, this process of H2 and CO2 MCF at 25 °C is appropriate for industrial application.

In vivo near-infrared imaging of ErbB2 expressing breast tumors with dual-axes confocal endomicroscopy using a targeted peptide.

ErbB2 expression in early breast cancer can predict tumor aggressiveness and clinical outcomes in large patient populations. Accurate assessment with physical biopsy and conventional pathology can be limited by tumor heterogeneity. We aim to demonstrate real-time optical sectioning using a near-infrared labeled ErbB2 peptide that generates tumor-specific contrast in human xenograft breast tumors in vivo. We used IRDye800CW as the fluorophore, validated performance characteristics for specific peptide binding to cells in vitro, and investigated peak peptide uptake in tumors using photoacoustic tomography. We performed real-time optical imaging using a handheld dual-axes confocal fluorescence endomicroscope that collects light off-axis to reduce tissue scattering for greater imaging depths. Optical sections in either the vertical or horizontal plane were collected with sub-cellular resolution. Also, we found significantly greater peptide binding to pre-clinical xenograft breast cancer in vivo and to human specimens of invasive ductal carcinoma that express ErbB2 ex vivo. We used a scrambled peptide for control. Peptide biodistribution showed high tumor uptake by comparison with other organs to support safety. This novel integrated imaging strategy is promising for visualizing ErbB2 expression in breast tumors and serve as an adjunct during surgery to improve diagnostic accuracy, identify tumor margins, and stage early cancers.

Increased Risk of Chronic Multisymptom Illness in Spouses of Gulf War Era Veterans.

In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined chronic multisymptom illness (CMI), a symptom complex in deployed veterans (DVs) of the 1991 Gulf War 1. The specific aim of this work is to determine the prevalence of CMI in spouses of DV and nondeployed veterans (NDVs) and whether veteran CMI is associated with spouse CMI, and to describe the physical and psychological profile of spouses with CMI.

Intestinal flora imbalance promotes alcohol-induced liver fibrosis by the TGFβ/smad signaling pathway in mice.

Intestinal flora performs a crucial role in human health and its imbalance may cause numerous pathological changes. The liver can also affect the intestinal function through bile secretion via the enterohepatic cycle. The pathophysiological association between the gut and the liver is described as the gut-liver axis. The present study investigated the role of intestinal flora in alcohol-induced liver fibrosis. A total of 36 C57 mice were randomly and equally divided into 3 different dietary regimes: Group I (alcohol injury; received alcohol); group II (alcohol injury with flora imbalance; received alcohol plus lincomycin hydrochloride) and group III (alcohol injury with corrected flora imbalance; received alcohol, lincomycin hydrochloride and extra probiotics). The present study then investigated several indicators of liver damage. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in mice serum were studied. Masson staining and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was also performed, and the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (smad) 3 and smad4 proteins in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the mice was examined using western blot analysis. The levels of serum ALP, AST and ALT were the highest in group II mice, and all 3 levels decreased in group III mice compared with those from group II. The degree of liver fibrosis was aggravated in group II mice compared with group I mice. The apoptosis of HSCs was significantly inhibited in group II mice, but was increased in group III mice. The HSCs in group II mice exhibited higher expression of smad3 and smad4, whilst group III mice (with corrected intestinal flora imbalance) exhibited downregulated expression of smad3 and smad4. The present data indicates that the intestinal flora perform a significant role in maintaining liver homeostasis. Furthermore, an imbalance of intestinal flora can exacerbate alcohol-induced liver fibrosis in mice through the transforming growth factor β/SMA/MAD homology signaling pathway, which subsequently leads to more serious liver damage.

Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid T-SPOT.TB for Tuberculousis Meningitis in China.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) T-SPOT.TB test for the diagnosis of TB meningitis (TBM). A retrospective analysis of 96 patients with manifested meningitis was conducted; T-SPOT.TB test was performed for diagnosing TBM to determine the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also drawn to assess the diagnostic accuracy. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of CSF T-SPOT.TB test were 97.8%, 78.0%, 80.3%, and 97.5%, respectively, for 52 patients (54.2%) of the 96 enrolled patients. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.910, and the sensitivities of CSF T-SPOT.TB for patients with stages I, II, and III of TBM were 96.7%, 97.2%, and 98.9%, respectively. CSF T-SPOT.TB test is a rapid and accurate diagnostic method with higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing TBM.

Hepatic Cyp1a2 Expression Reduction during Inflammation Elicited in a Rat Model of Intermittent Hypoxia.

Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a key element of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that can lead to disorders in the liver. In this study, IH was established in a rat model to examine its effects on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and CYP regulators, including nuclear receptors.

Effect of testosterone and hypoxia on the expansion of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells in vitro.

Successfully expanding hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is advantageous for clinical HSC transplantation. The present study investigated the influence of testosterone on the proliferation, antigen phenotype and expression of hematopoiesis-related genes in umbilical cord blood-derived cluster of differentiation (CD)34+ cells under normoxic or hypoxia conditions. Cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells were separated using magnetic activated cell sorting. A cytokine cocktail and feeder cells were used to stimulate the expansion of CD34+ cells under normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions for 7 days and testosterone was added accordingly. Cells were identified using flow cytometry and reconstruction capacity was determined using a colony-forming unit (CFU) assay. The effects of oxygen concentration and testosterone on the expression of hematopoietic-related genes, including homeobox (HOX)A9, HOXB2, HOXB4, HOXC4 and BMI-1, were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the number of CFUs and total cells in the testosterone group increased under normoxic and hypoxic conditions compared with the corresponding control groups. Furthermore, the presence of testosterone increased the number of CFU-erythroid colonies. In liquid culture, the growth of CD34+ cells was rapid under normoxic conditions compared with under hypoxic conditions, however CD34+ cells were maintained in an undifferentiated state under hypoxic conditions. The addition of testosterone under hypoxia promoted the differentiation of CD34+ cells into CD34+CD38+CD71+ erythroid progenitor cells. Furthermore, it was determined that the expression of hematopoietic-related genes was significantly increased (P<0.05) in the hypoxia testosterone group compared with the other groups. Therefore, the results of the current study indicate that a combination of hypoxia and testosterone may be a promising cultivation condition for HSC/hemopoietic progenitor cell expansion ex vivo.

Integrated medical rehabilitation delivery in China.

Currently, China has a growing need for rehabilitative care; however, rehabilitative care has been underdeveloped for decades. Since the end of 2010, pilot programs in 46 cities (districts) of 14 provinces have been initiated by the Ministry of Health in China to establish formal arrangements for facilitating the delivery of continuous medical rehabilitative care for local communities. After 2 years of pilot work, an evaluation was conducted by researchers. This paper reviews the current status of rehabilitative care in China and discusses the findings of the nationwide pilot program on the integrated rehabilitative service. Some key mechanisms and main issues were identified after analyzing the preliminary outcomes of some of the pilot programs.