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Yi Zhao - Top 30 Publications

Feed additives shift gut microbiota and enrich antibiotic resistance in swine gut.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants posing a threat to public health. Antibiotics and metals are widely used as feed additives and could consequently affect ARGs in swine gut. In this study, high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR) based ARG chip and next-generation 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data were analyzed using multiple statistical approaches to profile the antibiotic resistome and investigate its linkages to antibiotics and metals used as feed additives and to the microbial community composition in freshly collected swine manure samples from three large-scale Chinese pig farms. A total of 146 ARGs and up to 1.3×10(10) total ARG copies per gram of swine feces were detected. ARGs conferring resistance to aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) and tetracycline were dominant in pig gut. Total abundance of ARGs was positively correlated with in-feed antibiotics, microbial biomass and abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (P<0.05). A significant correlation between microbial communities and ARG profiles was observed by Procrustes analysis. Network analysis revealed that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most dominant phyla co-occurring with specific ARGs. Partial redundancy analysis indicated that the variance in ARG profiles could be primarily attributed to antibiotics and metals in feed (31.8%), gut microbial community composition (23.3%) and interaction between feed additives and community composition (16.5%). These results suggest that increased levels of in-feed additives could aggravate the enrichment of ARGs and MGEs in swine gut.

Progress and future prospect of in vitro spermatogenesis.

Infertility has become a major health issue in the world. It affects the social life of couples and of all infertility cases; approximately 40-50% is due to "male factor" infertility. Male infertility could be due to genetic factors, environment or due to gonadotoxic treatment. Developments in reproductive biotechnology have made it possible to rescue fertility and uphold biological fatherhood. In vitro production of haploid male germ cell is a powerful tool, not only for the treatment of infertility including oligozoospermic or azoospermic patient, but also for the fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. Genomic editing of in-vitro cultured germ cells could also potentially cure flaws in spermatogenesis due to genomic mutation. Furthermore, this ex-vivo maturation technique with genomic editing may be used to prevent paternal transmission of genomic diseases. Here, we summarize the historical progress of in vitro spermatogenesis research by using organ and cell culture techniques and the future clinical application of in vitro spermatogenesis.

Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies.

Response to Re: Intrapartum intervention rates and perinatal outcomes following induction of labour compared to expectant management at term from an Australian perinatal centre.

Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine.

Fibrinolytic Therapy Improves Outcomes in Patients with Epidural Hematomas Following Cranioplasty: A Pilot Study.

Quantum Interference in Singlet Fission: J- and H-Aggregate Behavior.

The quantum interference in singlet fission (SF) among the multiple pathways from singlet excited states to correlated triplet pair states is comprehensively investigated. The analytical analysis reveals that this interference is strongly affected by the exciton-exciton coupling and is closely related to the property of J- and H-type of aggregates. Different from the interference in the spectra of aggregates, which depends only on the sign of exciton-exciton coupling, the interference in SF is additionally related to the signs of couplings between singlet excited states and triplet pair states. The interference dynamics is further demonstrated numerically by a time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method with electron-phonon interactions incorporated. Finally, we take a pentacene dimer as a concrete example to show how to adjust the constructive and destructive interferences in SF dynamics in terms of J-/H-aggregate behaviors. The results presented here may provide guiding principles for designing efficient SF materials through directly tuning quantum interference via morphology engineering.

Characterization of Imatinib Resistant CML Leukemic Stem/Initiating Cells and Their Sensitivity to CBP/Catenin Antagonists.

The development of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib (IM) represents a milestone breakthrough in CML (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia) treatment. However, it is not curative and patients develop IM resistance. IM resistance has been previously correlated with the emergence of drug-resistant LIC/LSC (Leukemia Initiating Cell/Leukemia Stem Cell) and increased nuclear catenin levels and enhanced Wnt signaling. It has been demonstrated previously that drug resistant CML LIC/LSC can be safely eliminated both in vitro and in vivo via disruption of the CBP/catenin interaction, utilizing the highly biochemically selective small molecule CBP/catenin antagonist ICG-001. Here we utilized an in vitro IM selection of primary CML patients' samples to identify drug-resistant LIC/LSC populations. In this report we characterized the drug-resistant CML LIC/LSC population using FACS, Smartchip qPCR and colony assays to analyze cell surface markers, transcriptomics and function. As opposed to previous characterization of the CML leukemic stem cell population as being either CD34+CD38- or CD34+CD38+, the in vitro selected Imatinib resistant (IM-R) CML LSC population was consistently CD34-CD38-. In Long-Term Culture Initiating Cell assay (LTC-IC, a surrogate assay for long term repopulating stem cells), our results suggest that the CBP/catenin antagonist ICG-001 sensitizes LIC/LSC to IM treatment by forced differentiative elimination of the CML LIC/LSC population.

Verteporfin Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Human Leukemia NB4 Cells without Light Activation.

Background and Aims: Verteporfin (VP), clinically used in photodynamic therapy for neovascular macular degeneration, has recently been proven a suppressor of yes-associated protein (YAP) and has shown potential in anticancer treatment. However, its anti-human leukemia effects in NB4 cells remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of VP on proliferation and apoptosis in human leukemia NB4 cells. Methods: NB4 cells were treated with VP for 24 h. The effects of VP on cell proliferation were determined using a Cell-Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK-8) assay and colony forming assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The protein levels were detected by western blot. Results: We found that VP inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. FCM analysis showed that VP induced apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner and that VP treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Moreover, VP significantly decreased the protein expression of YAP, p-YAP, Survivin, c-Myc, cyclinD1, p-ERK, and p-AKT. In addition, VP increased the protein expression of cleaved caspase3, cleaved PARP, Bax, and p-p38 MAPK. Conclusions: VP inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in NB4 cells.

The clinical characteristics and microsurgical therapy of pituitary adenomas in elderly patients: A retrospective study of 130 cases.

To investigate the clinical characteristics and microsurgical therapy of pituitary adenomas in elderly patients.

Impact of ambient temperature on clinical visits for cardio-respiratory diseases in rural villages in northwest China.

The association between temperature and cardio-respiratory disease in urban areas has been widely reported but there is limited information from populations living in rural areas that may be disproportionately affected by climate change.

Precision Electrophile Tagging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Adduction of an electrophile to privileged sensor proteins and the resulting phenotypically dominant responses are increasingly appreciated as being essential for metazoan health. Functional similarities between the biological electrophiles and electrophilic pharmacophores commonly found in covalent drugs further fortify the translational relevance of these small-molecule signals. Genetically encodable or small-molecule-based fluorescent reporters and redox proteomics have revolutionized the observation and profiling of cellular redox states and electrophile-sensor proteins, respectively. However, precision mapping between specific redox-modified targets and specific responses has only recently begun to be addressed, and systems tractable to both genetic manipulation and on-target redox signaling in vivo remain largely limited. Here we engineer transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing functional HaloTagged fusion proteins and use this system to develop a generalizable light-controlled approach to tagging a prototypical electrophile-sensor protein with native electrophiles in vivo. The method circumvents issues associated with low uptake/distribution and toxicity/promiscuity. Given the validated success of C. elegans in aging studies, this optimized platform offers a new lens with which to scrutinize how on-target electrophile signaling influences redox-dependent life span regulation.

Real world experience with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in hepatitis C genotype 1 population with favourable IL28B polymorphism.

Background and aim: Conventional hepatitis C treatment using pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin is associated with significant side effects. IL28B polymorphism can predict response to treatment, with CC genotype having a better response. ITPA gene deficiency protects against clinically significant anaemia induced by treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine IL28B polymorphism and ITPA variation among hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who have undergone therapy with PEG-IFN and ribavirin and their association with sustained viral response (SVR). Methods: All hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who had been treated with PEG-IFN and ribavirin over the past 10 years were identified by available medical records and were contacted by letter of invitation to participate in the study. Blood samples for IL28B and ITPA genotyping were obtained. Medical records were reviewed for verification of treatment response, development of anaemia and if treatment reduction was required during the treatment. Results: A total of 61 patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 were treated with PEG-IFN and ribavirin, of whom 42 agreed to participate in the study. Mean age was 45.6±12.9 years at time of treatment, and 83.3% of patients were males. Thirty-three (78.6%) had IL28B CC genotype, of whom 25 (75.8%) obtained SVR compared with only 3 of 9 (33.3%) non C/C genotype patients who achieved SVR (P=0.041). Eleven (26.1%) patients had ITPA AC genotype, and 30 (71.4%) had CC genotype. There was no statistically significant difference between ITPA AC and CC genotypes in predicting clinically significant anaemia (45.5% vs 63.3%, P=0.302). Even among patients who developed anaemia, 70.8% still managed to achieve SVR. Treatment reduction also had no impact on SVR. Conclusion: Hepatitis C genotype 1 patients should be informed of the response rate for treatment with PEG-IFN and ribavirin in a population with favourable IL28B genotype before consideration of newer therapeutic options.

Neutrophil extracellular traps may contribute to interstitial lung disease associated with anti-MDA5 autoantibody positive dermatomyositis.

In dermatomyositis (DM), anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) autoantibody (autoAb) marks a subtype with low grade or absent muscle inflammation but frequent and rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD). The pathogenesis of ILD remains poorly unknown. The aim of the study is to explore whether neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are involved in the development of ILD in DM patients with anti-MDA5 autoAb. Patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM, n = 20), classic dermatomyositis (cDM, n = 30), polymyositis (PM, n = 20), and healthy controls (HC, n = 20) were enrolled. Anti-MDA5 autoantibody and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) were detected by ELISA. Circulating levels of NETs were assessed by the quantification of both serum cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and LL-37 (cathelicidin LL-37). Immunofluorescent staining was used to visualize NETs ex vivo. The elevated circulating NETs level was detected in DM patients with ILD complication. Compared to anti-MDA5 Ab(-) DM patients, anti-MDA5 Ab(+) DM patients had the higher concentrations of serum cfDNA (293 ± 69 vs 252 ± 63 ng/ml; P = 0.035) and serum LL-37 (0.6 ± 1.0 vs 0.2 ± 0.2 ng/ml; P = 0.026). Positive correlations were established between serum levels of cfDNA and KL-6 in DM patients (r s = 0.4422, P = 0.0003). anti-MDA5 Ab(+) sera, other than anti-MDA5 Ab(-) sera, could induce greater numbers of normal neutrophils to form NETs in vitro. These data suggest that aberrant NETs formation may be involved in the pathogenesis of ILD in DM patients with anti-MDA5 autoAb.

Castleman's Disease: A Rare Mass in the Pararenal Retroperitoneum that Mimics Other Tumors.

Pre-culture Sudan Black B treatment suppresses autofluorescence signals emitted from polymer tissue scaffolds.

In tissue engineering, autofluorescence of polymer scaffolds often lowers the image contrast, making it difficult to examine cells and subcellular structures. Treating the scaffold materials with Sudan Black B (SBB) after cell fixation can effectively suppress autofluorescence, but this approach is not conducive to live cell imaging. Post-culture SBB treatment also disrupts intracellular structures and leads to reduced fluorescence intensity of the targets of interest. In this study, we introduce pre-culture SBB treatment to suppress autofluorescence, where SBB is applied to polymeric scaffold materials before cell seeding. The results show that the autofluorescence signals emitted from polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds in three commonly used fluorescence channels effectively decrease without diminishing the fluorescence signals emitted from the cells. The pre-culture SBB treatment does not significantly affect cell viability. The autofluorescence suppressive effect does not substantially diminish during the culturing period up to 28 days. The results also show that cell migration, proliferation, and myogenic differentiation in pre-culture SBB-treated groups do not exhibit statistical difference from the non-treated groups. As such, this approach greatly improves the fluorescence image quality for examining live cell behaviors and dynamics while the cells are cultured within autofluorescent polymer scaffolds.

TaGW2-6A allelic variation contributes to grain size possibly by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes in wheat.

Functional allelic variants of TaGW2 - 6A produce large grains, possibly via changes in endosperm cells and dry matter by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In wheat, TaGW2-6A coding region allelic variants are closely related to the grain width and weight, but how this region affects grain development has not been fully elucidated; thus, we explored its influence on grain development based mainly on histological and grain filling analyses. We found that the insertion type (NIL31) TaGW2-6A allelic variants exhibited increases in cell numbers and cell size, thereby resulting in a larger (wider) grain size with an accelerated grain milk filling rate, and increases in grain width and weight. We also found that cytokinin (CK) synthesis genes and key starch biosynthesis enzyme AGPase genes were significantly upregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, while CK degradation genes and starch biosynthesis-negative regulators were downregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, which was consistent with the changes in cells and grain filling. Thus, we speculate that TaGW2-6A allelic variants are linked with CK signaling, but they also influence the accumulation of starch by regulating the expression of related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system to control the grain size and grain weight.

Immune Activities of Polycationic Vectors for Gene Delivery.

Polycationic vectors are used widely in the field of gene delivery, while currently their immune activities in vivo are poorly understood. In this comprehensive review, we aim to present an overview of existing mechanisms of adverse immune responses induced by the polycation/gene complexes, which includes the polycations themselves, the gene sequences and the ROS produced by them. These causes can induce pro-inflammatory cytokines, hypersensitivity as well as the activation of toll-like receptors, and finally the immunostimulation occur. In addition, we introduce some different opinions and research results on the immunogenicity of classical polycations such as polylysine (PLL), polyethyleneimine (PEI), polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM), chitosan and gelatin, most of which have immunogenicity and can induce immunoreactions in vivo. The methods now used to adjust their immunogenicity are shown in the final part of this review. Nowadays, there is still no accurate conclusion on immunogenicity of polycations, which confuses researchers seriously in in vivo test. We conclude that further research is needed in order to skillfully utilize or inhibit the immunogenicity of these polycationic vectors.

Effect of YAP Inhibition on Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells.

Background: Yes-associated protein (YAP), the nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway, is a candidate oncoprotein and participates in the progression of various malignancies. However, few reports have examined the effect of YAP inhibition in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Methods: We examined the effects of YAP knockdown or inhibition using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or verteporfin (VP), respectively. Western blot assays were used to determine the expression levels of YAP, Survivin, cyclinD1, PARP, Bcl-2, and Bax. Cell proliferation was assessed using the cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and apoptotic cell morphology was observed by Hoechst 33342 staining. Results: Knockdown or inhibition of YAP led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and increased apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation, increased levels of Bax and cleaved PARP, and decreased levels of PARP, Bcl-2, Survivin, and cyclinD1. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining revealed increased cell nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion: Collectively, these results show that inhibition of YAP inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Therefore, a novel treatment regime involving genetic or pharmacological inhibition of YAP could be established for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic dissection associated with right-sided aortic arch: report of four cases.

α-Cyperone Inhibits PMA-Induced EPCR Shedding through PKC Pathway.

α-Cyperone, a sesquiterpene compound represents 25.23% of the total oil and is the most abundant compound in Cyperus rotundus oil. Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) is a main member in protein C (PC) anti-coagulation system. EPCR could be shed from cell surface, and is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Nothing that EPCR is a marker of vascular barrier integrity in vascular inflammatory disease and takes part in systemic inflammatory disease. In this study, we investigated whether α-cyperone could inhibit EPCR shedding. To observe the effect, we investigated this issue by detection the effect of α-cyperone on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced EPCR shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The cells were pretreated with α-cyperone for 12 h, and then stimulated by PMA for 1 h. The solute EPCR (sEPCR) and expression of membrane EPCR (mEPCR) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The mRNA, protein level and activity of TACE were tested by quantitative (q)RT-PCR, Western blot and InnoZyme TACE activity assay kit. Furthermore, we measured the protein level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and protein kinase C (PKC) pathway under this condition by Western blot. The results showed that α-cyperone could suppress PMA-induced EPCR shedding through inhibiting the expression and activity of TACE. In addition, α-cyperone could inhibit PKC translocation, but not have an effect on phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2. Given these results, α-cyperone inhibits PMA-induced EPCR shedding through PKC pathway, which will provide an experimental basis for further research on α-cyperone.

Associations between serum adipocytokines and glycemic tolerance biomarkers in a rural Chinese population.

Although experimental studies have shown that adiponectin and leptin modulate glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, it remains unclear whether these adipocytokines exert similar effects in general human populations. We evaluated the associations of serum adiponectin and leptin with β-cell function and insulin resistance in a population with low obesity prevalence. A cross-sectional study of 783 rural residents, aged 25-74 years, recruited in Ningxia, China was conducted during 2008-2012. β-cell function and insulin resistance were estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment. Serum adiponectin and leptin were measured with ELISA. Serum adiponectin concentrations (mean ± SD) were highest in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (36.65 ± 61.13 μg/ml), intermediate in those with impaired fasting glucose (25.92 ± 34.48 μg/ml), and lowest in those with diabetes (15.08 ± 12.14 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). A similar pattern of differences was found for β-cell function, whereas opposite results were observed for insulin resistance and blood glucose. After adjustment for confounders including metabolic syndrome components, serum adiponectin (μg/ml) was inversely associated with β-cell function (%β) [β (95% CI): -7.57 (-12.33, -2.81)] and insulin resistance (100/%S) [β (95% CI): -0.21 (-0.33, -0.09)]. A significant inverse association also existed between serum leptin and β-cell function, but serum leptin was not significantly associated with insulin resistance. The present study suggests that adiponectin and leptin play a role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes independent of metabolic syndrome.

Through-space Förster-type energy transfer in isostructural zirconium and hafnium-based metal-organic layers.

Quantitative determination of energy transfer in isostructural Zr and Hf metal-organic layers (MOLs) by measuring fluorescence quenching upon doping the MOLs with a quencher or modifying the MOLs with a coumarin-343 dye revealed nearly identical energy transfer rates of the two MOLs, consistent with the dominance of through-space Förster-type energy transfer.

An underappreciated hotspot of antibiotic resistance: The groundwater near the municipal solid waste landfill.

Landfills are so far the most common practice for the disposals of municipal solid waste (MSW) worldwide. Since MSW landfill receives miscellaneous wastes, including unused/expired antibiotics and bioactive wastes, it gradually becomes a huge potential bioreactor for breeding antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill can flow to the environment through leakage of landfill leachate and pose a risk to public health. Using high throughput quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (HT-qPCR), we investigated the prevalence, diversity of ARGs and its association with various mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in MSW landfill groundwater. Totally 171 unique ARGs (belonging to 9 ARG types, encompassing 3 major resistance mechanisms) and 8 MGEs (6 transposase genes, and 2 integron-integrase genes) were identified. The normalized abundance of ARG was ranging from 0.24 to 5.66 copies/cell with multidrug, beta-lactams and tetracycline resistance genes being the most abundant ARG types. The co-occurrence pattern and significant correlation between MGEs and ARGs, indicated that MGEs may play an important role in the persistence and proliferation of ARGs. A Mantel test and Procrustes analysis suggested that ARG profiles were significantly correlated with bacterial community. Variation partitioning analysis (VPA) further demonstrated that bacterial community shifts contribute 65.8% of the total ARG variations. Additionally network analysis revealed that 15 bacterial taxa at family level might be the potential hosts of ARGs. These findings provide evidence that groundwater near MSW landfill is an underappreciated hotspot of antibiotic resistance and contribute to the spread of ARGs via the flowing contaminated groundwater.

Elemental mercury removal from flue gas by CoFe2O4 catalyzed peroxymonosulfate.

A magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) catalyst was prepared by sol-gel method, and characterized by a X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and hysteresis loop method. The chemical states on surface of the fresh and spent catalysts were analyzed by a X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experiments of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal from flue gas were conducted in a laboratory scale using activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) catalyzed by CoFe2O4, and the effects of the dosage of catalyst, the concentration of PMS, initial solution pH and reaction temperature on mercury removal efficiency were investigated. The average removal efficiency of Hg(0) could maintain steady at 85% in 45min when the concentrations of CoFe2O4 and PMS were 0.288g/L and 3.5mmol/l respectively, solution pH was 7 and reaction temperature was 55°C. In order to speculate the reaction mechanism, ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol were used as the quenching agents to indirectly prove the existence of SO4(-) and OH.

Risk Factors of Stomal Recurrence After Laryngectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

We wished to investigate the risk factors for stoma recurrence following laryngectomy.

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate promotes all-trans retinoic acid-induced maturation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells via PTEN.

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinctive subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in which the hybrid protein promyelocytic leukemia protein/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) acts as a transcriptional repressor impairing the expression of genes that are critical to myeloid cell mutation. We aimed at explaining the molecular mechanism of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) enhancement of ATRA-induced APL cell line differentiation. Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was found downregulated in NB4 cells and rescued by proteases inhibitor MG132. A significant increase of PTEN levels was found in NB4, HL-60 and THP-1 cells upon ATRA combined with EGCG treatment, paralleled by increased myeloid differentiation marker CD11b. EGCG in synergy with ATRA promote degradation of PML/RARα and restores PML expression, and increase the level of nuclear PTEN. Pretreatment of PTEN inhibitor SF1670 enhances the PI3K signaling pathway and represses NB4 cell differentiation. Moreover, the induction of PTEN attenuated the Akt phosphorylation levels, pretreatment of PI3K inhibitor LY294002 in NB4 cells, significantly augmented the cell differentiation and increased the expression of PTEN. These results therefore indicate that EGCG targets PML/RARα oncoprotein for degradation and potentiates differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia cells in combination with ATRA via PTEN.

The dissociation and recombination rates of CH4 through the Ni(111) surface: The effect of lattice motion.

Methane dissociation is a prototypical system for the study of surface reaction dynamics. The dissociation and recombination rates of CH4 through the Ni(111) surface are calculated by using the quantum instanton method with an analytical potential energy surface. The Ni(111) lattice is treated rigidly, classically, and quantum mechanically so as to reveal the effect of lattice motion. The results demonstrate that it is the lateral displacements rather than the upward and downward movements of the surface nickel atoms that affect the rates a lot. Compared with the rigid lattice, the classical relaxation of the lattice can increase the rates by lowering the free energy barriers. For instance, at 300 K, the dissociation and recombination rates with the classical lattice exceed the ones with the rigid lattice by 6 and 10 orders of magnitude, respectively. Compared with the classical lattice, the quantum delocalization rather than the zero-point energy of the Ni atoms further enhances the rates by widening the reaction path. For instance, the dissociation rate with the quantum lattice is about 10 times larger than that with the classical lattice at 300 K. On the rigid lattice, due to the zero-point energy difference between CH4 and CD4, the kinetic isotope effects are larger than 1 for the dissociation process, while they are smaller than 1 for the recombination process. The increasing kinetic isotope effect with decreasing temperature demonstrates that the quantum tunneling effect is remarkable for the dissociation process.

Reconstruction of acetabular posterior wall fractures with extension to the roof using dual arc-shaped plates: A case report.

Anatomical reduction and rigid fixation of acetabular posterior wall fractures extending to the acetabular roof proves challenging because of the big bony fragment and muscular obstruction to accessing this region. This report describes a novel reconstructive technique in a patient with an acetabular posterior wall fracture involving the acetabular roof. Both the standard Kocher-Langenbeck approach and a greater trochanter osteotomy technique were used. Following anatomical reduction, a dual arc-shaped reconstruction plate technique was employed to achieve rigid fixation. The patient recovered with satisfactory function at the injured hip. We recommend this dual arc-shaped reconstruction plate technique for the treatment of acetabular posterior wall fractures extending to the acetabular roof in clinical practice.

Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early Days: Correlation between Passive Activation and Motor Recovery After Unilateral Striatocapsular Cerebral Infarction.

This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pattern and the motor function recovery of an affected limb during the passive movement of the affected limb at an early stage of the striatocapsular infarction (SCI).