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Yvo B Roos - Top 30 Publications

Two-year clinical follow-up of the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in The Netherlands (MR CLEAN): design and statistical analysis plan of the extended follow-up study.

MR CLEAN was the first randomized trial to demonstrate the short-term clinical effectiveness of endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation. Several other trials confirmed that endovascular treatment improves clinical outcome at three months. However, limited data are available on long-term clinical outcome. We aimed to estimate the effect of endovascular treatment on functional outcome at two-year follow-up in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of endovascular treatment on major vascular events and mortality during two years of follow-up.

Thrombolysis in Stroke within 30 Minutes: Results of the Acute Brain Care Intervention Study.

Time is brain: benefits of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in ischemic stroke last for 4.5 hours but rapidly decrease as time progresses following symptom onset. The goal of the Acute Brain Care (ABC) intervention study was to reduce the door-to-needle time (DNT) to ≤30 minutes by optimizing in-hospital stroke treatment.

Cardiac diagnostic work-up of ischaemic stroke.

Cardioembolic sources account for 20-30% of ischaemic strokes and are important to identify considering their prognostic and therapeutic implications. During the past years, new developments have been made in the cardiac diagnostic evaluation and management of patients with ischaemic stroke, especially regarding strokes of unknown aetiology. These recent advances have had a major impact on our understanding of embolic strokes, their diagnostic work-up, and clinical management. Herein, we propose a cardiac diagnostic work-up scheme for patients with ischaemic stroke from definite cardioembolic sources and embolic strokes of undetermined source.

Clot Burden Score on Baseline Computerized Tomographic Angiography and Intra-Arterial Treatment Effect in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

A high clot burden score (CBS) is associated with favorable outcome after intravenous treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The added benefit of intra-arterial treatment might be less in these patients. The aim of this exploratory post hoc analysis was to assess the relation of CBS with neurological improvement and endovascular treatment effect.

Is Intra-Arterial Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke Less Effective in Women than in Men?

Stroke etiology and outcome after ischemic stroke differ between men and women. We examined if sex modifies the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in a randomized clinical trial of IAT for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN).

Time to Treatment With Endovascular Thrombectomy and Outcomes From Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-analysis.

Endovascular thrombectomy with second-generation devices is beneficial for patients with ischemic stroke due to intracranial large-vessel occlusions. Delineation of the association of treatment time with outcomes would help to guide implementation.

Influence of Device Choice on the Effect of Intra-Arterial Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in MR CLEAN (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands).

Intra-arterial treatment by means of retrievable stents has been proven safe and effective. In MR CLEAN (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands), the choice of the type of thrombectomy device was left to the discretion of the interventionist. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in functional outcome, neurological recovery, reperfusion, extent of infarction, and adverse events according to stent type and make.

The Capillary Index Score as a Marker of Viable Cerebral Tissue: Proof of Concept-The Capillary Index Score in the MR CLEAN (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands) Trial.

The capillary index score (CIS) is based on the hypothesis that areas lacking capillary blush on pretreatment cerebral digital subtraction angiograms correspond to nonviable cerebral tissue.

Statistical analysis plan for the PlAtelet Transfusion in Cerebral Haemorrhage (PATCH) trial: a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Use of antiplatelet therapy shortly before stroke due to spontaneous primary intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with higher case fatality in comparison to ICH without prior antithrombotic drug use. The PlAtelet Transfusion in Cerebral Haemorrhage (PATCH) trial aimed to assess the effect of platelet transfusion in patients presenting with ICH while using antiplatelet therapy. The main hypothesis of PATCH was that platelet transfusion would reduce death or dependence by reducing ICH growth.

The effect of anesthetic management during intra-arterial therapy for acute stroke in MR CLEAN.

The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of anesthetic management on the effect of treatment in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN).

Permeable Thrombi Are Associated With Higher Intravenous Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Treatment Success in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Preclinical studies showed that thrombus permeability improves recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) efficacy. We hypothesize that thrombus permeability estimated from radiological imaging is associated with improved recanalization after treatment with intravenously administered r-tPA (r-tPA) and with better functional outcome.

Preventive Ceftriaxone in Patients with Stroke Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis: Post Hoc Analysis of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study.

The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), a randomized open-label masked endpoint trial, showed that preventive ceftriaxone did not improve functional outcome at 3 months in patients with acute stroke (adjusted common OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.82-1.09). Post-hoc analyses showed that among patients who received intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), patients who received ceftriaxone had a significantly better outcome as compared with the control group. This study aimed to gain more insight into the characteristics of these patients.

Risk of Symptomatic Stroke After Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Cohort Analysis.

Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of late adverse effects, including stroke. We aimed to determine the cumulative incidence of clinically validated symptomatic stroke (transient ischemic attack [TIA], cerebral infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]) and to quantify dose-effect relationships for cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy (SDRT).

Effect of baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on safety and efficacy of intra-arterial treatment: a subgroup analysis of a randomised phase 3 trial (MR CLEAN).

Whether infarct size modifies intra-arterial treatment effect is not certain, particularly in patients with large infarcts. We examined the effect of the baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial treatment in a subgroup analysis of the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN).

Platelet transfusion versus standard care after acute stroke due to spontaneous cerebral haemorrhage associated with antiplatelet therapy (PATCH): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Platelet transfusion after acute spontaneous primary intracerebral haemorrhage in people taking antiplatelet therapy might reduce death or dependence by reducing the extent of the haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate whether platelet transfusion with standard care, compared with standard care alone, reduced death or dependence after intracerebral haemorrhage associated with antiplatelet therapy use.

Early effect of intra-arterial treatment in ischemic stroke on aphasia recovery in MR CLEAN.

To investigate the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) on early recovery from aphasia in acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that the early effect of IAT on aphasia is smaller than the effect on motor deficits.

Association between i.v. thrombolysis volume and door-to-needle times in acute ischemic stroke.

Centralization of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for acute ischemic stroke in high-volume centers is believed to improve the door-to-needle times (DNT), but limited data support this assumption. We examined the association between DNT and IVT volume in a large Dutch province. We identified consecutive patients treated with IVT between January 2009 and 2013. Based on annualized IVT volume, hospitals were categorized as low-volume (≤ 24), medium-volume (25-49) or high-volume (≥ 50). In logistic regression analysis, low-volume hospitals were used as reference category. Of 17,332 stroke patients from 11 participating hospitals, 1962 received IVT (11.3 %). We excluded 140 patients because of unknown DNT (n = 86) or in-hospital stroke (n = 54). There were two low-volume (total 101 patients), five medium-volume (747 patients) and four high-volume hospitals (974 patients). Median DNT was shorter in high-volume hospitals (30 min) than in medium-volume (42 min, p < 0.001) and low-volume hospitals (38 min, p < 0.001). Patients admitted to high-volume hospitals had a higher chance of DNT < 30 min (adjusted OR 3.13, 95 % CI 1.70-5.75), lower risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (adjusted OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.16-0.92), and a lower mortality risk (adjusted OR 0.45, 95 % CI 0.21-1.01), compared to low-volume centers. There was no difference in DNT between low- and medium-volume hospitals. Onset-to-needle times (ONT) did not differ between the groups. Hospitals in this Dutch province generally achieved short DNTs. Despite this overall good performance, higher IVT volumes were associated with shorter DNTs and lower complication risks. The ONT was not associated with IVT volume.

Collateral Status on Baseline Computed Tomographic Angiography and Intra-Arterial Treatment Effect in Patients With Proximal Anterior Circulation Stroke.

Recent randomized trials have proven the benefit of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) with retrievable stents in acute ischemic stroke. Patients with poor or absent collaterals (preexistent anastomoses to maintain blood flow in case of a primary vessel occlusion) may gain less clinical benefit from IAT. In this post hoc analysis, we aimed to assess whether the effect of IAT was modified by collateral status on baseline computed tomographic angiography in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN).

Endovascular thrombectomy after large-vessel ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from five randomised trials.

In 2015, five randomised trials showed efficacy of endovascular thrombectomy over standard medical care in patients with acute ischaemic stroke caused by occlusion of arteries of the proximal anterior circulation. In this meta-analysis we, the trial investigators, aimed to pool individual patient data from these trials to address remaining questions about whether the therapy is efficacious across the diverse populations included.

Thrombus Permeability Is Associated With Improved Functional Outcome and Recanalization in Patients With Ischemic Stroke.

Preclinical studies showed that thrombi can be permeable and may, therefore, allow for residual blood flow in occluded arteries of patients having acute ischemic stroke. This perviousness may increase tissue oxygenation, improve thrombus dissolution, and augment intra-arterial treatment success. We hypothesize that the combination of computed tomographic angiography and noncontrast computed tomography imaging allows measurement of contrast agent penetrating a permeable thrombus, and it is associated with improved outcome.

Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients Dependent on the Daily Help of Others Before Stroke.

We compared outcome and complications in patients with stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) who could not live alone without help of another person before stroke (dependent patients) versus independent ones.

CT angiography and CT perfusion improve prediction of infarct volume in patients with anterior circulation stroke.

We investigated whether baseline CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) in acute ischemic stroke could improve prediction of infarct presence and infarct volume on follow-up imaging.

Time to Reperfusion and Treatment Effect for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Intra-arterial treatment (IAT) for acute ischemic stroke caused by intracranial arterial occlusion leads to improved functional outcome in patients treated within 6 hours after onset. The influence of treatment delay on treatment effect is not yet known.

Value of Computed Tomographic Perfusion-Based Patient Selection for Intra-Arterial Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment.

The utility of computed tomographic perfusion (CTP)-based patient selection for intra-arterial treatment of acute ischemic stroke has not been proven in randomized trials and requires further study in a cohort that was not selected based on CTP. Our objective was to study the relationship between CTP-derived parameters and outcome and treatment effect in patients with acute ischemic stroke because of a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion.

Characteristics of Misclassified CT Perfusion Ischemic Core in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

CT perfusion (CTP) is used to estimate the extent of ischemic core and penumbra in patients with acute ischemic stroke. CTP reliability, however, is limited. This study aims to identify regions misclassified as ischemic core on CTP, using infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT. We aim to assess differences in volumetric and perfusion characteristics in these regions compared to areas that ended up as infarct on follow-up.

Endovascular Therapy Is Effective and Safe for Patients With Severe Ischemic Stroke: Pooled Analysis of Interventional Management of Stroke III and Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands Data.

We assessed the effect of endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke patients with severe neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ≥20) after a prespecified analysis plan.

The Prognostic Value of CT Angiography and CT Perfusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) are important diagnostic tools in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the prognostic value of CTA and CTP for clinical outcome and determined whether they have additional prognostic value over patient characteristics and non-contrast CT (NCCT).

The unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment score: a multidisciplinary consensus.

We endeavored to develop an unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment score (UIATS) model that includes and quantifies key factors involved in clinical decision-making in the management of UIAs and to assess agreement for this model among specialists in UIA management and research.

Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Type of Anesthesia and Differences in Clinical Outcome After Intra-Arterial Treatment for Ischemic Stroke".

Automated brain computed tomographic densitometry of early ischemic changes in acute stroke.

The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) scoring method is frequently used for quantifying early ischemic changes (EICs) in patients with acute ischemic stroke in clinical studies. Varying interobserver agreement has been reported, however, with limited agreement. Therefore, our goal was to develop and evaluate an automated brain densitometric method. It divides CT scans of the brain into ASPECTS regions using atlas-based segmentation. EICs are quantified by comparing the brain density between contralateral sides. This method was optimized and validated using CT data from 10 and 63 patients, respectively. The automated method was validated against manual ASPECTS, stroke severity at baseline and clinical outcome after 7 to 10 days (NIH Stroke Scale, NIHSS) and 3 months (modified Rankin Scale). Manual and automated ASPECTS showed similar and statistically significant correlations with baseline NIHSS ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively) and with follow-up mRS ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]), except for the follow-up NIHSS. Agreement between automated and consensus ASPECTS reading was similar to the interobserver agreement of manual ASPECTS (differences [Formula: see text] point in 73% of cases). The automated ASPECTS method could, therefore, be used as a supplementary tool to assist manual scoring.