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Zhuo Chen - Top 30 Publications

Absence or mislocalization of DNAH5 is a characteristic marker for motile ciliary abnormality in nasal polyps.

Motile cilia impairment is a common condition in patients with chronically inflamed airways, such as is seen in nasal polyps (NPs). The mechanism underlying this pathogenic condition is complex and not fully understood.

Ningnanmycin inhibits tobacco mosaic virus virulence by binding directly to its coat protein discs.

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) causes severe plant diseases worldwide; however, effective antiviral agents for controlling TMV infections are not available. This lack of effective antiviral agents is mainly due to the poor understanding of potential targets associated with TMV infections. During infection, the coat protein (CP), which is delivered by viral particles into susceptible host cells, provides protection for viral RNA. Here, we found that Ningnanmycin (NNM), a commercially used plant antibacterial agent, inhibits the assembly of the CP by directly binding several residues. These interactions cause the disassembly of the CP from discs into monomers, leading to an almost complete loss of pathogenicity. Substitutions in the involved binding residues resulted in mutants that were significantly less sensitive to NNM. Thus, targeting the binding of viral CPs through small molecular agents offers an effective strategy to study the mechanism of NNM.

Regulation of angiotensin II actions by enhancers and super-enhancers in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Angiotensin II (AngII) promotes hypertension and atherosclerosis by activating growth-promoting and pro-inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Enhancers and super-enhancers (SEs) play critical roles in driving disease-associated gene expression. However, enhancers/SEs mediating VSMC dysfunction remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that AngII alters vascular enhancer and SE repertoires in cultured VSMCs in vitro, ex vivo, and in AngII-infused mice aortas in vivo. AngII-induced enhancers/SEs are enriched in binding sites for signal-dependent transcription factors and dependent on key signaling kinases. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated deletion of candidate enhancers/SEs, targeting SEs with the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain inhibitor JQ1, or knockdown of overlapping long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) blocks AngII-induced genes associated with growth-factor signaling and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, JQ1 ameliorates AngII-induced hypertension, medial hypertrophy and inflammation in vivo in mice. These results demonstrate AngII-induced signals integrate enhancers/SEs and lncRNAs to increase expression of genes involved in VSMC dysfunction, and could uncover novel therapies.

Simultaneous application of photothermal therapy and anti-inflammatory prodrug using pyrene-aspirin loaded gold nanorod-graphitic-nanocapsules.

Photothermal therapy (PTT) has been extensively developed as an effective approach against cancer. In some cases, however, PTT can trigger inflammatory responses, in turn simulating tumor regeneration and hindering subsequent therapy. We herein developed a therapeutic strategy able to deliver enhanced PTT and simultaneously inhibite PTT-induced inflammatory response. 1-Pyrene methanol was utilize to synthesize anti-inflammatory prodrug pyrene-aspirin (P-aspirin) with cleavable ester bond, and also facilitate loading the prodrug on gold nanorod (AuNR)-encapsulated graphitic nanocapsule ([email protected]), a photothermal agent, through π-π interaction. Such [email protected] complexes were used for near-infrared laser-triggered photothermal ablation of solid tumor and simultaneous inhibition of PTT-induced inflammation through the release of aspirin in tumor milieu. This strategy showed excellent effects in vitro and in vivo, thus having profound significance for the extended development of PTT.

Poaceae-specific MS1 encodes a phospholipid-binding protein for male fertility in bread wheat.

Male sterility is an essential trait in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops, including rice and wheat. However, compared with the high percentage of hybrid rice planted in the world, little commercial hybrid wheat is planted globally as a result of the lack of a suitable system for male sterility. Therefore, understanding the molecular nature of male fertility in wheat is critical for commercially viable hybrid wheat. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Male Sterility 1 (Ms1) in bread wheat by using a combination of advanced genomic approaches. MS1 is a newly evolved gene in the Poaceae that is specifically expressed in microsporocytes, and is essential for microgametogenesis. Orthologs of Ms1 are expressed in diploid and allotetraploid ancestral species. Orthologs of Ms1 are epigenetically silenced in the A and D subgenomes of allohexaploid wheat; only Ms1 from the B subgenome is expressed. The encoded protein, Ms1, is localized to plastid and mitochondrial membranes, where it exhibits phospholipid-binding activity. These findings provide a foundation for the development of commercially viable hybrid wheat.

Acetylome Profiling Reveals Extensive Lysine Acetylation of the Fatty Acid Metabolism Pathway in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

N(ε) -lysine acetylation represents a highly dynamic and reversibly regulated post-translational modification widespread in almost all organisms, and plays important roles for regulation of protein function in diverse metabolic pathways. However, little is known about the role of lysine acetylation in photosynthetic eukaryotic microalgae. We integrated proteomic approaches to comprehensively characterize the lysine acetylome in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In total, 2324 acetylation sites from 1220 acetylated proteins were identified, representing the largest dataset of the lysine acetylome in plants to date. Almost all enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis were found to be lysine acetylated. Six putative lysine acetylation sites were identified in a plastid-localized long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. Site-directed mutagenesis and site-specific incorporation of N-acetyllysine in acyl-CoA synthetase show that acetylation at K407 and K425 increases its enzyme activity. Moreover, the nonenzymatically catalyzed overall hyperacetylation of acyl-CoA synthetase by acetyl-phosphate can be effectively deacetylated and reversed by a sirtuin-type NAD+ -dependent deacetylase with subcellular localization of both the plastid and nucleus in Phaeodactylum. This work indicates the regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase activity by site-specific lysine acetylation and highlights the potential regulation of fatty acid metabolism by lysine actetylation in the plastid of the diatom Phaeodactylum.

Synthesis and biological activity of myricetin derivatives containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole scaffold.

Myricetin and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were reported to exhibit favorable antiviral and antibacterial activities. Aiming to discover novel myricetin analogues with potent activities, a series of novel myricetin derivatives containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety were synthesized, and their antibacterial and antiviral activities were evaluated.

Double Fano resonances in an individual metallic nanostructure for high sensing sensitivity.

In this paper, we report on the design and observation of double Fano resonances (DFRs) in an individual symmetry-reduced nanostructure and the induced high sensing sensitivity. Such a plasmonic nanostructure consists of a partially overlapped double-metallic nanotriangles with unequal sizes fabricated by using fast and low-cost angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. Symmetry breaking generates two narrow quadrupolar dark modes, which further enhance the coupling with fundamental bright dipole modes within the same structure, manifesting the effect of DFRs. The resonance wavelength and line shape of DFRs can be tailored by changing the degree of asymmetry as well as the size of the designed nanostructure. Based on DFRs, a high sensitivity to dielectric environment with a maximum figure of merit of 35 is measured. Due to a fast manufacturing process with high reproducibility and high structural tunability, the fabricated individual metallic nanostructure provides an opportunity for significant potential applications in localized surface plasmon resonance based single or double-wavelength sensors in the near-infrared region.

VirD5 is required for efficient Agrobacterium infection and interacts with Arabidopsis VIP2.

During Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) infection, the translocated virulence proteins (VirD2, VirE2, VirE3, VirF and VirD5) play crucial roles. It is thought that, through protein-protein interactions, Agrobacterium uses and abuses host plant factors and systems to facilitate its infection. Although some molecular functions have been revealed, the roles of VirD5 still need to be further elucidated. Here, plant transformation and tumorigenesis mediated by genetically modified Agrobacterium strains were performed to examine VirD5 roles. In addition, protein-protein interaction-associated molecular and biochemistry technologies were used to reveal and elucidate VirD5 interaction with Arabidopsis VirE2 interacting protein 2 (VIP2). Our results showed that deleting virD5 from Agrobacterium reduced its tumor formation ability and stable transformation efficiency but did not affect the transient transformation efficiency. We also found that VirD5 can interact with Arabidopsis VIP2. Further experiments demonstrated that VirD5 can affect VIP2 binding to cap-binding proteins (CBP20 and CBP80). The tumorigenesis efficiency for cbp80 mutant was not significantly changed, but that for cbp20, cbp20cbp80 mutants were significantly increased. This work demonstrates experimentally that VirD5 is required for efficient Agrobacterium infection and may promote this process by competitive interaction with Arabidopsis VIP2. CBP20 is involved in the Agrobacterium infection process and its effect can be synergistically enhanced by CBP80.

Systemic Delivery of Bc12-Targeting siRNA by DNA Nanoparticles Suppresses Cancer Cell Growth.

Short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising molecular tool for cancer therapy, but its clinical success is limited by the lack of robust in vivo delivery systems. Rationally designed DNA nanoparticles (DNPs) have emerged as facile delivery vehicles because their physicochemical properties can be precisely controlled. Nonetheless, few studies have used DNPs to deliver siRNAs in vivo, and none has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we constructed a number of DNPs of rectangular and tubular shapes with varied dimensions using the modular DNA brick method for the systemic delivery of siRNA that targets anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. The siRNA delivered by the DNPs inhibited cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, which suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model that specifically correlated with Bcl2 depletion. This study suggests that DNPs are effective tools for the systemic delivery of therapeutic siRNA and have great potential for further clinical translation.

Be Active or Not: the Relative Contribution of Active and Passive Tumor Targeting of Nanomaterials.

Malignant tumor (cancer) remains as one of the deadliest diseases throughout the world, despite its overall mortality drops. Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widely studied as diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents for tumors. A feature of NMs, compared to small molecules, is that NMs can be concentrated passively in tumors through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. In the meantime, NMs can be engineered to target toward tumor specific markers in an active manner, e.g., receptor-mediated targeting. The relative contribution of the EPR effect and the receptor-mediated targeting to NM accumulation in tumor tissues has not been clearly defined yet. Here, we tackle this fundamental issue by reviewing previous studies. First, we summarize the current knowledge on these two tumor targeting strategies of NMs, and on how NMs arrive to tumors from blood circulation. We then demonstrate that contribution of the active and passive effects to total accumulation of NMs in tumors varies with time. Over time, the receptor-mediated targeting contributes more than the EPR effect with a ratio of 3 in the case of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated targeting and human serum albumin (HSA)-mediated EPR effect. Therefore, this review highlights the dynamics of active and passive targeting of NMs on their accumulation at tumor sites, and is valuable for future design of NMs in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Neural decoding of attentional selection in multi-speaker environments without access to separated sources.

People who suffer from hearing impairments can find it difficult to follow a conversation in a multi-speaker environment. Modern hearing aids can suppress background noise; however, there is little that can be done to help a user attend to a single conversation without knowing which speaker is being attended to. Cognitively controlled hearing aids that use auditory attention decoding (AAD) methods are the next step in offering help. A number of challenges exist, including the lack of access to the clean sound sources in the environment with which to compare with the neural signals. We propose a novel framework that combines single-channel speech separation algorithms with AAD. We present an end-to-end system that 1) receives a single audio channel containing a mixture of speakers that is heard by a listener along with the listener's neural signals, 2) automatically separates the individual speakers in the mixture, 3) determines the attended speaker, and 4) amplifies the attended speaker's voice to assist the listener. Using invasive electrophysiology recordings, our system is able to decode the attention of a subject and detect switches in attention using only the mixed audio. We also identified the regions of the auditory cortex that contribute to AAD. Our quality assessment of the modified audio demonstrates a significant improvement in both subjective and objective speech quality measures. Our novel framework for AAD bridges the gap between the most recent advancements in speech processing technologies and speech prosthesis research and moves us closer to the development of cognitively controlled hearing aids.

A phase I study of foretinib plus erlotinib in patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Canadian cancer trials group IND.196.

MET and AXL mediate resistance to EGFR TKI in NSCLC. Foretinib, a MET/RON/AXL/TIE-2/VEGFR kinase inhibitor may overcome EGFR kinase resistance. This dose escalation study combined foretinib and erlotinib in advanced pretreated NSCLC patients.

Enhancement of charge transfer between graphene and donor-π-acceptor molecule for ultrahigh sensing performance.

In this work, we report the formation of a supramolecular assembly of graphene with a donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) molecule to detect low concentration NO2. 5-Aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) was used herein to π-π stack with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), the resulting π-conjugated bridge being linked by a donor unit (-NH2) and an acceptor unit (-SO3H). The prepared ANS-rGO shows the highest response (Ra/Rg = 13.2 to 10 ppm NO2) so far among the reported organic molecule modified graphene materials, and excellent selectivity and reliable reversibility at room temperature. Furthermore, as revealed through the charge density difference calculation, it is the effective enhancement of charge transfer between ANS and graphene that should be responsible for the sharp improvement of NO2 gas response of the material. Thus, for the first time, we demonstrate that supramolecular assembly of a D-π-A molecule and graphene provides a facile and effective approach to fabrication of high performance graphene-based gas sensors.

Second harmonic generation enhancement from a nonlinear nanocrystal integrated hyperbolic metamaterial cavity.

We theoretically investigate the dipolar whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) with different mode orders supported by spherical hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) cavities consisting of alternating metal and dielectric layers. Associated with the excitations of the WGMs with the highest and the second highest mode orders, the HMM cavities are capable of creating highly enhanced and uniformly distributed local fields in the entire dielectric core region. Variation on the metal filling ratio allows for easily tuning the resonant wavelengths of WGMs over a wide spectral range. By integrating a nonlinear nanocrystal into the HMM cavities, we show enhancements of intensity of second harmonic generation up to a factor of 3.9 × 10(10), which is two orders of magnitude higher than the largest enhancement achieved in the single-layer plasmonic core-shell cavities.

Photodynamic Oncotherapy Mediated by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors.

Here, we report photodynamic oncotherapies mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors. We synthesized conjugates 1 and 2 by coupling zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to GnRH analogues. Compared to unmodified ZnPc, conjugates 1 and 2 exhibited higher and more specific phototoxicities to breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the two conjugates demonstrated excellent antitumor efficacies in a breast cancer-grafted animal model. Biodistribution study suggested the high biosafety of conjugate 2 because of the low retention in brain and skin.

Cetuximab versus nimotuzumab for the treatment of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A network meta-analysis.

We conducted a network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of cetuximab and nimotuzumab in the treatment of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Prognostic biomarkers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-positive disease with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

We examined the prognostic value of a panel of biomarkers in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV-positive head and neck cancer) and HIV negative (HIV-negative head and neck cancer).

AuNPs/COFs as a new type of SERS substrate for sensitive recognition of polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

In this work, Au nanoparticles self-assembled with covalent-organic frameworks via a 1 min process at room temperature, and the obtained nanocomposite was employed as a new type of surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor for the recognition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high sensitivity.

Phenformin enhances the therapeutic effect of selumetinib in KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer irrespective of LKB1 status.

MEK inhibition is potentially valuable in targeting KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we analyzed whether concomitant LKB1 mutation alters sensitivity to the MEK inhibitor selumetinib, and whether the metabolism drug phenformin can enhance the therapeutic effect of selumetinib in isogenic cell lines with different LKB1 status. Isogenic pairs of KRAS-mutant NSCLC cell lines A549, H460 and H157, each with wild-type and null LKB1, as well as genetically engineered mouse-derived cell lines 634 (kras(G12D/wt)/p53(-/-)/lkb1(wt/wt)) and t2 (kras(G12D/wt)/p53(-/-)/lkb1(-/-)) were used in vitro to analyze the activities of selumetinib, phenformin and their combination. Synergy was measured and potential mechanisms investigated. The in vitro findings were then confirmed in vivo using xenograft models. The re-expression of wild type LKB1 increased phospho-ERK level, suggesting that restored dependency on MEK->ERK->MAPK signaling might have contributed to the enhanced sensitivity to selumetinib. In contrast, the loss of LKB1 sensitized cells to phenformin. At certain combination ratios, phenformin and selumetinib showed synergistic activity regardless of LKB1 status. Their combination reduced phospho-ERK and S6 levels and induced potent apoptosis, but was likely through different mechanisms in cells with different LKB1 status. Finally, in xenograft models bearing isogenic A549 cells, we confirmed that loss of LKB1 confers resistance to selumetinib, and phenformin significantly enhances the therapeutic effect of selumetinib. Irrespective of LKB1 status, phenformin may enhance the anti-tumor effect of selumetinib in KRAS-mutant NSCLC. The dual targeting of MEK and cancer metabolism may provide a useful strategy to treat this subset of lung cancer.

Trends in utilization and costs of BRCA testing among women aged 18-64 years in the United States, 2003-2014.

PurposeWe examined 12-year trends in BRCA testing rates and costs in the context of clinical guidelines, national policies, and other factors.MethodsWe estimated trends in BRCA testing rates and costs from 2003 to 2014 for women aged 18-64 years using private claims data and publicly reported revenues from the primary BRCA testing provider.ResultsThe percentage of women with zero out-of-pocket payments for BRCA testing increased during 2013-2014, after 7 years of general decline, coinciding with a clarification of Affordable Care Act coverage of BRCA genetic testing. Beginning in 2007, family history accounted for an increasing proportion of women with BRCA tests compared with personal history, coinciding with BRCA testing guidelines for primary care settings and direct-to-consumer advertising campaigns. During 2013-2014, BRCA testing rates based on claims grew at a faster rate than revenues, following 3 years of similar growth, consistent with increased marketplace competition. In 2013, BRCA testing rates based on claims increased 57%, compared with 11% average annual increases over the preceding 3 years, coinciding with celebrity publicity.ConclusionThe observed trends in BRCA testing rates and costs are consistent with possible effects of several factors, including the Affordable Care Act, clinical guidelines and celebrity publicity.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 21 September 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.118.

Detection and delineation of squamous neoplasia with hyperspectral imaging in a mouse model of tongue carcinogenesis.

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) holds the potential for the noninvasive detection of cancers. Oral cancers are often diagnosed at a late stage when treatment is less effective and the mortality and morbidity rates are high. Early detection of oral cancer is, therefore, crucial in order to improve the clinical outcomes. To investigate the potential of HSI as a noninvasive diagnostic tool, an animal study was designed to acquire hyperspectral images of in vivo and ex vivo mouse tongues from a chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis model. A variety of machine-learning algorithms, including discriminant analysis, ensemble learning, and support vector machines, were evaluated for tongue neoplasia detection using HSI and were validated by the reconstructed pathological gold-standard maps. The diagnostic performance of HSI, autofluorescence imaging, and fluorescence imaging were compared in this study. Color-coded prediction maps were generated to display the predicted location and distribution of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study suggests that hyperspectral imaging combined with machine-learning techniques can provide a noninvasive tool for the quantitative detection and delineation of squamous neoplasia.

Chinese herbal medicine Dengzhan Xixin injection for acute ischemic stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine Dengzhan Xixin (Erigeron breviscapus) injection for acute ischemic stroke.

Full color waveguide liquid crystal display.

We developed a waveguide liquid crystal display from a liquid crystal (LC)/polymer composite. It does not need polarizers or color filters. It is illuminated by color LEDs installed on its edge. The light produced by the edge LEDs is coupled into the display and then waveguided through the display. When the LC is in the transparent state, the incident light is waveguided through and no light comes out of the viewing side of the display. When the LC is in the scattering state, the incident light is scattered and comes out of the display. It can be used either for transparent display or for direct view display. The composite has a submillisecond response time, and a field sequential scheme can be used to display full color images. Because the display does not need polarizers or color filters, its energy efficiency is much higher than current liquid crystal displays.

Two BRM promoter polymorphisms predict poor survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Polymorphisms in the promoter of the BRM gene, a critical subunit of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex, have previously been implicated in risk and prognosis in Caucasian-predominant lung, head and neck, esophageal, and pancreatic cancers, and in hepatocellular cancers in Asians. We investigated the role of these polymorphisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk and prognosis. HCC cases were recruited in a comprehensive cancer center while the matched controls were recruited from family practice units from the same catchment area. For risk analyses, unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed in HCC patients and matched healthy controls. Overall survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models, Kaplan-Meier curves, and log-rank tests. In 266 HCC cases and 536 controls, no association between either BRM promoter polymorphism (BRM-741 or BRM-1321) and risk of HCC was identified (P > 0.10 for all comparisons). There was significant worsening of overall survival as the number of variant alleles increased: BRM-741 per variant allele adjusted hazards ratio (aHR) 5.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.89-11.54 and BRM-1321 per variant allele aHR 4.09, 95%CI 2.22-7.51. The effects of these two polymorphisms were at least additive, where individuals who were double homozygotes for the variant alleles had a 45-fold increase in risk of death when compared to those who were double wild-type for the two polymorphisms. Two BRM promoter polymorphisms were strongly associated with HCC prognosis but were not associated with increased HCC susceptibility. The association was strongest in double homozygotes for the allele variants.

Meta-Analysis Comparing Metoprolol and Carvedilol on Mortality Benefits in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Although carvedilol, a nonselective beta-blocker with alpha-adrenergic blocking and multiple ancillary activities, has been demonstrated to be superior to metoprolol in chronic heart failure, it remains unclear whether the superiority of carvedilol still exists in myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the 2 drugs in patients with MI. All RCTs that compared either 2 of the following interventions, carvedilol, metoprolol, and placebo, for the treatment of MI were included. The Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and PubMed were searched thoroughly for potential eligible studies. Finally, 12 RCTs involving 61,081 patients were included. Pooled results showed that compared with placebo, carvedilol and metoprolol significantly reduced composite cardiovascular events (risk ratio [RR] 0.63; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.41, 0.85 for carvedilol; RR 0.78; 95% CrI 0.65, 0.93 for metoprolol) and re-infarction (RR 0.57; 95% CrI 0.37, 0.84 for carvedilol; RR 0.77; 95% CrI 0.62, 0.91 for metoprolol) in patients with MI. However, neither carvedilol nor metoprolol showed significant benefits on all-cause death, cardiovascular death, revascularization, and rehospitalization. Also, no obvious difference was found when comparing carvedilol and metoprolol on primary or secondary outcomes. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence supporting the superiority of carvedilol over metoprolol for the treatment of MI. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

BRCA Genetic Testing and Receipt of Preventive Interventions Among Women Aged 18-64 Years with Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas - United States, 2009-2014.

Genetic testing for breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene mutations can identify women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer. These testing results can be used to select preventive interventions and guide treatment. Differences between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan populations in rates of BRCA testing and receipt of preventive interventions after testing have not previously been examined.

Preparation, characterization and toxicity evaluation of amphotericin B loaded MPEG-PCL micelles and its application for buccal tablets.

Oral candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection due to Candida albicans, causing discomfort in areas inside mouth or tongue. The clinical application of antifungal reagent amphotericin B (AMB), which is believed to offer a better treatment for oral candidiasis, is greatly compromised by its toxicities (mainly nephrotoxicity) and poor solubility. In order to overcome these issues, we characterized AMB-loaded MPEG-PCL micelles in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the antifungal activities of AMB/MPEG-PCL micelles-loaded buccal tablet were also evaluated in vitro. We found that micelles system could significantly improve the solubility of AMB yet reduce the overall toxicity, while the buccal tablet system is capable to suppress C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, the toxicity of the buccal tablet system is also reduced compared with other standard preparations. Therefore, the prepared tablet with AMB-loaded MPEG-PCL micelles as oral topical preparations has the potential to improve current treatment of superficial oral C. albicans infections.

Corrigendum: In situ targeted MRI detection of Helicobacter pylori with stable magnetic graphitic nanocapsules.

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15653.

Synthesis and biological evaluation of pyridinium-functionalized carbazole derivatives as promising antibacterial agents.

Various pyridinium-functionalized carbazole derivatives were constructed by coupling the key fragments of carbazole skeleton and pyridinium nucleus in a single molecular architecture. Antibacterial bioassays revealed that some of the title compounds displayed impressive bioactivities against plant pathogens such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri with minimal EC50 values of up to 0.4, 0.3, and 0.3mg/L, respectively. These bioactivities were achieved by systematically tuning and optimizing bridging linker, alkyl length of the tailor, and substituents on the carbazole scaffold. Compared with the bioactivity of the lead compound (AP-10), antibacterial efficacy dramatically increased by approximately 13-, 104- and 21-fold. This finding suggested that these compounds can serve as new lead compounds in research on antibacterial chemotherapy.