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Aortic valve disease - Top 30 Publications

Search for genetic factors in bicuspid aortic valve disease: ACTA2 mutations do not play a major role.

Mutations in ACTA2 have been reported as a cause of familiar thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) with associated bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) in some individuals. Our aim is to investigate the role of ACTA2 mutations in BAV associated with TAA in 20 patients.

Transinnominate approach for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: single-centre experience of minimally invasive alternative access.

Iliofemoral arteries have been the preferred access for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). When these arteries are too small, calcified or tortuous, an alternative access must be considered. Transinnominate (TI) access is an extrathoracic approach that does not require manipulation of major neurovascular structures or the apex. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TI TAVR as an alternative access in patients with severe aortic stenosis not amenable to a transfemoral approach.

Non-syndromic cardiac progeria in a patient with the rare pathogenic p.Asp300Asn variant in the LMNA gene.

Mutations in LMNA gene, encoding Lamin A/C, cause a diverse array of phenotypes, collectively referred to as laminopathies. The most common manifestation is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), occurring in conjunction with variable skeletal muscle involvement but without involvement of the coronary arteries. Much less commonly, LMNA mutations cause progeroid syndromes, whereby an early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD) is the hallmark of the disease. We report a hitherto unreported compound cardiac phenotype, dubbed as "non-syndromic cardiac progeria", in a young patient who carried a rare pathogenic variant in the LMNA gene and developed progressive degeneration of various cardiac structures, as seen in the elderly. The phenotype resembled the progeroid syndromes, except that it was restricted to the heart and did not involve other organs.

Elevated circulating fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 in surgical patients with aortic valve disease and diabetes.

Diabetes is a risk factor for peripheral, coronary, and cerebrovascular disease. In contrast, results also indicate that patients with diabetes have reduced prevalence of aortic aneurysms, although the mechanisms remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that altered endogenous secretion of the intestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-previously shown to protect from aneurysm formation, and governing many of the mechanisms thought to be involved in aneurysm formation-may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the inverse relationship of diabetes and aneurysm.

Standardization of adult transthoracic echocardiography reporting in agreement with recent chamber quantification, diastolic function, and heart valve disease recommendations: an expert consensus document of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

This European Association Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Expert Consensus document aims at defining the main quantitative information on cardiac structure and function that needs to be included in standard echocardiographic report following recent ASE/EACVI chamber quantification, diastolic function, and heart valve disease recommendations. The document focuses on general reporting and specific pathological conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery and valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and systemic diseases.

Role and function of extracellular vesicles in calcific aortic valve disease.

Peripheral Artery Disease and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Outcomes: A Report From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Therapy Registry.

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, and PAD risk factors overlap with those for aortic stenosis. The prevalence and outcomes associated with PAD in a population undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are unknown.

Machine-learning phenotypic classification of bicuspid aortopathy.

Bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) are associated with incompletely characterized aortopathy. Our objectives were to identify distinct patterns of aortopathy using machine-learning methods and characterize their association with valve morphology and patient characteristics.

Transcatheter Implantation of Mitral Valve Prostheses: Current Status of the Problem.

Mitral valve disease is highly prevalent and quickly leads to development of severe heart failure. Mitral valve disease of degenerative or ischemic etiology affects 7.5 and 9.3% of population older than 65 and 75 years, respectively. "Open" (with cardiopulmonary bypass) surgical repair or valve replacement are not possible in almost half of affected patients because of their complications and concomitant diseases responsible for extremely high risk of these interventions. In the last decade, minimally invasive endovascular technology - transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) - has been widely introduced for correction of aortic valve disease in similar category of patients. However, transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) has been developed just during recent couple of years.

Authors' reply to Baker and Alderson.

Safety and feasibility of sheathless transfemoral aortic valve implantation.

Objective: To investigate the safety and feasibility of sheathless transfemoral aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Methods: In this prospective study, we enrolled 23 patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who were inoperable or at high-risk for surgical aortic valve replacement operation in Fuwai hospital From September 2012 to June 2015. Multislice spiral CT and angiography of femoral artery showed that all patients had minimal femoral artery diameters (<6.5 mm) and severe calcification which was not suitable for transfemoral TAVR through sheath. We attempted to apply the sheathless transfemoral TAVR using Venus-A prosthesis without sheath insertion, and procedure related complication during the procedure and hospital stay were observed. Results: The 6 mm×30 mm balloon was used for femoral artery predilation in 1 patient with iliofemoral artery stenosis before delivery system was transported. In the other 22 patients, the delivery system was transported directly. A total of 21 patients finished TAVR with transfemoral sheathless technique. In 2 patients, prosthesis was unable to fully expand after release due to severe valve calcification, and patients received urgent surgical aortic valve replacement. One patient had valve dislocation into the ascending aorta that was not related to the sheathless replacement technique, and delivery system and Venus-A valve were removed after femoral artery was opened surgically, and repeated sheathless TAVR implantation was performed and was successful. Moderate aortic regurgitation occurred in 2 patients immediately after procedure, and trace or mild aortic regurgitation was detected in rest of the patients. One patient had puncture site rupture and bleeding after procedure, and was successfully treated by balloon compression without blood transfusion. Complete atrioventricular block occurred in 3 patients within 24 hours after procedure and lasted after 48-72 hours, permanent pacemakers were implanted in these patients. Conclusion: The sheathless transfemoral technique in TAVR is safe and feasible in severe aortic stenosis patients with small access vessel diameter.

A clinical analysis of six patients with Brucella endocarditis and literature review.

Objective: To analyze the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with Brucella endocarditis in order to improve the understanding and treatment of Brucella endocarditis. Methods: The clinical data including demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory data, echocardiography, treatment and clinical outcome of 6 patients with Brucella endocarditis were collected and analyzed. Results: In our database consisting of 211 brucellosis patients with positive blood culture, 6 patients (2.8%) with Brucella endocarditis were selected from May 2007 to December 2016 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.The age range was 25-55 years, among whom 5 patients were men.The majority were farmers and all patients reported the history of closely contact with livestock.All of them had fever and 3 of them had arthralgia.Four patients had aortic involvement (4/6) and 2 of them presented with symptoms of left ventricular failure at admission.Blood culture of Brucella and serum agglutination test of Brucella were positive in all of them.Combined antibiotics treatments were given to all patients.Valve replacement surgery was performed in four patients, among them, three patients well recovered, one lost. Among all the patients, four were followed up continually and other two were lost. Conclusions:Brucella endocarditis has a predominance of aortic involvement and is prone to left ventricular failure.Early antibiotic treatment combined with valve-replacement surgery is effective to improve the prognosis.

An atypical pseudoaneurysm as complication of prosthetic aortic-valve endocarditis.

Endocarditis of a prosthetic heart valve is a life-threatening condition that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Perivalvular extension in infective endocarditis includes complications such as periannular or intramyocardial abscesses, pseudoaneurysms and fistulae. The incidence of perivalvular extension ranges from 10 to 30% in native valve endocarditis and 30 to 55% in prosthetic aortic-valve endocarditis. Herein, we describe a case of a 66-year-old man who presented endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve complicated by infective pseudoaneurysm with localization next to the right coronary sinus of Valsalva. Moreover, we underscore the importance of the diagnostic imaging tools options and surgical timing.

Procedural Characteristics and Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Single-Center Experience of the First 100 Inoperable or High Surgical Risk Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis.

This is the first study of a Taiwanese population reporting transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) outcomes of the first 100 cases from a single center offering two different transcatheter heart valve technologies via six types of approaches. We herein report the 30-day and one-year outcomes in our first 100 TAVI patients at Taipei Veterans General Hospital.

A Review of Evolutionary and Cyclical Changes in the Surgical Approach to Aortic Valve Disease.

Aortic valve surgery is no exception to the general rule that history is a cycle in many fields. This manuscript aims to assist readers in transitioning from past to present and on into the future within the field of aortic valve surgery.

Heart valve scaffold fabrication: Bioinspired control of macro-scale morphology, mechanics and micro-structure.

Valvular heart disease is currently treated with mechanical valves, which benefit from longevity, but are burdened by chronic anticoagulation therapy, or with bioprosthetic valves, which have reduced thromboembolic risk, but limited durability. Tissue engineered heart valves have been proposed to resolve these issues by implanting a scaffold that is replaced by endogenous growth, leaving autologous, functional leaflets that would putatively eliminate the need for anticoagulation and avoid calcification. Despite the diversity in fabrication strategies and encouraging results in large animal models, control over engineered valve structure-function remains at best partial. This study aimed to overcome these limitations by introducing double component deposition (DCD), an electrodeposition technique that employs multi-phase electrodes to dictate valve macro and microstructure and resultant function. Results in this report demonstrate the capacity of the DCD method to simultaneously control scaffold macro-scale morphology, mechanics and microstructure while producing fully assembled stent-less multi-leaflet valves composed of microscopic fibers. DCD engineered valve characterization included: leaflet thickness, biaxial properties, bending properties, and quantitative structural analysis of multi-photon and scanning electron micrographs. Quasi-static ex-vivo valve coaptation testing and dynamic organ level functional assessment in a pressure pulse duplicating device demonstrated appropriate acute valve functionality.

microRNA-206 correlates with left ventricular function after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the method of choice in patients with high risk or contraindications for conventional aortic valve replacement. However, it is not well understood which parameters predict the overall cardiac function post- procedurally. MicroRNAs (miRNA/ miR) are small non-coding RNA molecules that repress gene expression by different mechanisms and can also be detected in the blood. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs detected in the blood may serve as sensitive and specific biomarkers in various diseases, therefore we examined the levels of different microRNAs in the serum of patients undergoing TAVI. We thereby intend to find potential predictors for cardiac function after TAVI. Serum from patients with aortic valve disease was obtained at 5 different points: Pre TAVI-procedure and at days 1, 3 and post-TAVI, as well as the day of dischargement and after a period of 3 months. We next performed quantitative real-time PCRs in order to examine the samples for changes in the level of miRNAs previously described as cardiac-enriched. Our results show that the level of miR-206 in the serum of patients after TAVI correlated negatively with the left-ventricular ejection fraction of the individual patients. We found the left-ventricular function to be better in patients with lower levels of miR-206 after the implantation of the new valve. A decrease in the serum level of miR-206 may be linked to changes in cardiac function of patients after TAVI. Further studies are necessary to test the miRNA for its potential value as a prognostic marker.

Outcomes of patients at estimated low surgical risk undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation with balloon-expandable prostheses.

Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) is an accepted treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. However, there is lack in data about TAVI in low-risk patients that are already being treated with this therapy in some clinical contexts.

Impairment of elastic properties of the aorta in bicuspid aortic valve: relationship between biomolecular and aortic strain patterns.

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with aortic wall alterations. We aimed to detect any correlation between aortic elasticity and genetic and biomolecular patterns of elastin.

Outcomes of surgery for infective endocarditis: a single-centre experience of 801 patients.

Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a life-threatening disease, despite the improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic measures. We reviewed our outcomes for all adults who underwent surgery for endocarditis at our centre.

Epigenome alterations in aortic valve stenosis and its related left ventricular hypertrophy.

Aortic valve stenosis is the most common cardiac valve disease, and with current trends in the population demographics, its prevalence is likely to rise, thus posing a major health and economic burden facing the worldwide societies. Over the past decade, it has become more than clear that our traditional genetic views do not sufficiently explain the well-known link between AS, proatherogenic risk factors, flow-induced mechanical forces, and disease-prone environmental influences. Recent breakthroughs in the field of epigenetics offer us a new perspective on gene regulation, which has broadened our perspective on etiology of aortic stenosis and other aortic valve diseases. Since all known epigenetic marks are potentially reversible this perspective is especially exciting given the potential for development of successful and non-invasive therapeutic intervention and reprogramming of cells at the epigenetic level even in the early stages of disease progression. This review will examine the known relationships between four major epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modification, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, and non-coding regulatory RNAs, and initiation and progression of AS. Numerous profiling and functional studies indicate that they could contribute to endothelial dysfunctions, disease-prone activation of monocyte-macrophage and circulatory osteoprogenitor cells and activation and osteogenic transdifferentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells, thus leading to valvular inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification, and to pressure overload-induced maladaptive myocardial remodeling and left ventricular hypertrophy. This is especcialy the case for small non-coding microRNAs but was also, although in a smaller scale, convincingly demonstrated for other members of cellular epigenome landscape. Equally important, and clinically most relevant, the reported data indicate that epigenetic marks, particularly certain microRNA signatures, could represent useful non-invasive biomarkers that reflect the disease progression and patients prognosis for recovery after the valve replacement surgery.

Relationship of Aortic Wall Distensibility to Mitral and Aortic Valve Calcification: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Data are limited on whether valvular calcification is associated with aortic wall stiffness. We tested whether aortic valve calcification (AVC) and/or mitral valve calcification (MVC) is inversely associated with aortic distensibility (AD). Cross-sectional study conducted in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) included 3676 MESA participants aged 44 to 84 years with AD measured with magnetic resonance imaging and with AVC and MVC measured with noncontrast cardiac computed tomography scans. Both AVC and MVC were divided into 3 categories: zero, < median values (low), and ≥ median values (high) for patients with nonzero values. Overall, 88% (n = 3256) and 92% (n = 3365) of participants had zero AVC and MVC, while 6% (n = 211) and 4% (n = 156) had low, and 6% (n = 209) and 4% (n = 155) had high values of AVC and MVC, respectively. The AVC was independently associated with AD after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity ( P = .035). No association was noted between AVC groups and AD after adjustment for all covariates or MVC groups and AD in any model.

Comparison of outcomes with surgical cut-down versus percutaneous transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement: TAVR transfemoral access comparisons between surgical cut-down and percutaneous approach.

The objective is to compare the short-term (30 days) and late (12 months) vascular adverse events in patients undergoing transfemoral (TF)-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) by surgical cut-down (SC) vs. percutaneous (PC) approaches.

Paravalvular leak closure under intracardiac echocardiographic guidance.

The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) to guide percutaneous paravalvular leak (PVL) closure.

Impact of Coronary Artery Disease on 30-Day and 1-Year Mortality in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Meta-Analysis.

The impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is understudied. Literature on the prognostic role of CAD in the survival of patients undergoing TAVR shows conflicting results. This meta-analysis aims to investigate how CAD impacts patient survival following TAVR.

Prevalence and Outcomes of Left-Sided Valvular Heart Disease Associated With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an adverse prognostic marker for valve intervention patients; however, the prevalence and related outcomes of valvular heart disease in CKD patients is unknown.

Epidemiology, clinical features and outcome of infective endocarditis due to Abiotrophia spp. and Granulicatella spp.: Report of 76 cases (2000-2015).

Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Abiotrophia (ABI) and Granulicatella (GRA) is poorly studied. This work aims to describe and compare the main features of ABI and GRA IE.

LncRNA TUG1 sponges miR-204-5p to promote osteoblast differentiation through upregulating Runx2 in aortic valve calcification.

Emerging evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. Although the lncRNA TUG1 is implicated in atherosclerosis, its function in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) remains unknown.

Mid-terme results of cardiac surgery of valve replacement by mechanical prosthesis. About 861 patients.

Patients with mechanical valvular prostheses are becoming more numerous in our country. Their medical care poses a number of problems in a particular socio-economic context of our geographical regions.