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Aortic valve disease - Top 30 Publications

Early postoperative paravalvular leak among Egyptian population: An observational study.

Several reports described the incidence of postoperative paravalvular leakage (PVL) early after valve replacement surgery, however, there is a paucity of data regarding the outcomes and complications correlated to the severity of PVL. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the incidence, causes, and short term outcome of early postoperative PVL.

ST2 predicts survival in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

To assess soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) serum concentrations and predict mortality in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Residual glycosaminoglycan accumulation in mitral and aortic valves of a patient with attenuated MPS I (Scheie syndrome) after 6 years of enzyme replacement therapy: Implications for early diagnosis and therapy.

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is an inherited metabolic disease caused by deficiency of the enzymes needed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. MPS type I is caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-l-iduronidase and is classified into Hurler syndrome, Scheie syndrome, and Hurler-Scheie syndrome based on disease severity and onset. Cardiac complications such as left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac valve disease, and coronary artery disease are often observed in MPS type I. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for MPS type I, but the efficacy of this treatment for cardiac valve disease is unknown. We report on a 56-year-old female patient with attenuated MPS I (Scheie syndrome) who developed aortic and mitral stenosis and coronary artery narrowing. The cardiac valve disease progressed despite ERT and she finally underwent double valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting. The pathology of the cardiac valves revealed GAG accumulation and lysosomal enlargement in both the mitral and aortic valves. Zebra body formation was also confirmed using electron microscopy. Our results suggest that ERT had limited efficacy in previously established cardiac valve disease. Early diagnosis and initiation of ERT is crucial to avoid further cardiac complications in MPS type I.

Ex vivo assessment of valve thickness/calcification of patients with calcific aortic stenosis in relation to in vivo clinical outcomes.

Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) plays a critical role in the risk of cardiovascular disease. This preliminary study examined the relationship between the ex vivo valve thickness/calcification and in vivo clinical outcomes of Chinese patients with calcific AS. Six Chinese patients (3 patients with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV)) and 3 patients with. bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) with calcific AS undergoing heart valve replacement were initially chosen for this study. In vivo medical imaging of these calcific AS patients was evaluated using computed tomography and echocardiography. The ex vivo measurements including the actual thickness, calcified area and components of the calcified aortic values excised were performed by a digimatic caliper, X-ray equipment with a cellSens imaging analysis and portable Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Six patients were diagnosed with symptomatic moderate-to-severe AS. The thickness of noncoronary (N) leaflet in the excised TAV was significantly thicker than left-coronary (L) leaflet (p < 0.01), and right-coronary (R) leaflet was also thicker than L (p < 0.05), but no significant difference occurred between N and R (p > 0.05). The extent of calcification in the excised TAV was a statistically significant difference between N and L (p < 0.01) and between R and L (p < 0.01), respectively. However, there was no significant difference between R and L in both thickness and calcification for the excised BAV (p > 0.05). The patients No. 1-3 were found to be TAV with partial commissural fusion. The patient No. 4 was classified as a type 1 NL-BAV morphotype, but both patients 5 and 6 were found to be true BAV (type 0 lateral-BAV). Each calcified valve leaflet was composed of apatites, proteins (collagen and proteoglycan), and a small amount of β-carotene and cholesterol after Raman spectral determination. The calcified nodules of each valve leaflet were predominately identified to be calcium hydroxyapatite and type-B carbonate apatite. However, octacalcium phosphate was also detected in the protein-rich part of calcified valve leaflets. A positive correlation was observed between thickness and calcification for both excised TAV and BAV after ex vivo examinations. Moreover, a negative relationship was obtained among in vivo AVA index, ex vivo thickness and ex vivo calcification for these calcific AS patients.

Avoidance of urinary catheterization to minimize in-hospital complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: An observational study.

Contemporary transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices and approach present opportunities to review historical practices initially informed by early treatment development and cardiac surgery. The avoidance of urinary catheterization in the older TAVI population is a strategy to minimize in-hospital complications. The purpose of the study was to explore elimination-related complications following the phased implementation of a default strategy of avoiding urinary catheterization in patients undergoing transfemoral (TF) TAVI.

Outcomes of Elective Aortic Hemiarch Reconstruction for Aneurysmal Disease in the Elderly.

This study evaluated outcomes of elective aortic hemiarch reconstruction for aneurysmal disease in the elderly.

Experience of Sun's procedure for chronic type B dissection with aortic arch involvement.

Objective: To study the surgical treatment of chronic type B dissection with aortic arch involvement using Sun's procedure. Methods: Between February 2009 and December 2015, 29 patients [20 males, 9 females, with a mean age of (41±12) years, range 24-64 years] with type B dissection with aortic arch involvement underwent Sun's procedure. Sixteen patient had a history of hypertension. Marfan syndrome was observed in 9 cases, coronary artery disease in 3 cases, mitral regurgitation in 3 patients, cerebrovascular disease in one patient. Twenty-two patients suffered proximal aortic arch disease, 4 cases experienced history of aortic root procedure and 2 subjects had history of pregnancy. Four patients had aortic arch malformation. Results: One case suffered from massive cerebral infarction after surgery and died in another hospital. Concomitant procedures included mitral valve replacement in 3 cases, coronary artery bypass grafting in 3 patients, reconstruction of the right aberrant subclavian artery in one patient. Ventilator support exceeding 24 hours obseved in 2 patients. One of them recieved continuous renal replacement therapy and recovered before discharge. Spinal cord injury was obseved in one case, brain infarction in one patient and pericardial drainage in one case. Two patients required tracheotomy. During 12-94 (43±23) months' follow-up, thoracoabdominal aortic replacment was performed in 4 patients, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in 2 subjects and repair of perivalvular leakage in one patient. Conclusions: Sun's procedure obtained satisfactory results in patients with chronic type B dissection with aortic arch involvement. Concomitant repair of proximal aortic arch lesions and distal type B dissection can be adopted using Sun's procedure.

Histopathologic differences partially distinguish syndromic aortic diseases.

A variety of syndromic diseases such as Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and bicuspid aortic valve with aneurysm along with risk factors of smoking and hypertension result in ascending aortic aneurysms and dissections. Historically, a complicated variety of terms have been used to describe a range of histopathologies that are present in resected specimens. As a result, no consistent patterns of histopathology have been reported. We used the recent Society for Cardiovascular Pathology/Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology consensus statement on nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for noninflammatory aortic disease to blindly evaluate 148 surgically resected specimens. We found that overall patterns of histopathologic changes could separately cluster bicuspid aortic valve and nonsyndromic subjects from Marfan and Loeys-Dietz subjects. Marfan syndrome cases significantly had more overall medial degeneration and mucoid extracellular matrix accumulation than other syndromes. Smooth muscle cell nuclei loss was a feature of aging and not a feature of Marfan or Loeys-Dietz syndrome subjects. We conclude that a consistent use of histologic and histopathologic descriptors can help discriminate different etiologies of ascending aortic aneurysms.

Routine CT angiography to detect severe coronary artery disease prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Patients undergoing TAVR undergo routine CT angiography (CTA) to assess aorto-iliac pathology and annular dimensions. While coronary CTA may exclude severe CAD in younger patients, its efficacy in defining CAD severity prior to TAVR may be limited. We retrospectively studied 50 consecutive patients undergoing both invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and routine pre-TAVR CTA. Severe CAD was defined as ≥50% stenosis by quantitative coronary angiography and compared to a blinded CTA visual estimation of ≥50% stenosis. The analysis was confined to four segments: left main and three proximal to mid major coronaries to maximize myocardial territory at risk. Coronary assessment was performed using standard reconstructed ECG phases from pre-TAVR chest CTA on a Philips 256 iCT scanner. Nearly ¾ of patients were ≥75 years old, 57% were female, half were diabetic and 45% had prior PCI. By ICA, 49% had significant coronary calcification. The incidence of severe proximal to mid vessel CAD by ICA was 39%. Similarly, a third of patients required PCI prior to TAVR. CTA was unable to exclude severe proximal to mid vessel CAD in 88% of patients in all four segments: non-diagnostic CTA readings were mainly due to calcification (60%) or motion artifact (28%). Non-diagnostic coronary CTA readings ranged from 25 to 72% according to segment analyzed: only the left main segment had diagnostic quality CTA in the majority of patients (p < 0.01). PCI is performed frequently prior to TAVR based upon invasive coronary angiographic assessment. Routine chest CTA algorithms do not provide adequate diagnostic information to exclude severe CAD, primarily due to severe coronary calcification in the TAVR population.

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess myocardial fibrosis in valvular heart disease.

The left ventricular (LV) remodeling process associated with significant valvular heart disease (VHD) is characterized by an increase of myocardial interstitial space with deposition of collagen and loss of myofibers. These changes occur before LV systolic function deteriorates or the patient develops symptoms. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) permits assessment of reactive fibrosis, with the use of T1 mapping techniques, and replacement fibrosis, with the use of late gadolinium contrast enhancement. In addition, functional consequences of these structural changes can be evaluated with myocardial tagging and feature tracking CMR, which assess the active deformation (strain) of the LV myocardium. Several studies have demonstrated that CMR techniques may be more sensitive than the conventional measures (LV ejection fraction or LV dimensions) to detect these structural and functional changes in patients with severe left-sided VHD and have shown that myocardial fibrosis may not be reversible after valve surgery. More important, the presence of myocardial fibrosis has been associated with lesser improvement in clinical symptoms and recovery of LV systolic function. Whether assessment of myocardial fibrosis may better select the patients with severe left-sided VHD who may benefit from surgery in terms of LV function and clinical symptoms improvement needs to be demonstrated in prospective studies. The present review article summarizes the current status of CMR techniques to assess myocardial fibrosis and appraises the current evidence on the use of these techniques for risk stratification of patients with severe aortic stenosis or regurgitation and mitral regurgitation.

Pathophysiology of Aortic Stenosis and Mitral Regurgitation.

The global impact of the spectrum of valve diseases is a crucial, fast-growing, and underrecognized health problem. The most prevalent valve diseases, requiring surgical intervention, are represented by calcific and degenerative processes occurring in heart valves, in particular, aortic and mitral valve. Due to the increasing elderly population, these pathologies will gain weight in the global health burden. The two most common valve diseases are aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and mitral valve regurgitation (MR). AVS is the most commonly encountered valve disease nowadays and affects almost 5% of elderly population. In particular, AVS poses a great challenge due to the multiple comorbidities and frailty of this patient subset. MR is also a common valve pathology and has an estimated prevalence of 3% in the general population, affecting more than 176 million people worldwide. This review will focus on pathophysiological changes in both these valve diseases, starting from the description of the anatomical aspects of normal valve, highlighting all the main cellular and molecular features involved in the pathological progression and cardiac consequences. This review also evaluates the main approaches in clinical management of these valve diseases, taking into account of the main published clinical guidelines. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:799-818, 2017.

Imaging of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: a Practical Utility for Differential Diagnosis and Assessment of Disease Severity.

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is often encountered in clinical practice, and it is a risk factor for cardiac mortality and morbidity. Determination of the etiology and disease severity is important for the management of patients with LVH. The aim of this review is to show the remarkable progress in cardiac imaging and its importance in clinical practice.

A rare case of aerococcus urinae infective endocarditis.

Introduction:Aerococcus urinae is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Aerococcus is a gram positive cocci that is easily misidentified as Staphylococci or Streptococci. The true incidence rate of this pathogen is likely underestimated. Recent advances in laboratory diagnostic methods with matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) have lead to increased recognition of this pathogen in the clinical microbiology lab, and awareness as a cause of infective endocarditis in the infectious disease community. Case reports: Aerococcus usually affects males with underlying urinary tract conditions. Herein, we report a case of prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis caused by Aerococcus urinae. Discussion: Our patient was considered high risk for cardiac surgery and was treated successfully with intravenous antibiotics alone for six weeks. Conclusion: Infective endocarditis should be considered in all cases of Aerococcus bacteremia and appropriate diagnostic evaluations pursued. Abbreviations: AV: Aortic valve; IE: Infective endocarditis.

Soluble LR11 associates with aortic root calcification in asymptomatic treated male patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

Despite statin treatment, a high prevalence of severe vascular calcification is found in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We assessed the relation between the circulating soluble form of low-density lipoprotein receptor relative with 11 ligand-binding repeats (sLR11), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and vascular calcification in asymptomatic statin-treated heterozygous FH patients.

Transforming Growth Factor Beta-2 Mutations in Barlow's Disease and Aortic Dilatation.

We report on a patient operated on for degenerative myxomatous mitral and tricuspid valve disease (Barlow's disease) and aortic root dilatation. A valve repair operation and the postoperative course were uneventful. Multigenerational genetic analyses revealed two different mutations in the transforming growth factor beta-2 gene in the same patient. The two mutations in different exons were inherited from both parents each. None of the parents presented with either valve dysfunction or aortic root dilatation. This rare case illustrates potentially common genetic and signaling pathways of concomitant myxomatous valve disease and aortic root dilatation.

Transthoracic 3D echocardiographic left heart chamber quantification in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease.

Integration of volumetric heart chamber quantification by 3D echocardiography into clinical practice has been hampered by several factors which a new fully automated algorithm (Left Heart Model, (LHM)) may help overcome. This study therefore aims to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the LHM software in quantifying left atrial and left ventricular volumes and left ventricular ejection fraction in a cohort of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve. Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve were prospectively included. All patients underwent 2D and 3D transthoracic echocardiography and computed tomography. Left atrial and ventricular volumes were obtained using the automated program, which did not require manual contour detection. For comparison manual and semi-automated measurements were performed using conventional 2D and 3D datasets. 53 patients were included, in four of those patients no 3D dataset could be acquired. Additionally, 12 patients were excluded based on poor imaging quality. Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and ejection fraction calculated by the LHM correlated well with manual 2D and 3D measurements (Pearson's r between 0.43 and 0.97, p < 0.05). Left atrial volume (LAV) also correlated significantly although LHM did estimate larger LAV compared to both 2DE and 3DE (Pearson's r between 0.61 and 0.81, p < 0.01). The fully automated software works well in a real-world setting and helps to overcome some of the major hurdles in integrating 3D analysis into daily practice, as it is user-independent and highly reproducible in a group of patients with a clearly defined and well-studied valvular abnormality.

Characterization and risk factors for aortic dilatation in pediatric patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

Dilatation of the ascending aorta associated with bicuspid aortic valve is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. The main objective was to recognize the aortic involvement in children, its characteristics and risk factors.

Outcome of cardiac surgery in patients with congenital heart disease in England between 1997 and 2015.

The number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) is increasing worldwide and most of them will require cardiac surgery, once or more, during their lifetime. The total volume of cardiac surgery in CHD patients at a national level and the associated mortality and predictors of death associated with surgery are not known. We aimed to investigate the surgical volume and associated mortality in CHD patients in England.

Case of Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Infective Endocarditis-Management with Intra Coronary Stenting.

Embolic events from infective endocarditis can cause acute coronary syndrome. Mortality rate is high and optimal management might be different from those chosen in setting of classic atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. We present a case of 56-year-old male who had received 5 weeks of antibiotics for aortic valve endocarditis and developed acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in hospital settings. Interestingly, patient had recent left heart catheterization that was normal. This was recognized as embolic event from sterile vegetation. Patient was managed with balloon angioplasty and placement of intracoronary stent. Following re-vascularization, patient chest pain and electrocardiogram normalized and he improved in short term. However due to multiple comorbidities he had to be intubated and placed on dialysis.

Incremental Prognostic Utility of Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain in Asymptomatic Patients With Significant Chronic Aortic Regurgitation and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

We sought to examine the prognostic utility of left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) in asymptomatic patients with ≥III+ aortic regurgitation (AR), an indexed LV end-systolic dimension of <2.5 cm/m(2), and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

Phenotype Transformation of Aortic Valve Interstitial Cells Due to Applied Shear Stresses Within a Microfluidic Chip.

Despite valvular heart diseases constituting a significant medical problem, the acquisition of information describing their pathophysiology remains difficult. Due to valvular size, role and location within the body, there is a need for in vitro systems that can recapitulate disease onset and progression. This study combines the development of an in vitro model and its application in the mechanical stimulation of valvular cell transformation. Specifically, porcine aortic valvular interstitial cells (PAVIC) were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices with or without exposure to shear stresses. Mechanobiological responses of valvular interstitial cells were evaluated at shear stresses ranging from 0 to 4.26 dyn/cm(2). When flow rates were higher than 0.78 dyn/cm(2), cells elongated and aligned with the flow direction. In addition, we found that shear stress enhanced the formation of focal adhesions and up-regulated PAVIC transformation, assessed by increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor β. This study reveals a link between the action of shear forces, cell phenotype transformation and focal adhesion formation. This constitutes the first step towards the development of co-cultures (interstitial-endothelial cells) on organ-on-a-chip devices, which will enable studies of the signaling pathways regulating force-induced valvular degeneration in microtissues and potential discovery of valvular degeneration therapies.

Abnormal Haemodynamic Flow Patterns in Bicuspid Pulmonary Valve Disease.

Abnormal flow patterns in the aortas of those with bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are increasingly recognized as important in the pathogenesis of aortic dilatation but pulmonary flow patterns in bicuspid pulmonary valves have not been studied. Bicuspid pulmonary valve disease is rare and a small numbers of case reports describe concomitant pulmonary artery dilation similar to the dilation of the ascending aorta, which is often seen in BAVs disease. We examined three cases of bicuspid pulmonary valve disease, 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with BAV disease but a tricuspid pulmonary valve. All participants underwent anatomical and functional imaging of the pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, and right ventricle as well as advanced time-resolved 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow) to assess the flow pattern in the pulmonary artery. All patients with a bicuspid pulmonary valve had pulmonary artery dilation and showed distinct helical flow abnormalities with increased rotational flow and increased flow displacement compared to a mild left-handed flow pattern in the healthy volunteers. Additionally, there was marked asymmetry seen in the systolic wall shear stress (WSS) pattern, with the highest values in the anterior wall of the pulmonary artery. In comparison, patients with a BAV but a tricuspid pulmonary valve had normal flow patterns in the pulmonary artery. These haemodynamic findings are similar to recent studies in bicuspid aortic disease, and suggest the importance of flow patterns in the pathophysiology of vessel dilation in both aortic and pulmonary bicuspid valve disease.

Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of the Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Pericardial Bioprosthesis in Chinese Patients with Single or Multiple Valve Replacement in Aortic, Mitral, or Tricuspid Positions.

To report the safety and efficacy results of a 9- to 15-year follow-up investigation among patients who had received Carpentier-Edwards Perimount (CE-P) bovine pericardial bioprostheses (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) for valve replacement.

A study of spectrum of rheumatic heart disease in a tertiary care hospital in Central Nepal.

Rheumatic heart disease is one of the most common cause for heart failure and associated mortalities/morbidities in the young population in developing countries like Nepal imparting huge familial, social and manpower burden.

Comparing American, European and Asian practice guidelines for aortic diseases.

The aortic disease comprises a group of different pathologies of high prevalence, seriousness and ever changing by the medical and surgical investigations. Therefore cardiovascular scientific societies in USA, Europe and Asia have created Task Force on practice guidelines (PG) to develop, update and revise PG for aortic diseases. These documents issue recommendations on the diagnosis and management of different aortic diseases. The three societies agree on the recommendations about diagnostic tests and on the value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance as the main tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic disease. Concerning to acute aortic syndromes (AAS), American and European GPs recognize intramural hematoma (IMH) as a type of AAS with surgery indication; however Asian guidelines consider IMH a pathological process different from AAS and indicate medical treatment. In thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), all express the need for an adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, emphasizing strict control of blood pressure, smoking cessation and recommend the use of beta-blockers and statins. The threshold for asymptomatic repair is 5.5 cm in European and American and 6 cm for Asian PG, with lower thresholds in Marfan and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). As regards the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), the PGs recognize the adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, but there are differences in class of recommendation on statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or beta-blockers to prevent progression of AAA. For intervention, the threshold diameter in asymptomatic is 5.5 cm but can be reduced to 5 cm in women as recommended by Asian PG. Moreover the specific diseases such as Marfan, BAV, pregnancy or atherosclerosis aortic present specific recommendations with small differences between PGs. In conclusion, PGs are interesting and appropriate documents at present. They issue recommendations based on evidence that help the clinician and surgeon in their daily approach to aortic pathology.

Wrapping of the ascending aorta revisited-is there any role left for conservative treatment of ascending aortic aneurysm?

Dilatation of the ascending aorta (AA) is a common finding in patients with aortic valve disease. The clinical practice guidelines recommend replacing the AA whenever the diameter exceeds 45 mm. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the approach when the aorta is only moderately dilated. Although the risk in aorta replacement is generally low, it may be higher when associated with other complex surgical procedures or it is carried out in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity. This would justify the use of alternative surgical techniques, which reduce surgical risk and guarantee a durable correction of the aortic pathology. Conservative treatment of aneurysms of the AA via wrapping with different synthetic materials has been implemented for many years. The most commonly used technical variant is wrapping the dilated aorta with a vascular prosthesis with a predetermined diameter. When this technique is adequately applied, it immediately reduces the diameter of the AA and, to a lesser degree, the diameter of the aortic root and arch, while at the same time it reinforces the weak aortic wall. These effects lead to a drop-in wall shear stress and in the risk of aortic dissection and rupture, and persist over time. Although the low elasticity of the external support causes significant changes in the histologic structure of the aortic wall, mainly atrophy and alterations typical of a foreign body-induced reaction, this does not seem to involve a higher risk of complications. In some selected patients, this technique may be used in cases other than post-stenotic aortopathy, and also in aortas with a larger diameter.

Bicuspid aortic valve syndrome: a multidisciplinary approach for a complex entity.

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or bicuspid aortopathy is the most common congenital heart disease. It can be clinically silent and it is often identified as an incidental finding in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic patients. However, it can be dysfunctioning at birth, even requiring neonatal intervention, or, in time, lead to aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, and endocarditis, and also be associated with aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. Given its prevalence and significant complications, it is estimated that BAV is responsible for more deaths and morbidity than the combined effects of all the other congenital heart defects. Pathology of BAV is still not well known and many questions are unresolved. In this manuscript we review some aspects on bicuspid aortopathy, a heterogeneous and frequent disease in which like some authors have previously described, complex gene environment are present. Further investigations and, what is more, multidisciplinary teams are needed to improve our knowledge on this really fascinating disease.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with high aortic anguation.

Minimally invasive mitral valve replacement is a safe and effective surgery for patients with rheumatic valve disease: A retrospective study.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the treatment of minimally invasive mitral valve replacement (MIMVR) through a right minithoracotomy for patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease.From February 2009 to December 2016, 360 patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease underwent mitral valve replacement by the same surgeon. Among them, 150 patients accepted MIMVR through a right minithoracotomy, whereas the other 210 accepted a traditional median sternotomy. After matching by patients by age, sex, EuroSCORE, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, renal and liver function, and degree of mitral valve disease, we selected 224 patients for analysis in our retrospective study.In the MIMVR group (112 patients), the aortic cross-clamp time (ACC time) (55.25 ± 2.18 minutes) was significantly longer than that in the control group (112 patients; 36.05 ± 1.40 minutes) (P < .0001). In contrast, the cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB time) was shorter in the MIMVR group than in the control group (61.13 ± 2.57 vs 78.65 ± 4.05 minutes, respectively, P < .0001). Patients who accepted MIMVR surgery had less drainage 24 hours postoperation (324.10 ± 34.55 vs 492.90 ± 34.05 mL, P < .0001) and had less total drainage (713.46 ± 65.35 vs 990.49 ± 67.88 mL, P < .0001) than those who underwent median sternotomy. Thirty-two percent of patients in the MIMVR group needed a blood transfusion (1.35 ± .28 units of red blood cells, 155.36 ± 33.43 mL plasma), whereas 67.0% of the control group needed a blood transfusion (2.15 ± .24 units of red blood cells, 287.50 ± 33.54 mL plasma) (Ptransfusion < .001, Pcell = .029, Pplasma = .006). In total, 5 deaths occurred during the perioperative period; 3 occurred in the MIMVR group. The average hospital stay was significantly shorter in the MIMVR group than that in the control group (6.56 ± .23 vs 8.53 ± .59 days, P = .003).MIMVR, an effective and safe treatment approach for patients suffering from rheumatic mitral valve disease, is associated with less trauma and a faster recovery. It is a better choice for treating simple rheumatic mitral valve disease.

Coronary physiology in patients with severe aortic stenosis: Comparison between fractional flow reserve and instantaneous wave-free ratio.

The functional assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) has not been validated so far, and the best strategy to physiologically investigate the relevance of coronary stenosis in this specific setting of patients remains undetermined. The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic performance of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients with severe AS.