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Aortic valve disease - Top 30 Publications

Custodiol versus cold Calafiore for elective cardiac arrest in isolated aortic valve replacement: a propensity-matched analysis of 7263 patients†.

This study was designed to assess the impact of crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) and blood cardioplegia (BCP) on short- and long-term outcome after isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR).

Pre- and postoperative tricuspid regurgitation in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis: importance of pre-operative tricuspid annulus diameter.

Secondary tricuspid regurgitation (STR) is commonly found in patients with aortic stenosis and is associated with increased morbidity. The study sought to evaluate the prevalence of pre-operative STR and its progression after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Also, it sought to analyse the predictors of post-operative changes in STR.

Three-port (one incision plus two-port) endoscopic mitral valve surgery without robotic assistance†.

Totally endoscopic minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) is technically demanding and often performed with robotic assistance. We hypothesized that three-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) would facilitate endoscopic MIMVS and evaluated its feasibility and safety.

Lipoprotein(a): the revenant.

In the mid-1990s, the days of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were numbered and many people would not have placed a bet on this lipid particle making it to the next century. However, genetic studies brought Lp(a) back to the front-stage after a Mendelian randomization approach used for the first time provided strong support for a causal role of high Lp(a) concentrations in cardiovascular disease and later also for aortic valve stenosis. This encouraged the use of therapeutic interventions to lower Lp(a) as well numerous drug developments, although these approaches mainly targeted LDL cholesterol, while the Lp(a)-lowering effect was only a 'side-effect'. Several drug developments did show a potent Lp(a)-lowering effect but did not make it to endpoint studies, mainly for safety reasons. Currently, three therapeutic approaches are either already in place or look highly promising: (i) lipid apheresis (specific or unspecific for Lp(a)) markedly decreases Lp(a) concentrations as well as cardiovascular endpoints; (ii) PCSK9 inhibitors which, besides lowering LDL cholesterol also decrease Lp(a) by roughly 30%; and (iii) antisense therapy targeting apolipoprotein(a) which has shown to specifically lower Lp(a) concentrations by up to 90% in phase 1 and 2 trials without influencing other lipids. Until the results of phase 3 outcome studies are available for antisense therapy, we will have to exercise patience, but with optimism since never before have we had the tools we have now to prove Koch's extrapolated postulate that lowering high Lp(a) concentrations might be protective against cardiovascular disease.

Extensive infective endocarditis of the aortic root and the aortic-mitral continuity: a mitral valve sparing approach†.

Severe cases of infective endocarditis (IE) of the aortic valve can cause aortic root destruction and affect the surrounding structures, including the aortic-mitral continuity, the anterior mitral valve leaflet and the roof of the left atrium. Reconstruction after resection of all infected tissue remains challenging. We describe our surgical approach and the mid-term results.

Mid-term results of zone 0 thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair after ascending aorta wrapping and supra-aortic debranching in high-risk patients.

Surgical repair of aneurysmal disease involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and eventually the descending aorta is generally associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A less invasive approach with the ascending wrapping technique (WT), supra-aortic vessel debranching (SADB) and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) in zone 0 was developed to reduce the associated risk in these patients.

Concomitant therapy: off-pump coronary revascularization and transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) is common among patients evaluated for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Only little data exist on outcome of patients undergoing concomitant off-pump coronary revascularization and TAVI. The goal of this study was to analyse the impact of concomitant off-pump revascularization on early clinical outcome and 2-year follow-up of patients undergoing TAVI.

Low target-INR anticoagulation is safe in selected aortic valve patients with the Medtronic Open Pivot mechanical prosthesis: long-term results of a propensity-matched comparison with standard anticoagulation.

To investigate the long-term results of a low international normalized ratio (INR)-anticoagulation program in selected patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with the Medtronic Open Pivot mechanical heart valve (OPMHV).

Biological solutions to aortic root replacement: valve-sparing versus bioprosthetic conduit‡.

Valve-sparing operations and root replacement with a biologic composite conduit are viable options in aortic root aneurysm. This study was conceived to compare the early and mid-term results of these 2 procedures.

Utilization and outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the United States shortly after device approval.

The objective of this study was to assess the national uptake of TAVR, associated in-hospital outcomes, and the effect of procedural experience on outcomes in the first two years following device approval.

Frequency of Development of Aortic Valve Disease in Unrepaired Perimembranous Ventricular Septal Defects.

We sought to determine the natural history of aortic valve disease in patients with unrepaired perimembranous ventricular septal defects (pVSDs) and to identify echocardiographic parameters predictive of increased risk of surgical repair of pVSD because of aortic valve disease. We retrospectively analyzed all echocardiograms of patients with a diagnosis of pVSD at our institution from January 1999 to January 2015. All available echocardiographic data were collected. Patients were excluded if there was another structural cardiac anomaly other than bicuspid aortic valve, small patent foramen ovale, or ductus arteriosus. The prevalences of aortic valve prolapse and regurgitation, as well as aortic valve disease progression, were determined. A total of 2,114 echocardiograms from 657 patients with unrepaired pVSD were reviewed. Median age at the time of echocardiogram was 1.9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 0.2 to 5.4). Median duration of follow-up was 1.7 years (IQR 0.2 to 7.4). pVSD-associated aortic valve disease prompted surgical intervention in 1.5% (10 of 657) of patients. Median age at the time of surgery was 4.8 years (IQR 1.7 to 8.4). A pVSD-to-aortic annulus diameter ratio of 0.66 ± 0.05 was present in 90% (9 of 10) of patients who underwent surgical closure because of pVSD-associated aortic valve disease. In conclusion, pVSD-associated aortic valve disease is uncommon, and progression of aortic regurgitation is rare. These data suggest that the majority of patients with pVSD do not require frequent follow-up and that frequent follow-up can be saved for a subset with echocardiographic markers placing them at higher risk of aortic valve diseases.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients With Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease.

Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor outcomes in patients who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement, whereas its prognostic role in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate outcomes in patients with advanced CKD who underwent TAVI. A total of 1,904 consecutive patients who underwent balloon-expandable TAVI in 33 centers between 2007 and 2012 were enrolled in the Italian Transcatheter Balloon-Expandable Valve Implantation Registry. Advanced CKD was defined according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate: 15 to 29 ml/min/1.73 m(2) stage 4 (S4), <15 ml/min/1.73 m(2) stage 5 (S5). Edwards Sapien or Sapien-XT prosthesis were used. The primary end point was all-cause mortality during follow-up. Secondary end points were major adverse cardiac events at 30 days and at follow-up, defined with Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 criteria. A total of 421 patients were staged S5 (n = 74) or S4 (n = 347). S5 patients were younger and had more frequently porcelain aorta and a lower incidence of previous stroke. Periprocedural and 30-day outcomes were similar in S5 and S4 patients. During 670 (±466) days of follow-up, S5 patients had higher mortality rates (69% vs 39%, p <0.01) and cardiac death (19% vs 9%, p = 0.02) compared with S4 patients. Male gender (hazard ratio [HR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.2), left ventricular ejection fraction <30% (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 4), atrial fibrillation (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9), and S5 CKD (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1) were independent predictors of death. In conclusion, TAVI in predialytic or dialytic patients (i.e., S5) is independently associated with poor outcomes with more than double risk of death compared with patients with S4 renal function. Conversely, in severe CKD (i.e., S4) a rigorous risk stratification is required to avoid the risk of futility risk.

Aortic assessment of bicuspid aortic valve patients and their first-degree relatives.

Background Bicuspid aortic valve patients have an increased risk of aortic dilatation. A deficit of nitric oxide synthase has been proposed as the causative factor. No correlation between flow-mediated dilation and aortic diameter has been performed in patients with bicuspid aortic valves and normal aortic diameters. Being a hereditary disease, we compared echocardiographic features and endothelial function in these patients and their first-degree relatives. Methods Comprehensive physical examinations, routine laboratory tests, transthoracic echocardiography, and measurements of endothelium-dependent and non-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were performed in 18 bicuspid aortic valve patients (14 type 1 and 4 type 2) and 19 of their first-degree relatives. Results The first-degree relatives were younger (36.7 ± 18.8 vs. 50.5 ± 13.9 years, p = 0.019) with higher ejection fractions (64.6% ± 1.7% vs. 58.4% ± 9.5%, p = 0.015). Aortic diameters indexed to body surface area were similar in both groups, the except the tubular aorta which was larger in bicuspid aortic valve patients (19.3 ± 2.7 vs. 17.4 ± 2.2 mm·m(-2), p = 0.033). Flow-dependent vasodilation was similar in both groups. A significant inverse correlation was found between non-flow-dependent vasodilation and aortic root diameter in patients with bicuspid aortic valve ( R = -0.57, p = 0.05). Conclusions Bicuspid aortic valve patients without aortopathy have larger ascending aortic diameters than their first-degree relatives. Endothelial function is similar in both groups, and there is no correlation with ascending aorta diameter. Nonetheless, an inverse correlation exists between non-endothelial-dependent dilation and aortic root diameter in bicuspid aortic valve patients.

Post-dilation in transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of patients undergoing TAVR with and without balloon post-dilation (PD).

Speculative Considerations about Some Cardiology Enigmas.

Write a review text or point-of-view that takes into account the interests, if not of all, but of most readers of a scientific journal is an arduous task. The editorial can be grounded in published articles, even in a single article of undeniable importance and, it can also represent a trend of specialty. Therefore, especially for the sake of the reader's motivation, the present text was freely designed to discuss some cardiology enigmas in the context of the heart valve and coronary artery disease (CAD). Concerning the CAD five well-known enigmas will be considered: 1) The absence of arteriosclerosis in intramyocardial coronary arteries; 2) The unique and always confirmed superior evolution of the left internal thoracic artery as a coronary graft; 3) The prophylactic left internal thoracic artery graft in mildly-stenosed coronary lesions, and; 4) The high incidence of perioperative atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with CAD, and; 5) The handling of disease-free saphenous vein graft at the time of reoperation. Concerning the cardiac valve disease these enigmas topics will be discussed: 1) Why some young patients present acute pulmonary edema as the first sign of mitral stenosis, and other patients with significant hemodynamic changes are mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic, and; 2) The enigma of aortic stenosis protection against CAD.

Novel Insights into Complex Cardiovascular Pathologies Using 4d Flow Analysis by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

It is essential that we are able to assess variations in blood flow in order to fully understand cardiovascular function in disease pathologies and for identification of individuals at long-term risk of cardiovascular disease development. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of blood flow by imaging modalities have been limited, and much of the accurate quantification has relied on invasive measures.

The impact of the aortic valve impairment on the distant coronary arteries hemodynamics: a fluid-structure interaction study.

Atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of death in the developed world. Although its initiation and progression is a complex multifactorial process, it is well known that blood flow-induced wall shear stress (WSS) is an important factor involved in early atherosclerotic plaque initiation. In recent clinical studies, it was established that the regional pathologies of the aortic valve can be involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. However, the impact of hemodynamic effects is not yet fully elucidated for disease initiation and progression. In this study, our developed 3D global fluid-structure interaction model of the aortic root incorporating coronary arteries is used to investigate the possible interaction between coronary arteries and aortic valve pathologies. The coronary hemodynamics was examined and quantified for different degrees of aortic stenosis varying from nonexistent to severe. For the simulated healthy model, the calculated WSS varied between 0.41 and 1.34 Pa which is in the atheroprotective range. However, for moderate and severe aortic stenoses, wide regions of the coronary structures, especially the proximal sections around the first bifurcation, were exposed to lower values of WSS and therefore they were prone to atherosclerosis even in the case of healthy coronary arteries.

Leptin induces osteoblast differentiation of human valvular interstitial cells via the Akt and ERK pathways.

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) affects 2-6% of the population over 65 years, and age, gender, smoking, overweight, dyslipidemia, diabetes contribute to the development of this disease. CAVD results, in part, from the osteoblast differentiation of human valvular interstitial cells (VICs). This study aims to elucidate the effects of leptin on osteoblast phenotype of VICs and the signalling pathways involved.

Structural Heart Disease Intervention: The Canadian Landscape.

Cardiovascular disease encompasses coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease, and the prevalence of both increases with age. Over the past decade, the landscape of interventional cardiology has evolved to encompass a new set of percutaneous procedures outside the coronary tree, including transcatheter aortic valve implantation, transcatheter mitral valve repair, and left atrial appendage occlusion. These interventions have sparked a new discipline within interventional cardiology referred to as structural heart disease (SHD) intervention. The access to and numbers of such procedures performed in Canada is currently unknown. This "first of its kind" survey of structural interventions provides insight into the landscape of SHD intervention in Canada and the challenges faced by cardiologists to deliver this important care.

Diastolic Function and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Little is known about baseline diastolic dysfunction and changes in diastolic dysfunction grade after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) and its impact on overall outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe baseline diastolic dysfunction and changes in diastolic dysfunction grade that occur with TAVR and their relationship to mortality and rehospitalization.

Afterload mismatch after transcatheter mitral valve repair with MitraClip for degenerative mitral regurgitation in acute cardiogenic shock.

Acute afterload mismatch after surgery for mitral regurgitation (MR) with transient left ventricular dysfunction is well known, but not described after transcatheter mitral valve repair with MitraClip, except in functional MR and cardiomyopathy. MitraClip to manage acute severe MR and cardiogenic shock has also been rarely reported. We report here a 77-year-old female who presented with acute severe degenerative MR from a flail posterior leaflet, with cardiogenic shock requiring intra-aortic balloon pump support. She was medically stabilized and underwent successful MitraClip repair with mild residual MR, but developed acute afterload mismatch and severe left ventricular dysfunction and shock 24 hr after her procedure. Patient was medically managed with intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic support. She subsequently fully recovered with normal ventricular function and was discharged after 14 days. Patient remained asymptomatic in NYHA I functional class 9 months after MitraClip repair, with mild residual MR and normal ventricular function. MitraClip repair in patients with acute severe degenerative MR and cardiogenic shock is a less invasive and potentially safer alternative to open surgery, but acute afterload mismatch may occur and requires prompt diagnosis and management for a successful outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Has the Congenitally Malformed Heart Changed Its Face? Journey From Understanding Morphology to Surgical Cure in Congenital Heart Disease.

Spectral detector CT for cardiovascular applications.

Spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) is a novel technology that uses two layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low and high energy data. Spectral data is used to generate conventional polyenergetic images as well as dedicated spectral images including virtual monoenergetic and material composition (iodine-only, virtual unenhanced, effective atomic number) images. This paper provides an overview of SDCT technology and a description of some spectral image types. The potential utility of SDCT for cardiovascular imaging and the impact of this new technology on radiation and contrast dose are discussed through presentation of initial patient studies performed on a SDCT scanner. The value of SDCT for salvaging suboptimal studies including those with poor contrast-enhancement or beam hardening artifacts through retrospective reconstruction of spectral data is discussed. Additionally, examples of specific benefits for the evaluation of aortic disease, imaging before transcatheter aortic valve implantation, evaluation of pulmonary veins pre- and post-pulmonary radiofrequency ablation, evaluation of coronary artery lumen, assessment of myocardial perfusion, detection of pulmonary embolism, and characterization of incidental findings are presented.

Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury and Blood Product Transfusion After Synthetic Colloid Use During Cardiac Surgery.

This study assessed the effect of 2 types of hydroxyethyl starches (HES) on renal integrity and blood transfusion in cardiac surgery patients.

Valvular Heart Disease Patients on Edoxaban or Warfarin in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Trial.

The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) instead of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coexisting valvular heart disease (VHD) is of substantial interest.

Comparison of MR flow quantification in peripheral and main pulmonary arteries in patients after right ventricular outflow tract surgery: A retrospective study.

To compare the quantification of pulmonary stroke volume (SV) by phase contrast magnetic resonance (PC-MR) in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to the sum of SVs in both peripheral pulmonary arteries (PPA) in different right ventricular (RV) outflow pathologies.

Systolic ejection click versus split first heart sound: Are our ears deceiving us?

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is associated with potential lifetime complications, but auscultation of a BAV click is commonly missed or mistaken for a benign split first heart sound. Our objective was to determine whether pediatric cardiologists could reliably distinguish between BAV clicks and benign split first heart sounds.

Comprehensive 4-stage categorization of bicuspid aortic valve leaflet morphology by cardiac MRI in 386 patients.

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is heterogeneous and related to valve dysfunction and aortopathy. Appropriate follow up and surveillance of patients with BAV may depend on correct phenotypic categorization. There are multiple classification schemes, however a need exists to comprehensively capture commissure fusion, leaflet asymmetry, and valve orifice orientation. Our aim was to develop a BAV classification scheme for use at MRI to ascertain the frequency of different phenotypes and the consistency of BAV classification. The BAV classification scheme builds on the Sievers surgical BAV classification, adding valve orifice orientation, partial leaflet fusion and leaflet asymmetry. A single observer successfully applied this classification to 386 of 398 Cardiac MRI studies. Repeatability of categorization was ascertained with intraobserver and interobserver kappa scores. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI findings was determined from operative reports, where available. Fusion of the right and left leaflets accounted for over half of all cases. Partial leaflet fusion was seen in 46% of patients. Good interobserver agreement was seen for orientation of the valve opening (κ = 0.90), type (κ = 0.72) and presence of partial fusion (κ = 0.83, p < 0.0001). Retrospective review of operative notes showed sensitivity and specificity for orientation (90, 93%) and for Sievers type (73, 87%). The proposed BAV classification schema was assessed by MRI for its reliability to classify valve morphology in addition to illustrating the wide heterogeneity of leaflet size, orifice orientation, and commissural fusion. The classification may be helpful in further understanding the relationship between valve morphology, flow derangement and aortopathy.

2017 AHA/ACC Focused Update of the 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Assessment of trans-aortic pressure gradient using a coronary pressure wire in patients with mechanical aortic and mitral valve prostheses.

Accurate evaluation of trans-aortic valvular pressure gradients is challenging in cases where dual mechanical aortic and mitral valve prostheses are present. Non-invasive Doppler echocardiographic imaging has its limitations due to multiple geometric assumptions. Invasive measurement of trans-valvular gradients with cardiac catheterization can provide further information in patients with two mechanical valves, where simultaneous pressure measurements in the left ventricle and ascending aorta must be obtained. Obtaining access to the left ventricle via the mitral valve after a trans-septal puncture is not feasible in the case of a concomitant mechanical mitral valve, whereas left ventricular apical puncture technique is associated with high procedural risks. Retrograde crossing of a bileaflet mechanical aortic prosthesis with standard catheters is associated with the risk of catheter entrapment and acute valvular regurgitation. In these cases, the assessment of trans-valvular gradients using a 0.014˝ diameter coronary pressure wire technique has been described in a few case reports. We present the case of a 76-year-old female with rheumatic valvular heart disease who underwent mechanical aortic and mitral valve replacement in the past. She presented with decompensated heart failure and echocardiographic findings suggestive of elevated pressure gradient across the mechanical aortic valve prosthesis. The use of a high-fidelity 0.014˝ diameter coronary pressure guidewire resulted in the detection of a normal trans-valvular pressure gradient across the mechanical aortic valve. This avoided a high-risk third redo valve surgery in our patient. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.