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Aortic valve disease - Top 30 Publications

Is tricuspid annuloplasty increasing surgical mortality and morbidity during mitral valve replacement? A single-centre experience.

Performance of tricuspid annuloplasty (TA) in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery is recommended based on the degree of tricuspid regurgitation and tricuspid annulus size, but is often underused.

Impact of chronic kidney disease on mortality in adults undergoing balloon aortic valvuloplasty.

Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is often utilized as a bridge prior to surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly present in patients with aortic stenosis, however, its association with outcomes following BAV has not been well studied. Accordingly, we sought to assess the impact of CKD on mortality in adults undergoing BAV.

Durability of quality of life benefits of transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Long-term results from the CoreValve US extreme risk trial.

For patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) at extreme surgical risk, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) leads to improved survival and health status when compared with medical therapy. Whether the early health status benefits of TAVR in these patients are sustained beyond 1 year of follow-up is unknown.

Ex vivo hydrodynamics after central and paracommissural edge-to-edge technique: A further step toward transcatheter tricuspid repair?

Transcatheter approaches in heart valve disease became tremendously important and are currently established in the aortic position, but transcatheter tricuspid repair is still in its beginning and remains challenging. Replicating the surgical edge-to-edge technique, for example, with the MitraClip System (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, Calif), represents a promising option and has been reported successfully in small numbers of cases. However, up to now, few data considering the edge-to-edge technique as a transcatheter approach are available. This study aims to determine the ex vivo hydrodynamics after the central and paracommissural edge-to-edge technique in different pathologies.

Cluster analysis of acute ascending aortic dissection provides novel insight into mechanisms of distal progression.

Whether primary tear size impacts extent of type A dissection is unclear. Using statistical groupings based on dissection morphology, we examined its relationship to primary tear area.

Stress echocardiography in patients with native valvular heart disease.

Valve stress echocardiography (VSE) can be performed as exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) or dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) depending on the patient's clinical status, severity and type of valve disease. ESE combines exercise testing with two-dimensional grey scale and Doppler echocardiography during exercise. Thus, it provides objective assessment of symptomatic status (exercise test), as well as exercise-induced changes of a series of echocardiographic parameters (different depending on the valve disease type), which yield prognostic information in individual patients and help in a better treatment planning. DSE is useful in symptomatic patients with low-gradient aortic stenosis. It clarifies its severity and helps in assessing surgical risk in patients with severe disease and systolic dysfunction. It can be also used to test valve haemodynamics in asymptomatic patients with significant mitral stenosis unable to perform an exercise test or to test the left ventricle response, namely to test viability, in patients with ischaemic secondary mitral regurgitation. VSE has taught us that history taking, clinical examination and resting echocardiography give an 'incomplete picture' of the disease in patients presenting with a severe valve disease. Therefore, its use should be encouraged in such patients.

Transapical Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Is Associated With Increased Cardiac Mortality in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Insights From the PARTNER I Trial.

The authors sought to evaluate the impact of transapical (TA) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on mortality, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) improvement, and functional recovery in patients with LV dysfunction.

Coronary artery disease, revascularization, and clinical outcomes in transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Real-world results from the East Denmark Heart Registry.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become an established therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis. The optimal treatment strategy for concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been tested prospectively in a randomized clinical trial. This study aimed to describe the degree of CAD, revascularization strategies, and long-term clinical outcomes in a large-scale all-comers TAVR-population. Nine hundred and forty-four consecutive patients underwent TAVR. Obstructive CAD was reported in 224 patients (23.7%)-of these, 150 (66.9%) presented with one-vessel disease (1-VD), 51 (22.8%) with 2-VD, and 23 (10.3%) with 3-VD. Two-thirds underwent coronary revascularization before TAVR; half of those patients with 1-VD and only one-third of those with multivessel disease were completely revascularized. In general, borderline stenoses (50%-70%) were more frequently revascularized in proximal coronary segments than in more distal segments. Long-term survival rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis of the total TAVR population at 5 and 9 years were 64.7% and 54.1%, respectively. A diagnostic coronary angiography was performed in 16.5% of patients within 5 years after TAVR; only 4.8% underwent consequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There was no difference in survival and need for revascularization post-TAVR between those patients with or without obstructive CAD ± revascularization. Neither was there a survival difference between those with or without previous CABG and/or chronic total occlusion(s). In conclusion, CAD is prevalent in TAVR patients and pre-TAVR coronary revascularization is typically focused on treating proximal and high-grade stenosis. A selective pre-TAVR PCI strategy results in favorable clinical outcomes with very low rates of post-TAVR coronary revascularization.

Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis Predicts the Key Genes Involved in Aortic Valve Calcification: From Hemodynamic Changes to Extracellular Remodeling.

In our aging world, increasing numbers of people are suffering from calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). In this study, we used integrated bioinformatics analysis to predict several key genes that are involved in the initiation and progression of CAVD. Expression profiles of 15 calcific and 14 normal human aortic valve samples were generated from two gene expression datasets (GSE12644 and GSE51472). Dataset GSE26953 from the human aortic valve fibrosa-derived endothelial cells cultured under laminar or oscillatory shear stress was also evaluated. Related R packages were used to process the data. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed for functional annotation. Hub genes were identified based on the protein-protein interaction network. CAVD-related gene modules were identified by Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). The predicted key genes were manually reviewed. In our present work, complex connections among mechano-response, oxidative stress, inflammation and extracellular remodeling pathways in the etiology of CAVD were revealed. The key genes, thus identified, encode a transcription factor KLF2 and phospholipid phosphatase 3 (PLPP3) that are involved in mechano-responses; eNOS involved in oxidative stress; IL-8 involved in inflammation; and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) and secretogranin II (SCG2) involved in extracellular remodeling. These gene products are predicted to play critical roles in CAVD development and progression. The present study provides valuable information for future research and drug development.

Know Me! Unraveling the Riddle of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease by Bioinformatics.

Cardiac amyloidosis is prevalent in older patients with aortic stenosis and carries worse prognosis.

Non-invasive cardiac imaging allows detection of cardiac amyloidosis (CA) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of clinically suspected CA in patients with moderate and severe AS referred for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in age and gender categories, and assess associations between AS-CA and all-cause mortality.

Conoscere e Curare il Cuore 1986-2016: how the heart has changed.

: The demographic transition, with longer life expectancy, is mainly due to prevention and care of atherosclerotic vascular and heart disease. The cardiovascular patient is now much older and often presents with coexisting geriatric syndromes that affect healthcare goals, outcomes, and the process of care. Numerous mechanisms at cellular level are responsible for cardiovascular aging such as replicative senescence, apoptosis, proteins misfolding, and inflammation. Aging-related modifications are increase in left-ventricular mass, increased left atrial size, myocardial collagen deposition, and calcium deposition in valvular structures and the coronary arteries. As a consequence, the elderly patient usually presents with isolated systolic hypertension and/or calcific aortic valve disease, senile cardiac amyloidosis, and multivessel calcific coronary artery disease. Comorbidity leads to many negative outcomes. Often elderly patients are affected with cognitive impairment that negatively impacts the prognosis of many pathological conditions, such as heart failure. The treatment is further complicated by other conditions frequently found in the aging patients, such as urinary incontinence (18-45%), the frequent falls (32-43%), and the frailty (14-25%). Following the PARTNER study, frailty has been identified as one of the most important predictors of the outcome in the aging elderly population. Polypharmacy is also very common in older patients, as the results of treatment are significantly affected by the higher incidence of side-effects and drugs interaction and, in turn, also due to the decreased filtration function of the liver and the kidney.

Aortic Aneurysm in Takayasu Arteritis.

Aortic aneurysm (AA) is a severe complication of Takayasu arteritis (TA). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical and imaging features, management and long-term outcomes of AA in patients with TA.

Exploiting novel valve interstitial cell lines to study calcific aortic valve disease.

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) involves progressive valve leaflet thickening and severe calcification, impairing leaflet motion. The in vitro calcification of primary rat, human, porcine and bovine aortic valve interstitial cells (VICs) is commonly employed to investigate CAVD mechanisms. However, to date, no published studies have utilised cell lines to investigate this process. The present study has therefore generated and evaluated the calcification potential of immortalized cell lines derived from sheep and rat VICs. Immortalised sheep (SAVIC) and rat (RAVIC) cell lines were produced by transduction with a recombinant lentivirus encoding the Simian virus (SV40) large and small T antigens (sheep), or large T antigen only (rat), which expressed markers of VICs (vimentin and α‑smooth muscle actin). Calcification was induced in the presence of calcium (Ca; 2.7 mM) in SAVICs (1.9 fold; P<0.001) and RAVICs (4.6 fold; P<0.01). Furthermore, a synergistic effect of calcium and phosphate was observed (2.7 mM Ca/2.0 mM Pi) on VIC calcification in the two cell lines (P<0.001). Analysis of SAVICs revealed significant increases in the mRNA expression of two key genes associated with vascular calcification in cells cultured under calcifying conditions, runt related transcription factor‑2 (RUNX2;1.3 fold; P<0.05 in 4.5 mM Ca) and sodium‑dependent phosphate transporter‑1 (PiT1; 1.2 fold; P<0.05 in 5.4 mM Ca). A concomitant decrease in the expression of the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP) was noted at 3.6 mM Ca (1.3 fold; P<0.01). Assessment of RAVICs revealed alterations in Runx2, Pit1 and Mgp mRNA expression levels (P<0.01). Furthermore, a significant reduction in calcification was observed in SAVICs following treatment with established calcification inhibitors, pyrophosphate (1.8 fold; P<0.01) and etidronate (3.2 fold; P<0.01). Overall, the present study demonstrated that the use of immortalised sheep and rat VIC cell lines is a convenient and cost effective system to investigate CAVD in vitro, and will make a useful contribution to increasing current understanding of the pathophysiological process.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm: unlocking the "silent killer" secrets.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is an increasingly recognized condition that is often diagnosed incidentally. This review discusses ten of the most relevant epidemiological and clinical secrets of this disease; (1) the difference in pathogenesis between ascending and descending TAAs. TAAs at these two sites act as different diseases, which is related to the different embryologic origins of the ascending and descending aorta. (2) The familial pattern and genetics of thoracic aneurysms. Syndromic TAAs only explain 5% of the pattern of inheritance. (3) The effect of female sex on TAA growth and outcome. Females have been found to have worse outcomes compared to males. (4) Guilt by Association. TAAs are associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms, intracranial aneurysms, bicuspid aortic valve, and inflammatory disorders. (5) Natural history of TAAs. Important findings have been made regarding the expansion rate (in relation to familial pattern, location and size), and also regarding the risk of rupture or dissection. (6) The aortic size paradox. Size only is not a sufficient predictor of risk of dissection. (7) Biomarker void. Although many serum biomarkers have been studied, imaging remains the only reliable method for diagnosis and follow-up. (8) Indications for repair. Decisions are made depending on symptoms, location, size, and familial patterns. (9) Types of repair. Both open and endovascular repair options are available for certain TAAs. (10) Medical treatment. The efficacy of prescribing beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers remains dubious.

The evolution of minimally invasive cardiac surgery: from minimal access to transcatheter approaches.

The field of minimally invasive cardiac surgery has undergone rapid transformation over recent years. In this review, we provide a summary of the most current evidence supporting the use of minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve replacement techniques, as well as transcatheter approaches for aortic and mitral valve disease. As an adjunct, the use of robotically assisted coronary bypass surgery and hybrid coronary revascularization procedures is discussed. In order to obtain optimal patient outcomes, a collaborative, heart-team approach between cardiac surgeons and interventional cardiologists is necessary.

Relation of an Echocardiographic-Based Cardiac Calcium Score to Mitral Stenosis Severity and Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis.

Patients with calcific aortic stenosis (AS) often have diffuse cardiac calcification involving the mitral valve apparatus and coronary arteries. We examined the association between global cardiac calcification quantified by a previously validated echocardiographic calcium score (eCS) with the severity of mitral stenosis (MS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of severe calcific AS. In this sample of 147 patients (mean age 81 ± 9 years, 50% male), 81 patients (55%) were determined by echocardiography to have some degree of MS. Higher mean eCS was observed in patients with more severe MS (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001). Higher eCS was also inversely associated with mitral valve area (r = -0.31, p = 0.001) and positively associated with mitral valve mean pressure gradient (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001) and mitral valve peak flow velocity (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for using eCS to predict the presence of MS was 0.76. An eCS ≥ 8 predicted MS with a sensitivity of 68%, specificity of 76%, positive predictive value of 77%, and negative predictive value of 66%. High eCS, relative to low eCS, was associated with 2.70 times the adjusted odds of CAD (odds ratio = 2.70, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 7.17). In conclusion, global cardiac calcification is associated with MS and CAD in patients with severe calcific AS, and eCS shows ability to predict the presence of MS. This study suggests that a simple eCS may be used as part of a risk-stratification tool in patients with severe calcific aortic valve stenosis.

Intermediate-Term Risk of Stroke Following Cardiac Procedures in a Nationally Representative Data Set.

Studies on stroke risk following cardiac procedures addressed only perioperative and long-term risk following limited higher-risk procedures, were poorly generalizable, and often failed to stratify by stroke type. We calculated stroke risk in the intermediate risk period following cardiac procedures compared with common noncardiac surgeries and medical admissions.

Periodontal bacteria DNA findings in human cardiac tissue - Is there a link of periodontitis to heart valve disease?

The aim of the study was to detect periodontal pathogens DNA in atrial and myocardial tissue, and to investigate periodontal status and their connection to cardiac tissue inflammation.

Blood, tissue and imaging biomarkers in calcific aortic valve stenosis: past, present and future.

Calcific aortic valve stenosis is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the high-income countries. To this date, no medical therapy has been proven to prevent or to stop the progression of aortic valve stenosis. The physiopathology of aortic valve stenosis is highly complex and involves several signalling pathways, as well as genetic related factors, which delay the elaboration of effective pharmacotherapies. Moreover, it is difficult to predict accurately the progression of the valve stenosis and finding the optimal timing for aortic valve replacement remains challenging. Therefore, the present review makes an inventory of the most recent and promising circulating and imaging biomarkers related to the underlying mechanisms involved in the physiopathology of aortic valve stenosis, as well as the biomarkers associated with the left ventricular (LV) remodelling and subsequent dysfunction in patients with aortic valve stenosis.

The Value of the SYNTAX Score II in Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

The predictive value of the SYNTAX score (SS) for clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is very limited and could potentially be improved by the combination of anatomic and clinical variables, the SS-II. We aimed to evaluate the value of the SS-II in predicting outcomes in patients undergoing TAVI.

TAVR for Severe Aortic Regurgitation: Advancing the Frontier.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Pure Native Aortic Valve Regurgitation.

Limited data exist about safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with pure native aortic regurgitation (AR).

Trends in practice and outcomes from 2011 to 2015 for surgical aortic valve replacement: an update from the German Aortic Valve Registry on 42 776 patients.

Surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) is coming under close scrutiny with the recent upswing in the use of less invasive approaches. The aim of this analysis was to identify current trends in patient selection, procedural characteristics and outcomes after sAVR in Germany.

Mechanical deformation in adult patients with unrepaired aortic coarctation.

Aortic coarctation is a congenital heart disease that causes an increased left ventricular afterload, resulting in increased systolic parietal tension, compensatory hypertrophy, and left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The speckle tracking is a new echocardiographic technique that allows the detection of subclinic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to detect early left ventricular dysfunction using mechanical deformation by echocardiography in adults with un-repaired aortic coarctation. A total of 41 subjects were studied, 20 patients with aortic coarctation and 21 control subjects, 21 women (51.2%), with an average age of 30 ± 10 years. All patients with aortic coarctation had systemic arterial hypertension (p < 0.001). Seventy percent (14/20) of the patients had bicuspid aortic valve. Statistically significance (p < 0.005) were found in left ventricular mass index, E/e ratio, pulmonary artery systolic pressure and peak velocity and maximum gradient of the aortic valve. The global longitudinal deformation of the left ventricle in patients with aortic coarctation was significative decreased, p < 0.001. The ejection fraction and the global longitudinal deformation of the left ventricle were significantly lower in patients with aortic coarctation compared to the control group, p < 0.003, p < 0.001, respectively. The subgroup of patients with coarctation and left ventricular ejection fraction < 55% had a marked decrease in global longitudinal strain (- 15.9 ± 4%). The radial deformation was increased in patients with aortic coarctation and showed a trend to be significant (r = 0.421; p < 0.06). A significant negative correlation was observed between the global longitudinal deformation and left ventricular mass index (r = 0.54; p = 0.01) in the aortic coarctation group. The patients with aortic coarctation and left ventricular hypertrophy had marked reduction of left ventricular global longitudinal deformation (- 16%, p < 0.05). In our study patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction had abnormal global longitudinal deformation and also the increased left ventricular mass was related with a decreased left ventricular global longitudinal deformation as a sign of subclinical systolic dysfunction.

Management of valvular heart disease : ESC/EACTS guidelines 2017.

After 5 years the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery have released an update on the guidelines for the management of valvular heart diseases. In recent years published results of randomized trials in patients with aortic valve stenosis have resulted in updated recommendations for catheter-based prosthesis implantation (TAVI), which is now extended to patients presenting without a low risk for conventional surgical valve replacement. In mitral or tricuspid valvular disease, the recommendations for catheter-based therapies are less strong because of a lack of supportive scientific data. A special focus of these updated guidelines is on concomitant antithrombotic therapy in valvular heart disease and in the context of a combination with coronary artery disease and/or accompanying arrhythmia. Special emphasis was again put on the multidisciplinary heart team for the diagnostics and treatment of patients with valvular heart disease. In order to support the quality of treatment for patients with valvular heart disease, it is suggested that heart valve centers of excellence should be established, which have to fulfil complex personnel, structural and technological prerequisites.

Impact of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Morphology on Aortic Valve Disease and Aortic Dilation in Pediatric Patients.

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect. BAV is associated with aortic stenosis and insufficiency, and aortic dilation in adult groups, but data in pediatric groups are limited. We sought to assess the impact of BAV morphology on aortic valve disease and aortic dilation in pediatric patients. We performed a retrospective review of all echocardiograms in patients with isolated BAV who were followed at our institution from July 2002 to July 2012. BAV morphology, aortic valve stenosis and/or insufficiency, and aortic dimensions were measured manually. Comparisons were made between right-left cusp fusion (RL) and right-noncoronary cusp fusion (RN) BAV morphologies. Generalized least square models were fit to analyze the impact of specific variables on aortic dilation. There were 1075 echocardiograms in 366 patients (72% male) with isolated BAV. Aortic valve insufficiency and stenosis were more common in RN (p < 0.001 for both). The median aortic sinus Z score was higher in the RL (0.47; IQR - 0.31 to 1.44) than in the RN group (0.02; - 0.83 to 0.82) (p < 0.001). There was no difference in median ascending aorta Z score between groups. Patients with the highest weights had larger aortas (p < 0.001), but the absolute difference between the highest and lowest weight groups was small (1.5 mm). The impact of BAV morphology on aortic valve disease and aortic dilation in pediatric patients presages that seen in adults. Patient body weight does not make significant clinical impacts on aortic diameters, suggesting that Z scores for aortic diameters should be based on ideal body weights.

Corrigendum to: 'Contemporary results of aortic valve repair for congenital disease: lessons for management and staged strategy' Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2017;52(3):581-587.

Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and frailty on long-term outcomes and quality of life after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and long-term mortality as well as the quality of life (QoL) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is still unclear.

Exploration of death risk factors in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis.

Objectives: Death risk factors of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) were explored by the analysis of clinical characteristics of AAV patients, as to provide the basis for early diagnosis and treatment, and reduction of mortality and also improvement of prognosis. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in patients with AAV which were admitted to this hospital from November 2003 to February 2017, by the contrasts of the similarities and differences of clinical characteristics between the death group and non-death group, for explore the risk factors of death. Results: (1) A total of 66 patients with AAV were included in this study, in which 20 were died (male/female was 12/8), and 46 were still alive, with a total mortality rate of 30.3%.(2)The average age of disease onset in the death group was (67±13) years, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (55±18, P=0.009). (3)The mean value of vasculitis damage index (VDI) in the death group was (6.4±2.5), which was significantly higher than that in the non-death group (4.4±2.5, P=0.006). (4)As to multiple organs involvements among the heart, lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and other organs, the proportion of three or more organs involvement in the death group was 85% (17/20), which was significantly higher than that in the control group 47.8%(22/46), P=0.004 8.The incidence of heart murmurs, recent premature beats, aortic insufficiency, chronic heart failure/cardiomyopathy, and massive hemoptysis were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). (5) The incidence of infection in the death group (55%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (28.3%, P=0.038). Conclusion: An onset age of more than 65, multiple organs involvement, especially the occurrence of massive hemoptysis, heart valve diseases, heart failure and other cardiovascular involvements, increased VDI and combination of infections are the risk factors of death in AAV patients.