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Autoantibodies - Top 30 Publications

Large-scale analysis of herpesviridae in epilepsy-patients with signs of autoimmune encephalitis.

Epilepsy is one of the most common primary brain disorders. Nonparaneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as an important cause of adult onset epilepsy. However, only in rare cases an initiating factor of the syndrome can be identified. Autoantibody detection after central nervous herpesvirus infection indicates a postviral etiology in a subgroup of patients. In order to analyze a possible underrecognition of postinfectious autoimmunity we performed a large-scale analysis of herpesvirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical signs of autoimmune encephalitis.

RASGRP1 mutation in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a genetic disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis due to impaired apoptosis. It was initially regarded as a very rare disease, but recent studies show it may be more common than previously thought. Defects in a couple of genes have been identified in a proportion of ALPS patients, but around one third of such patients remain undefined genetically.

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases.

A muscle biopsy is currently requested to assess the diagnosis of an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy overlapping with a systemic disease. During the past few years, the classification of inflammatory myopathy subtypes has been revisited progressively on the basis of correlations between clinical phenotypes, autoantibodies and histological data. Several syndromic entities are now more clearly defined, and the aim of the present review is to clarify the contribution of muscle biopsy in a setting of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases.

Dysregulation of circulating autoantibodies against VEGF-A, VEGFR-1 and PlGF in preeclampsia - A role in placental and vascular health?

Preeclampsia is a state of antiangiogenesis, with high levels of maternal circulating sVEGFR-1 (soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, also named sFlt1) and low levels of PlGF (placenta growth factor). Various autoantibodies have been detected in preeclamptic patients. We hypothesize that circulating autoantibodies against VEGF-A (AA-VEGF-A), VEGFR-1 (AA-VEGFR-1) and PlGF (AA-PlGF) are present in preeclamptic women, with different levels from pregnant women with normotensive pregnancies. Secondly, we wanted to analyze if autoantibody levels are associated to sFlt1 or PLGF levels.

Autoantibodies to full body vascular cell junctions colocalize with MYZAP, ARVCF, desmoplakins I and II and p0071 in endemic pemphigus in Colombia, South America.

We previously described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia (El Bagre-EPF).

Anti-desmogleins autoantibodies detected by ELISA and blotting in bullous pemphigoid: what do they mean?

IL-22 neutralizing autoantibodies impair fungal clearance in murine oropharyngeal candidiasis model.

Protection against mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on the T helper (Th)17 pathway, as gene defects affecting its integrity result in inability to clear Candida albicans infection on body surfaces. Moreover, autoantibodies neutralizing Th17 cytokines have been related to chronic candidiasis in a rare inherited disorder called autoimmune polyendocriopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) caused by mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. However, the direct pathogenicity of these autoantibodies has not yet been addressed. Here we show that the level of anti-IL17A autoantibodies that develop in aged Aire-deficient mice is not sufficient for conferring susceptibility to oropharyngeal candidiasis. However, patient-derived monoclonal antibodies that cross-react with murine IL-22 increase the fungal burden on C. albicans infected mucosa. Nevertheless, the lack of macroscopically evident infectious pathology on the oral mucosa of infected mice suggests that additional susceptibility factors are needed to precipitate a clinical disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Tumour TIF1 mutations and loss of heterozygosity related to cancer-associated myositis.

To analyse the influence of genetic alterations and differential expression of transcription intermediary factor 1 ( TIF1 ) genes in the pathophysiology of cancer-associated myositis (CAM).

Anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-related myositis and dermatomyositis: clues for differential diagnosis on muscle biopsy.

Anti-synthetase syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibodies toward amino acyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS), anti-Jo 1 being the most commonly detected. Muscle damage develops in up to 90% of ARS-positive patients, characterized by a necrotizing myositis restricted to the perifascicular region. This topographic distribution of muscle damage may lead to a misdiagnosis of dermatomyositis (DM) at muscle biopsy. We compared morphological, immunohistochemical, and histoenzymatic features of muscle from ARS-positive patients (n = 11) with those of DM (n = 7) providing clues for their differential diagnosis. In addition, we evaluated markers of mitochondrial damage to provide a further distinction between these two entities. Necrosis occurred in the majority of ARS patients, mainly located in the perifascicular region. It was often limited to small foci of fibers, always associated with myocyte regeneration. This last often overwhelmed necrosis, representing occasionally the main finding. In DM, necrosis/regeneration was scarce while the peculiar feature was a diffuse atrophy of perifascicular fibers. These last showed decreased cytochrome c oxidase (COX) stain and mitochondrial DNA depletion, consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast to DM, ARS displayed scattered COX-deficient fibers, not restricted to the perifascicular region. This feature occurred in up to 91% of patients, being prominent only in two.

Evaluation of anti-desmoglein-1 and anti-desmoglein-3 autoantibody titers in pemphigus patients at the time of the initial diagnosis and after clinical remission.

It has been suggested that anti-desmoglein autoantibody titers could be helpful in follow-up and therapeutic management of pemphigus patients. However, there is no consensus regarding the relationship between anti-desmoglein autoantibody titers and clinical activity of pemphigus.The aim of our study was to evaluate if clinical remission of pemphigus relates to the presence of anti-desmoglein autoantibodies.Thirty patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 7 patients with pemphigus foliaceous were included in the study. Assessment of autoantibody titers was carried out at the time of the initial diagnosis and after the clinical remission using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based assay.Our results indicate that pemphigus clinical remission did not necessarily imply a serological remission, and consequently it is necessary to establish if withdrawal of the immunosuppressive regimen in pemphigus should be based exclusively on the achievement of clinical remission or also on the serological findings.

Design, expression and evaluation of novel chimeric protein constructed from colorectal tumor-associated antigen.

There were 134,000 new diagnosis and 49,000 deaths in 2016 due to colorectal cancer. Similar to most cancers, early diagnosis increases the chance of successful treatment. Detection of tumor-associated antigens or the immune response against such markers is one of the most common methods of diagnosis. In that regard, we aimed to design and express a chimeric protein from the most common tumor-associated antigens in colorectal cancer and assess its ability to detect the immune response in comparison with the parental tumor-associated antigens in patient's sera. Through bioinformatics approaches a chimeric protein from carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19. 9 (CA19-9) was designed and expressed in E. coli (BL21DE3). Proper folding, expression levels and immune reactivity were assessed by western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Recombinant proteins functionality and immune reactivity were confirmed by ELISA and western blot. Results showed that recombinant CEA, recombinant CA19.9 and chimeric protein of CEA- CA19.9 have strong reactivity with antibodies in the sera of colorectal cancer patients, whereas no reactivity was seen with the sera of healthy volunteers. Significantly stronger immune reactivity was seen with the chimeric protein than each of the CEA or CA19.9 alone. Overall, it was concluded that the designed recombinant proteins in this study could be used to detect autoantibodies produced against the colorectal tumor-associated antigens. The chimeric CEA-CA19.9 protein shows a stronger reactivity with the sera antibodies of colorectal cancer patients that CEA or CA19.9 alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Preoperative management in patients with Graves' disease.

Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-sufficient geographical areas and is characterized by the presence in patients' serum of autoantibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAb) that cause overproduction and release of thyroid hormones. Clinical presentation results from both hyperthyroidism and underlying autoimmunity. The diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical features and biochemical abnormalities. If serum thyrotropin (TSH) is low, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations should be measured to distinguish between subclinical (with normal circulating thyroid hormones) and overt hyperthyroidism (with increased circulating thyroid hormones). Graves' disease is treated with any of three effective and relatively safe initial treatment options: antithyroid drugs (ATDs), radioactive iodine ablation (RAIU), and surgery. Total thyroidectomy is favored in several clinical situations, such as intolerance, ineffectiveness or recurrence after ATD treatment, radioiodine therapy contraindicated, documented or suspected thyroid malignancy, one or more large thyroid nodules, coexisting moderate-to-severe active Graves' orbitopathy, women planning a pregnancy within 6 months. Whenever surgery is selected as treatment, selection of an expert high-volume thyroid surgeons is fundamental and careful preoperative management is essential to optimize surgical outcomes. Pretreatment with ATDs in order to promptly achieve the euthyroid state is recommended to avoid the risk of precipitating thyroid storm during surgery. For the majority of patients, euthyroidism is achieved after few weeks of ATD treatment. Beta-blockers, such as propranolol, are often added effectively to control hyperthyroid symptoms. Saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) or potassium iodine (Lugol's solution), given for a short period prior to surgery, in order to reduce both thyroid hormone release and thyroid gland vascularity, is beneficial to decrease intra-operative blood loss.

Autoantibodies against HSF1 and CCDC155 as Biomarkers of Early-stage, High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

Tumor-directed circulating autoantibodies (AAbs) are a well-established feature of many solid tumor types, and are often observed prior to clinical disease manifestation. As such, they may provide a good indicator of early disease development. We have conducted a pilot study to identify novel AAbs as markers of early stage HGSOCs.

A Clinical Update and Global Economic Burden of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a predominant inflammatory autoimmune disorder. The incidence and prevalence of RA is increasing with considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of RA has become clearer due to many significant research outputs during the last two decades. Many inflammatory cytokines involved in RA pathophysiology and the presence of autoantibodies are being used as potential biomarkers via the use of effective diagnostic techniques for the early diagnosis of RA. Currently, several disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are being prescribed targeting RA pathophysiology, which have shown significant contributions in improving the disease outcomes. Even though innovations in treatment strategies and monitoring are helping the patients to achieve early and sustained clinical and radiographic remission, the high cost of drugs and limited health care budgets are restricting the easy access of RA treatment. Both direct and indirect high cost of treatment are creating economic burden for the patients and affecting their quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the updated concept of RA pathophysiology and highlight current diagnostic tools used for the early detection as well as prognosis - targeting several biomarkers of RA. Additionally, we explored the updated treatment options with side effects besides discussing the global economic burden.

The clinical significance of anti- ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 autoantibodies in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

Objective: To analyze the clinical significance of anti- ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1(UCHL-1)autoantibodies in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). Methods: Autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid specimen of 56 inpatients were detected by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fullmedical history and clinical manifestations were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The levels of anti-UCHL-1 autoantibodies in NPSLE group were significant higher than that in other controls (P<0.05). The positive rate of anti-UCHL-1 autoantibodies in NPSLE group was 23.7% (9/38), which was higher than that in the control groups (0%). A significant difference of anti-UCHL-1 autoantibodies was observed in the patients with blood system involvement (P=0.012). The positive rates of anti-UCHL autoantibodies in the patients with negative SLE related autoantibodies including AnuA, anti-dsDNA, Acl, anti-nRNP, anti-rRNP and anti-Smantibody negative were 41.7%, 29.4%, 29.2%, 25.9%, 25.0%, 25.0%, respectively.The levels of anti-UCHL-1 autoantibodies had a positive correlation with 24-hours proteinuria (r=0.361, P=0.039). Conclusion: Anti-UCHL-1 autoantibodies had promising value in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

Treatment of Severe Acquired Haemophilia A with Immunosuppressive Agent: A Case Report of One Patient.

Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is a rare hemorrhagic disease caused by an autoantibody against coagulation factor VIII. Nonhaemophiliac patients develop autoantibodies (inhibitors) directed against the factor VIII circulating coagulation protein. Disease is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Inhibitors against FVIII induce acute and life-threatening hemorrhagic diathesis because of abnormal blood clotting. FVIII inhibitors demonstrate bleeding disorders and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and a normal prothrombin time. AHA should be considered in the differential diagnosis particularly in postpartum women and in the elderly patients with bleeding tendency. Treatment of acute hemorrhage is focused in the control of the acute bleeding episode and the long term suppression of the autoantibody. In congenital hemophilia A with inhibitors, in which using repetitive infusions of high dose FVIII concentrates is effective for inhibitor eradication. This report present one patient treated with immunosuppressive regimens. The most effective fi rst-line treatment for the eradication of factor VIII autoantibodies is the combination of steroides and cyclophosphamide.

Chloroquine Autophagic Inhibition Rebalances Th17/Treg-Mediated Immunity and Ameliorates Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Imbalanced cellular immunity is critical to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently, autophagy has emerged as a key homeostatic mechanism in T lymphocytes. This study was conducted to explore the impact of autophagy on the Th17/ regulatory T (Treg) immune imbalance in SLE.

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Autoimmune Hepatitis.

Autoimmune hepatitis is an uncommon idiopathic syndrome of immunemediated destruction of hepatocytes, typically associated with autoantibodies. The disease etiology is incompletely understood but includes a clear association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants and other non- HLA gene variants, female sex, and the environment. Pathologically, there is a CD4+ T cell-rich lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate with variable hepatocyte necrosis and subsequent hepatic fibrosis. Attempts to understand pathogenesis are informed by several monogenetic syndromes that may include autoimmune liver injury, by several drug and environmental agents that have been identified as triggers in a minority of cases, by human studies that point toward a central role for CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells, and by animal models of the disease. Nonspecific immunosuppression is the current standard therapy. Further understanding of the disease's cellular and molecular mechanisms may assist in the design of better-targeted therapies, aid the limitation of adverse effects and inform individualized risk assessment and prognostication. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease Volume 13 is January 24, 2018. Please see for revised estimates.

Estimating autoantibody signatures to detect autoimmune disease patient subsets.

Autoimmune diseases are characterized by highly specific immune responses against molecules in self-tissues. Different autoimmune diseases are characterized by distinct immune responses, making autoantibodies useful for diagnosis and prediction. In many diseases, the targets of autoantibodies are incompletely defined. Although the technologies for autoantibody discovery have advanced dramatically over the past decade, each of these techniques generates hundreds of possibilities, which are onerous and expensive to validate. We set out to establish a method to greatly simplify autoantibody discovery, using a pre-filtering step to define subgroups with similar specificities based on migration of radiolabeled, immunoprecipitated proteins on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels and autoradiography [Gel Electrophoresis and band detection on Autoradiograms (GEA)]. Human recognition of patterns is not optimal when the patterns are complex or scattered across many samples. Multiple sources of errors-including irrelevant intensity differences and warping of gels-have challenged automation of pattern discovery from autoradiograms.In this article, we address these limitations using a Bayesian hierarchical model with shrinkage priors for pattern alignment and spatial dewarping. The Bayesian model combines information from multiple gel sets and corrects spatial warping for coherent estimation of autoantibody signatures defined by presence or absence of a grid of landmark proteins. We show the pre-processing creates more clearly separated clusters and improves the accuracy of autoantibody subset detection via hierarchical clustering. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed methods with GEA data from scleroderma patients.

Autoantibodies binding to stathmin-4: new marker for polyneuropathy in primary Sjögren's syndrome.

No neuronal autoantibodies detected in plasma of patients with a bipolar I disorder.

A subpopulation of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) might suffer from undiagnosed autoimmune encephalitis. We tested plasma of 104 BD-I patients with a current or recent manic episode in the past 2 years for the presence of neuronal autoantibodies using immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and cell-based assay (CBA). Neuronal antibodies were not detected in any of the BD type I. This finding suggests that the frequency of an undiagnosed autoimmune encephalitis in patients with BD I is less than 1%. However, these findings need to be confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid and/or blood of acutely ill manic patients.

Severe Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in a 7-Month-Old Infant Associated With a Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection.

A 7-month-old female infant had clinical and laboratory evidence of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She also had clinical evidence of an upper respiratory tract infection with molecular detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although reticulocytopenic initially, she responded to red blood cell transfusion, steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin and remains well today. With the increasing use of multiplex respiratory viral and bacterial pathogen detection systems, the rare association described in this report may prove to be more common than previously thought and may provide insight into the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of red blood cell autoantibodies.

Paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report and review of the literature.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are demyelinating, autoimmune diseases affecting the central nervous system. Typically, recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis dominates the clinical picture. In most cases NMOSD are associated with autoantibodies targeting the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). NMOSD usually present in young adults. Clinical findings suggestive of NMOSD in elderly patients should raise the suspicion of a paraneoplastic etiology. To our knowledge, we report the first case of a 66 year-old female patient with paraneoplastic NMOSD that is associated with squamous cell lung carcinoma. Anti-AQP-4 was present in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of the patient. However, immunhistological staining of the malignant tissue did not show presence of AQP-4 on the surface of tumour cells.

Success of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment for severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by warm-reactive immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin M autoantibodies in a child: a case report.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is rare in children. First-line therapies for this disease consist of corticosteroids and intravenously administered immunoglobulin that are effective in most patients. However, a small proportion of cases (5 to 10%) is refractory to these therapies and may represent a medical emergency, especially when hemolysis is due to warm immunoglobulin M. Recently, reports of the use of rituximab in adult autoimmune diseases have shown promising results. In children, there are few studies on the use of rituximab in the treatment for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, especially on its long-term efficacy and adverse effects.

Prokaryotic expression and characterization of the heterodimeric construction of ZnT8 and its application for autoantibodies detection in diabetes mellitus.

In the present work we described the recombinant production and characterization of heterodimeric construction ZnT8-Arg-Trp325 fused to thioredoxin using a high-performance expression system such as Escherichia coli. In addition, we apply this novel recombinant antigen in a non-radiometric method, with high sensitivity, low operational complexity and lower costs.

Sixteen-year history of rituximab therapy for 1085 pemphigus vulgaris patients: A systematic review.

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Search in PubMed results in 114 relevant studies, which met the criteria. Total of 1085 PV patients with different conditions, including unresponsive childhood/juvenile or adult PV patients, women of childbearing age, those with chronic infections with the risk of reactivation have been evaluated. Although the majority of these patients well responded to rituximab, some of them did not respond, and the paucity of patients experienced exacerbation of disease. In addition to the rituximab monotherapy or its combination with conventional therapies, different novel combination therapies of rituximab with immunoadsorption and/or IVIg have shown promising results. Moreover, using rituximab as the first-line treatment has emerged recently. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and septicemia were found as the two fatal and serious adverse events associated with rituximab. Moreover, development or reactivation of herpes simplex and herpes zoster and cytomegalovirus should be warned. Similar to the adults, those with childhood and juvenile PV could be successfully treated with rituximab. Although rituximab seems to trigger reactivation of chronic infections, such as viral hepatitis and HIV infection, no related report was found. Administration of rituximab in approximately ten months before conception also was found safe and effective for a successful pregnancy. In conclusion, rituximab is very effective in adult and childhood/juvenile PV. However, there is a risk of not responding, exacerbation of disease and development of fatal infections. Moreover, it seems to be a promising first-line treatment for refractory PV.

Treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria: Immunomodulatory approaches.

This paper summarizes and reviews the mechanisms of action and data concerning efficacy of recommended treatments as well as other treatments that have been tested, independently of the outcomes, in the management of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Due to the central role of mast cells and histamine in the pathophysiology of this disease, H1-antihistamines remain the first-line treatment. However, current knowledge about this complex disease, also recognizes an important role for T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and autoantibodies. Implications of these others mediators thus provide further targets for treatment. Indeed, agents previously used to treat other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, have demonstrated efficacy in chronic spontaneous urticaria and are therefore potential therapeutic alternatives for antihistamine unresponsive patients.

Autoimmunity and COPD: clinical implications.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Long term cigarette smoking is the cause of more than 90% of COPD in Westernized countries. However, only a fraction of chronic heavy smokers develop symptomatic COPD by the age of 80 years. COPD is characterized by an abnormal immune response in the lower airways and its progression is associated with infiltration of the lung by innate and adaptive inflammatory immune cells that form lymphoid follicles. There is growing evidence that both cellular- and antibody-mediated autoimmunity has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of stable COPD. In particular, carbonyl-modified proteins may help to drive autoimmunity in COPD and to cause the characteristic small airways abnormalities and even contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Although direct, indirect, and circumstantial evidence of a role for autoimmunity in stable COPD patients has been identified, no cause-and-effect relationship between autoimmunity and the mechanisms of COPD has been firmly established in man. As such the potential contribution of an autoimmune response to the pathogenesis of COPD exacerbation is still being investigated and represents an area of active research. Many drugs targeting autoimmune responses are already available and the results of controlled clinical trials are awaited with great interest. The potential for measuring specific serum autoantibodies as biomarkers to predict clinical phenotypes or progression of stable COPD is promising.

Autoimmune Neurologic Disorders.

The practice of autoimmune neurology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of a wide spectrum of neurological conditions driven by abnormal immune responses directed against neural tissues. These include autoimmune, paraneoplastic, post-infectious, and iatrogenic conditions. Symptoms of autoimmune neurologic disorders can be diverse and often difficult to recognize in their early stages, complicating the diagnosis. This review discusses the classification and management of common autoimmune neurological conditions, placing an emphasis on the rapid identification of autoimmune etiology and mechanism of immune dysfunction to allow for the timely institution of appropriate treatment.