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Autoantibodies - Top 30 Publications

Cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) autoantibodies: a rare and puzzling disease.

Retinitis Pigmentosa and Other Dystrophies.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal degenerations characterized by progressive degeneration of rod and cone cells that affects predominantly peripheral visual fields. Macular edema may cause additional central visual acuity decrease. Cystoid macular edema (CME) is one of the few treatable causes of visual loss in RP. The prevalence of CME in RP has been found to be between 10 and 20% on fluorescein angiography-based studies, and as high as 49% on reports based on optical coherence tomography. Macular edema can manifest at any stage of the disease and may be unilateral or bilateral. It can be found in any genetic form, but is more often associated with RP caused by CRB1 mutations. The origin of macular edema in RP patients still remains poorly understood. Some mechanisms have been suggested, including antiretinal antibodies (retinal, carbonic anhydrase, and enolase antibodies), vitreous traction, retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction, and Müller cell edema. There is no gold standard therapeutic strategy. Drug therapy is the primary treatment. Systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, such as oral acetazolamide or topical dorzolamide, are still the mainstays of initial therapy. If CME is refractory to acetazolamide, intravitreal corticosteroid injections may be a therapeutic option. However, antivascular endothelium growth factor injections have limited effect and should be avoided. Vitrectomy has also been evaluated, but its exact role remains to be determined. The benefits of these therapies are variable among patients. The establishment of therapeutic approaches is limited by our poor understanding of the pathophysiology of CME in patients with RP. Autoimmune retinopathies (AIRs) are a group of rare diseases characterized by acute or subacute progressive vision loss and are thought to be mediated by autoantibodies specific to retinal antigens. The AIRs encompass paraneoplastic syndromes, such as cancer-associated retinopathy and melanoma-associated retinopathy, and a larger group of AIRs that have similar clinical and immunological findings but without underlying malignancy. These diseases may also be complicated by macular edema. RP is one of the most common forms of inherited retinal degeneration. It displays extensive clinical and genetic variations and leads to progressive blindness with variable onset.

Demographic associations for autoantibodies in disease-free individuals of a European population.

The presence of autoantibodies usually precedes autoimmune disease, but is sometimes considered an incidental finding with no clinical relevance. The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases was studied in a group of individuals from the Estonian Genome Project (n = 51,862), and 6 clinically significant autoantibodies were detected in a subgroup of 994 (auto)immune-mediated disease-free individuals. The overall prevalence of individuals with immune-mediated diseases in the primary cohort was 30.1%. Similarly, 23.6% of the participants in the disease-free subgroup were seropositive for at least one autoantibody. Several phenotypic parameters were associated with autoantibodies. The results suggest that (i) immune-mediated diseases are diagnosed in nearly one-third of a random European population, (ii) 6 common autoantibodies are detectable in almost one-third of individuals without diagnosed autoimmune diseases, (iii) tissue non-specific autoantibodies, especially at high levels, may reflect preclinical disease in symptom-free individuals, and (iv) the incidental positivity of anti-TPO in men with positive familial anamnesis of maternal autoimmune disease deserves further medical attention. These results encourage physicians to evaluate autoantibodies in addition to treating a variety of patient health complaints to detect autoimmune-mediated disease early.

TCF1 deficiency ameliorates autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)-like phenotypes of lpr/lpr mice.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an incurable disease, which is characterized by non-malignant autoimmune lymphoproliferation. TCF1 is a key effector in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, regulating the development, activation and function of T cells. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential role of TCF1 in the development of ALPS-like phenotypes of lpr/lpr mice. We acquired TCF1(-/-) lpr/lpr double mutant mice by crossing TCF1 deficiency mice with lpr/lpr mice. Splenocyte compositions, serum cytokines levels, anti-dsDNA antibody production and kidney pathology were examined in the TCF1(-/-) lpr/lpr mice. With these examinations, we revealed that TCF1 deficiency relieved most manifestations of ALPS-like phenotype which were caused by Fas mutation in TCF1(-/-) lpr/lpr mice. Splenocyte total numbers and compositions were down-regulated to the similar levels with wildtype mice. TE and TEM cells were decreased in TCF1(-/-) lpr/lpr compared with lpr/lpr mice. The levels of autoantibodies and proinflammatory factors in serum, and the histopathology changes and the relative mRNA levels of proinflammatory factors in kidney all displayed parallel tendency in TCF1(-/-) lpr/lpr mice. Our study demonstrated that TCF1 deficiency ameliorated the ALPS-like phenotypes of TCF1(-/-) lpr/lpr mice, which might indicate a potential therapeutic direction for ALPS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Decreased mRNA expression levels of DNA methyltransferases type 1 and 3A in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic relapsing autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens and by chronic inflammation. Although the etiology of SLE remains unclear, the influence of environment factors, which is largely reflected by the epigenetic mechanisms, with DNA methylation changes in particular, is generally considered as main players in the pathogenesis of SLE. We studied DNA methyltransferases' (DNMTs) type 1, 3A and 3B transcript levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and from the healthy control subjects. Furthermore, the association of DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B mRNA levels with gender, age, and major clinical manifestations was analyzed.

Role of Allopurinol in Optimizing Thiopurine Therapy in Patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis: A Review.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic immune mediated liver disease characterized by elevated transaminases, hyper gammaglobulinemia, presence of autoantibodies and interface hepatitis in the absence of a known etiology of liver disease. Thiopurines (azathioprine [AZA]/6-mercaptopurine [6MP]) and steroids remain the first line of treatment of AIH in both children and adults. However, a small proportion of AIH patients are either non-responders or develop side effects with AZA. The metabolism of AZA is complex and mediated by multiple enzymes. After absorption and getting converted to 6MP, it is converted to 6-thiouric acid, 6-methyl mercaptopurine (6MMP) and 6-thioguanine (6TG) by different enzymes. Elevated 6MMP levels are associated with hepatotoxicity and also poor efficacy due to simultaneous lower levels of 6TG, which is the active drug metabolite related to both efficacy and myelosuppression. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor shifts the metabolism of AZA away from 6MMP toward 6TG. This combination of allopurinol with reduced dose of AZA is an alternative to more expensive and toxic second line therapy to induce remission in patients with AIH. This article discusses the mechanism of action of allopurinol in inducing response to AZA, reviews the published literature on this combination therapy and gives guidelines on the use of allopurinol in patients with AIH.

Association of sarcopenia with both latent autoimmune diabetes in adults and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

To investigate the association of both latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with muscle mass and function (sarcopenia).

Intravenous immunoglobulin contributes to control anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) antibody-associated dermatomyositis with palmar violaceous macules/papules.

Autoantibodies to melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) are associated with a subset of dermatomyositis (DM) patients who have rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) with poor prognosis. Intensive immunosuppressive therapy is initiated before irreversible lung damage can occur; however, there are few lines of evidence for the treatment of RP-ILD. Here, we report 3 cases of anti-MDA5 antibody-associated DM with RP-ILD in which the patients were treated with combined modality therapy including high-dose prednisolone, tacrolimus, intravenous cyclophosphamide, and immunoglobulins (IVIG). In all 3 cases, the serum ferritin levels, which are known to represent the disease activity of RP-ILD, were decreased after IVIG administration. IVIG might contribute to control of the disease activity of anti-MDA5 antibody-positive DM. Moreover, palmar violaceous macules/papules around the interphalangeal joints, which was observed in all 3 cases in the incipient stage, might be a useful sign to suggest a diagnosis of anti-MDA5 antibody-associated DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are both needed to induce paraneoplastic neurological disease in a mouse model.

Paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs) are rare human autoimmune diseases that mostly affect the central nervous system (CNS). They are triggered by an efficient immune response against a neural self-antigen that is ectopically expressed in neoplastic tumors. Due to this shared antigenic expression, the immune system reacts not only to tumor cells but also to neural cells resulting in neurological damage. Growing data point to a major role of cell-mediated immunity in PNDs associated to autoantibodies against intracellular proteins. However, its precise contribution in the pathogenesis remains unclear. In this context, our study aimed at investigating the impact of anti-tumor cellular immune responses in the development of PND. To this end, we developed an animal model mimicking PND. We used a tumor cell line expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus to induce an anti-tumor response in CamK-HA mice, which express HA in CNS neurons. To promote and track the T cell response against the HA antigen, naïve HA-specific CD8+ and/or CD4+ T cells, originating from TCR-transgenic animals, were transferred into these mice. We demonstrate that HA-expressing tumors, but not control tumors, induce in vivo activation, proliferation and differentiation of naïve HA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into effector cells. Moreover, both T cell subsets were needed to control tumor growth and induce CNS inflammation in CamK-HA mice. Thus, this new mouse model provides further insight into the cellular mechanisms whereby a potent anti-tumor immunity triggers a cancer-associated autoimmune disease, and may therefore help to develop new therapeutic strategies against PND.

Anti-C1q autoantibodies as markers of renal involvement in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) is rare, and considered more severe than its adult-onset counterpart. Lupus nephritis (LN) occurs more frequently in children, accounting for higher long-term morbidity and mortality compared with adults. Thus, reliable biological markers are needed to predict disease course. This study aimed to investigate the capacity of anti-C1q autoantibodies (Abs) to predict renal flare and global disease activity in cSLE patients, and association with disease activity and kidney involvement.

Novel immunoassays for detection of CUZD1 autoantibodies in serum of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Pancreatic autoantibodies (PABs) are detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Their prevalence is higher in Crohn's disease (CrD) than in ulcerative colitis (UC). Glycoprotein 2 (GP2) and, more recently, CUB and zona pellucida-like domain-containing protein 1 (CUZD1) have been identified as target autoantigens of PAB. The clinical utility of CUZD1 autoantibodies has only recently been assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assays. In this study, we developed and validated novel immunoassays for the detection of CUZD1 autoantibodies.

Inflammatory Muscle Disease: A New Landscape.

Greater accuracy in clinical descriptions combined with advances in muscle histology and immunology have established that inflammatory muscle diseases (IMDs) resemble inflammatory joint diseases in that they constitute a highly heterogeneous group of conditions. The topographic distribution, severity, and tempo of onset vary widely, and the histological findings distinguish at least five different profiles, which may reflect different pathophysiological processes. Most IMDs are connective tissue diseases that can affect multiple organs, among which the most common targets are the skin, joints, and lungs. The extramuscular manifestations may antedate the muscular involvement and should therefore suggest a diagnosis of IMD even in the absence of obvious muscle disease. About 20 different autoantibodies have been identified in patients with IMD. Some are mutually exclusive and associated with specific combinations of clinical manifestations. Following the model of antisynthetase syndrome, about 10 syndromes associated with autoantibodies specific of IMD have been identified. Thus, polymyositis is now emerging as a rare entity that is often mistaken for more recently described patterns of IMD. No consensus exists to date about the classification of IMDs. Nevertheless, the clinical manifestations, autoantibody profile, and muscle histology can be used to distinguish patient subgroups with fairly homogeneous patterns of complications, treatment responses, and outcomes. These subgroups are also characterized by specific genetic and environmental factors. The advances made in the nosology of IMDs have benefited the diagnosis, personalization of treatment strategies, and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms. They can be expected to assist in the development of specific treatments.

Case of bullous pemphigoid coexisting with anti-desmoglein autoantibodies.

A 79-year-old Japanese woman had clinical and histopathological features of bullous pemphigoid, while direct immunofluorescence test revealed C3 and immunoglobulin G depositions in the lower cell surfaces of the epidermis in addition to those in the dermoepidermal junction. Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays were positive for desmoglein-1 and -3 antibodies in addition to anti-BP180 antibodies. In an immunoblotting study, antibodies against both 180-kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen and 130-kDa pemphigus vulgaris antigen were detected. Based on these results, bullous pemphigoid coexisting with anti-desmoglein autoantibodies was diagnosed in this case.

Seroprevalence survey of selective anti-neuronal autoantibodies in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia.

Autoimmune encephalopathy caused by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins in the brain is a newly discovered disease category associated with psychiatric disorders. Correct diagnosis of this condition relies on the detection of specific autoantibodies in the blood or cerebral spinal fluid in addition to the clinical presentations. The study aimed to understand the seroprevalence of selective anti-neuronal autoantibodies in our patients with schizophrenia. First, we screened for six anti-neuronal autoantibodies in an archived blood sample collected from patients with the first-episode schizophrenia. The six autoantibodies including antibodies against N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors 1 and 2, γ-butyric acid receptor type B1 (GABARB1), leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 (LGI1) protein, and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) protein. A total of 78 plasma samples (46 males and 32 females) were investigated; however, no positive case was identified. In this second study, we screened anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies in a blood sample of 234 patients with chronic schizophrenia (133 females and 101 males) including 48 patients defined as treatment resistance. None of this sample was detected as positive. The negative findings in this study suggest that the seroprevalence of autoantibodies against neuronal surface proteins might be low in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Autoimmunity, Autoantibodies, and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Auism spectrum disorder (ASD) now affects one in 68 births in the United States and is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disability worldwide. Alarmingly, for the majority of cases, the causes of ASD are largely unknown, but it is becoming increasingly accepted that ASD is no longer defined simply as a behavioral disorder, but rather as a highly complex and heterogeneous biological disorder. Although research has focused on the identification of genetic abnormalities, emerging studies increasingly suggest that immune dysfunction is a viable risk factor contributing to the neurodevelopmental deficits observed in ASD. This review summarizes the investigations implicating autoimmunity and autoantibodies in ASD.

Relevance of Flow Cytometric Auto-Crossmatch to the Post-transplant Course of Kidney Transplant Recipients.

The crossmatch test is essential prior to kidney transplantation (tx) to confirm compatibility between the donor and the recipient. However, its results can be misleading due to "undetectable antibodies" in the recipient's serum. To establish if undetectable autoantibodies are responsible for a positive result, an auto-crossmatch test can be performed. In this study, we aim to determine the long-term prognostic value of auto-flow cytometric auto-crossmatch (FCXM) test on kidney survival in kidney tx recipients.

CD8-Positive T-Cell Leukoencephalitis With Astrocytopathy Clinically Presenting as Neuromyelitis Optica.

We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions. The constellation of findings met clinical criteria for NMO. Steroid treatment was initiated with subjective improvement but she developed urosepsis and died at age 61 years. At autopsy, the spinal cord showed typical NMO findings but no evidence of complement deposition or neutrophil infiltration. There was diffuse CD8-positive T-cell infiltration and CD68-positive macrophage activation throughout subcortical white matter, optic chiasm, brainstem, and spinal cord. This was accompanied by marked astrocytopathy in all areas. Serum was negative for aquaporin-4 autoantibodies suggesting a nonhumoral basis of astrocyte damage. This first example of CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis in a patient with a clinical presentation of NMO may explain the recalcitrance of some patients to therapies targeting humoral immunity.

A longitudinal cohort study of the anti-synthetase syndrome: increased severity of interstitial lung disease in black patients and patients with anti-PL7 and anti-PL12 autoantibodies.

The aim was to study the prevalence, rate of appearance and severity of clinical features in patients with different anti-synthetase syndrome (ASyS) autoantibodies.

Are All Thyroglobulin Autoantibody Assays Equal When It Comes to Detecting the Presence of Interfering Thyroglobulin Autoantibodies?

Pathogenesis and management of antiphospholipid syndrome.

Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that have clear associations with thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity, and which together constitute the 'antiphospholipid syndrome' (APS). However, the pathophysiology of these complications is not well understood and their heterogeneity suggests that more than one pathogenic process may be involved. Diagnosis remains a combination of laboratory analysis and clinical observation but there have been significant advances in identifying specific pathogenic features, such as domain I-specific anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies. This in turn has pointed to endothelial and complement activation as important factors in the pathogenesis of APS. Consequently, although anticoagulation remains the standard treatment for thrombotic APS and during pregnancy, the realisation that these additional pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of APS has significant implications for treatment: agents acting outside the coagulation system, such as hydroxychloroquine for pregnancy complications and sirolimus as an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, are now under evaluation and represent a radical change in thinking for haematologists. Conventional anticoagulation is also under challenge from new, direct acting anticoagulants. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the evolving understanding of APS pathogenesis and how this and novel therapeutics will alter diagnosis and management.

Proteomic-based identification of HSP70 as a tumor-associated antigen in ovarian cancer.

Ovarian cancer commonly presents without prominent symptoms and is consequently diagnosed at advanced stages with unfavorable prognosis. Novel serological biomarkers for the early detection and clinical management of ovarian cancer are imminently needed. Proteomic-based methods for biomarker discovery are promising strategies implemented in cancer research. The aim of the present study was to identify new tumor antigens from the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and their associated autoantibodies in sera of patients with ovarian cancer employing proteomic-based approaches. Proteins from the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 were extracted by two‑dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by western blotting and antibody reaction with sera from patients with ovarian cancer and normal controls. Positive spots were excised from Coomassie blue‑stained gels and identified by liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The 2-DE analysis results revealed a total of 14 protein spots on the gel, and 7 proteins were finally identified by LC-MS/MS. In the subsequent experiment, using immunoassay on ovarian cancer sera and tissue-array slides, the well-known protein HSP70 was selected in order to validate this proteomic-based approach. In conclusion, the proteomic method used in the present study is a powerful instrument for identifying novel serum markers that may exhibit clinical usefulness in cancer.

Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Hypertension: The Essential Role of Tissue Transglutaminase.

Inflammatory cytokines cause hypertension when introduced into animals. Additional evidence indicates that cytokines induce the production of autoantibodies that activate the AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1R). Extensive evidence shows that these autoantibodies, termed AT1-AA, contribute to hypertension. We review here recent studies showing that cytokine-induced hypertension and AT1-AA production require the ubiquitous enzyme, tissue transglutaminase (TG2). We consider 3 mechanisms by which TG2 may contribute to hypertension. (i) One involves the posttranslational modification (PTM) of AT1Rs at a glutamine residue that is present in the epitope sequence (AFHYESQ) recognized by AT1-AA. (ii) Another mechanism by which TG2 may contribute to hypertension is by PTM of AT1Rs at glutamine 315. Modification at this glutamine prevents ubiquitination-dependent proteasome degradation and allows AT1Rs to accumulate. Increased AT1R abundance is likely to account for increased sensitivity to Ang II activation and in this way contribute to hypertension. (iii) The increased TG2 produced as a result of elevated inflammatory cytokines is likely to contribute to vascular stiffness by modification of intracellular contractile proteins or by crosslinking vascular proteins in the extracellular matrix. This process, termed inward remodeling, results in reduced vascular lumen, vascular stiffness, and increased blood pressure. Based on the literature reviewed here, we hypothesize that TG2 is an essential participant in cytokine-induced hypertension. From this perspective, selective TG2 inhibitors have the potential to be pharmacologic weapons in the fight against hypertension.

Increase in G protein-coupled receptor autoantibodies with decline of cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic rats.

This study aimed to explore the effects of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia (HC) on the production of G protein-coupled receptor autoantibodies and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved.

Valsartan reduces AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through suppression oxidative stress mediated ER stress in endothelial progenitor cells.

Valsartan has been reported to have the function of treating hypertension and improving the prognosis of patients. Many studies indicated that valsartan can also increase angiotensin II, andosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA). Autoantibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) have been showed to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium (Ca2+) and result in apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we attempted to explore the effect of valsartan on AT1-AA-induced apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells.

Pre-symptomatic autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis: when does the disease start?

It is well recognised that a state of autoimmunity, in which immunological tolerance is broken, precedes the development of symptoms in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For individuals who will later develop seropositive disease, this manifests as autoantibodies directed against proteins that have undergone specific post-translational modifications. There is evidence that the induction of this autoantibody response occurs at peripheral extra-articular mucosal sites, such as the periodontium and lung. In addition to their utility as diagnostic markers, these autoantibodies may have a pathogenic role that helps localise disease to the synovium. Alongside the development of autoantibodies, other factors contributing to pre-symptomatic autoimmunity may include dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal tract, abnormal development of lymphoid tissue, and dysregulated autonomic and lipid-mediated anti-inflammatory signalling. These factors combine to skew the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling in a manner that is permissive for the development of clinical arthritis. We present data to support the concept that the transitions from at-risk states to systemic autoimmunity and then to classifiable RA depend on multiple "switches". However, further prospective studies are necessary to define the molecular basis of these switches and the specific features of pre-symptomatic autoimmunity, so that preventative treatments can be targeted to individuals at high risk for RA. In this review, we analyse mechanisms that may contribute to the development of autoimmunity in at-risk individuals and discuss the relationship between this pre-symptomatic state and subsequent development of RA.

Lack of Clinical Relevance of ANA and ASMA Positivity in Patients with Liver Transplantation without a History of Autoimmune Diseases.

The relevance of isolated autoimmunity elevation in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients is unknown. Our aim was to analyse how serum autoantibodies change in time and to evaluate their clinical relevance in OLT patients. Patients were invited to provide samples to evaluate ANA, AMA, ASMA, and LKM at the time of enrolment (T0), after 6 months (T6), and after 12 months (T12). We included 114 patients in the study (76% males, median age 62.5 years), finding isolated elevation of at least one serum antibody in up to 80% of them. We described fluctuating positive autoantibodies in the one year of observation, with only 45.6% of patients positive for ANA and less than 2% positive for ASMA, at all three times. Isolated elevation of tissue antibodies was not related to gender, age, HCC at transplant, early rejection, cause of transplantation, immunotherapy taken, and age at the time of the study. We did not detect a higher prevalence of positive autoimmunity in patients with signs of liver injury. ANA and ASMA evaluation in patients with liver transplantation and no history of autoimmune disease has no clinical relevance, since it varies in time and is not related to any risk factors or liver injury. Routine autoimmunity evaluation should be avoided.

Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and celiac disease: a cross-sectional study and a brief review of the literature.

Whether Helicobacter pylori triggers celiac disease (CD) or protects against CD is currently the subject of research. In the literature, there are epidemiologic studies that have reported conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori and CD.

Anticollagen type II antibodies are associated with an acute onset rheumatoid arthritis phenotype and prognosticate lower degree of inflammation during 5 years follow-up.

Antifibrillar collagen type II (anti-CII) antibody-positive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have early but not late signs of increased inflammation and joint erosions. We wanted to replicate this in a large RA cohort, and to relate to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1* alleles.

Autoantibodies in systemic connective tissue disease and ANCA-associated vasculitis, their relationship to interstitial lung diseases and prognosis.

Lung disease, including interstitial lung disease (ILD), is a frequent complication of systemic connective tissue disorders (CTD) and ANCA (anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody) associated vasculitis (AAV). Pulmonary manifestations are prognostic factor of CTDs and vasculitis. Autoantibodies assessment is a part of differential diagnosis algorithm of lung diseases. Autoantibodies importance is mainly clinical-diagnostic. Using detection of some autoantibodies it is possible to determine prognosis of lung involvement, especially in CTDs.Key words: autoantibodies - connective tissue disease - interstitial lung diseases - prognosis - vasculitis.

Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Reactivation Activates B Cells Polyclonally and Induces Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Expression: A Mechanism Underlying Autoimmunity and Its Contribution to Graves' Disease.

Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that results in and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, and the reactivation of persisting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in B lymphocytes induces the differentiation of host B cells into plasma cells. We previously reported that some EBV-infected B cells had thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) as surface immunoglobulins (Igs), and EBV reactivation induced these TRAb+EBV+ cells to produce TRAbs. EBV reactivation induces Ig production from host B cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine total Ig productions from B cell culture fluids and to detect activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 in culture B cells during EBV reactivation induction and then we discussed the mechanisms of EBV reactivation-induced Ig production in relation to autoimmunity. We showed that the EBV reactivation induces the production of every isotype of Ig and suggested that the Ig production was catalyzed by AID through LMP1 and NF-κB. The results that the amount of IgM was significantly larger compared with IgG suggested the polyclonal B cell activation due to LMP1. We proposed the pathway of EBV reactivation induced Ig production; B cells newly infected with EBV are activated by polyclonal B cell activation and produce Igs through plasma cell differentiation induced by EBV reactivation. LMP1-induced AID enabled B cells to undergo class-switch recombination to produce every isotype of Ig. According to this mechanism, EBV rescues autoreactive B cells to produce autoantibodies, which contribute to the development and exacerbation of autoimmune diseases.