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Breast cancer - Top 30 Publications

Breast Cancer Screening With Mammography Plus Ultrasonography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Women 50 Years or Younger at Diagnosis and Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy.

Younger women (aged ≤50 years) who underwent breast conservation therapy may benefit from breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening as an adjunct to mammography.

Inhibition of FAK kinase activity preferentially targets cancer stem cells.

Because cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in chemo-resistance, metastasis and tumor recurrence, therapeutic targeting of CSCs holds promise to address these clinical challenges to cancer treatment. VS-4718 and VS-6063 are potent inhibitors of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates cell signals transmitted by integrins and growth factor receptors. We report here that inhibition of FAK kinase activity by VS-4718 or VS-6063 preferentially targets CSCs, as demonstrated by a panel of orthogonal CSC assays in cell line models and surgically resected primary breast tumor specimens cultured ex vivo. Oral administration of VS-4718 or VS-6063 to mice bearing xenograft models of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) significantly reduced the proportion of CSCs in the tumors, as evidenced by a reduced tumor-initiating capability upon re-implantation in limiting dilutions of cells prepared from these tumors. In contrast, the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, paclitaxel and carboplatin, enriched for CSCs, consistent with previous reports that these cytotoxic agents preferentially target non-CSCs. Importantly, VS-4718 and VS-6063 attenuated the chemotherapy-induced enrichment of CSCs in vitro and delayed tumor regrowth following cessation of chemotherapy. An intriguing crosstalk between FAK and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was revealed wherein FAK inhibition blocks β-catenin activation by reducing tyrosine 654 phosphorylation of β-catenin. Furthermore, a constitutively active mutant form of β-catenin reversed the preferential targeting of CSCs by FAK inhibition, suggesting that this targeting is mediated, at least in part, through attenuating β-catenin activation. The preferential targeting of cancer stem cells by FAK inhibitors provides a rationale for the clinical development of FAK inhibitors aimed to increase durable responses for cancer patients.

Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer.

Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) detected total choline (tCho) signal can serve as an early noninvasive imaging biomarker of chemotherapy response in breast cancer. We have quantified the individual components of the tCho signal, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), phosphocholine (PC) and free choline (Cho), before and after treatment with the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in weakly metastatic human MCF7 and triple-negative human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. While the tCho concentration did not change following doxorubicin treatment, GPC significantly increased and PC decreased. Of the two phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD enzymes, only PLD1, but not PLD2, mRNA was down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment. For the two reported genes encoding GPC phosphodiesterase, the mRNA of GDPD6, but not GDPD5, decreased following doxorubicin treatment. mRNA levels of choline kinase α (ChKα), which converts Cho to PC, were reduced following doxorubicin treatment. PLD1 and ChKα protein levels decreased following doxorubicin treatment in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with the PLD1 specific inhibitor VU0155069 sensitized MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of 100 nM of doxorubicin increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration. GDPD6, but not PLD1 or ChKα, silencing by siRNA abolished doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell migration. Doxorubicin induced GPC increase and PC decrease are caused by reductions in PLD1, GDPD6, and ChKα mRNA and protein expression. We have shown that silencing or inhibiting these genes/proteins can promote drug effectiveness and reduce adverse drug effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of detecting PC and GPC individually.

A Novel Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Device for Assessing Blood Flow in Mastectomy Skin Flaps: A Prospective Study in Patients Undergoing Prosthesis-Based Reconstruction.

A new advanced technology, noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy, has been recently developed for the measurement of tissue blood flow through analyzing the motions of red blood cells in deep tissues. This technology is portable, inexpensive, and noninvasive, and can measure up to 1.5-cm tissue depth. In this prospective study, the authors aimed to explore the use of this novel device in the prediction of mastectomy skin flap necrosis. The noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy device was used to measure mastectomy skin flap flow in patients undergoing mastectomy and immediate implant-based breast reconstruction before and immediately after mastectomy, and after placement of the prosthesis. Patients were tracked for the development of complications, including skin necrosis and the need for further surgery. Nineteen patients were enrolled in the study. Four patients (21 percent) developed skin necrosis, one of which required additional surgery. The difference in relative blood flow levels immediately after mastectomy in patients with or without necrosis was statistically significant, with values of 0.27 ± 0.11 and 0.66 ± 0.22, respectively (p = 0.0005). Relative blood flow measurements immediately after mastectomy show a significant high accuracy in prediction of skin flap necrosis, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.81 to 1). The noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy device is a promising tool that provides objective information regarding mastectomy skin flap viability intraoperatively, allowing surgeons early identification of those compromised and ischemic flaps with the hope of potentially salvaging them.

Improved Rates of Immediate Breast Reconstruction at Safety Net Hospitals.

Substantial federal resources have been directed toward ensuring the delivery of high-quality care at safety net hospitals. Although disparities in receipt of breast reconstruction persist at the patient level, the extent to which hospital factors contribute to these differences remains unclear. The rates of immediate breast reconstruction across safety net and non-safety net hospitals were investigated.

The Efficacy of Ultrasound-guided Type II Pectoral Nerve Blocks in Perioperative Pain Management for Immediate Reconstruction after Modified Radical Mastectomy. A Prospective, Randomized Study.

The pectoral nerves (Pecs) II block is a technique that places local anesthetic between the thoracic muscles to block the axillary and breast regions. This study aimed to compare the quality of perioperative analgesia and side effects of the Pecs II block under general anesthesia versus general anesthesia alone in immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with an implant and latissimus dorsi (LD) flap after modified radical mastectomy.

Chest Wall Resection for Recurrent Breast Cancer in the Modern Era: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

To review the literature on chest wall resection for recurrent breast cancer and evaluate overall survival (OS) and quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes.

Fluorescent, Plasmonic, and Radiotherapeutic Properties of the (177)Lu-Dendrimer-AuNP-Folate-Bombesin Nanoprobe Located Inside Cancer Cells.

The integration of fluorescence and plasmonic properties into one molecule is of importance in developing multifunctional imaging and therapy nanoprobes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the fluorescent properties and the plasmonic-photothermal, therapeutic, and radiotherapeutic potential of (177)Lu-dendrimer conjugated to folate and bombesin with gold nanoparticles in the dendritic cavity ((177)Lu-DenAuNP-folate-bombesin) when it is internalized in T47D breast cancer cells. The intense near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence emitted at 825 nm from the conjugate inside cells corroborated the usefulness of DenAuNP-folate-bombesin for optical imaging. After laser irradiation, the presence of the nanosystem in cells caused a significant increase in the temperature of the medium (46.8°C, compared to 39.1°C without DenAuNP-folate-bombesin, P < 0.05), resulting in a significant decrease in cell viability (down to 16.51% ± 1.52%) due to the (177)Lu-DenAuNP-folate-bombesin plasmonic properties. After treatment with (177)Lu-DenAuNP-folate-bombesin, the T47D cell viability decreased 90% because of the radiation-absorbed dose (63.16 ± 4.20 Gy) delivered inside the cells. The (177)Lu-DenAuNP-folate-bombesin nanoprobe internalized in cancer cells exhibited properties suitable for optical imaging, plasmonic-photothermal therapy, and targeted radiotherapy.

Treatment Efficacy, Adherence, and Quality of Life Among Women Younger Than 35 Years in the International Breast Cancer Study Group TEXT and SOFT Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy Trials.

Purpose To describe benefits and toxicities of adjuvant endocrine therapies in women younger than 35 years with breast cancer (n = 582) enrolled in the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT) and Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT). Methods In SOFT, women still premenopausal after surgery with or without chemotherapy were randomly assigned to tamoxifen alone, tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression (OFS), or exemestane plus OFS. In TEXT, all received OFS with or without concomitant chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to exemestane plus OFS or tamoxifen plus OFS. We summarize treatment efficacy, quality of life, and adherence of the cohort of women younger than 35 years in SOFT and TEXT, alongside data from the cohort of older premenopausal women. Results For 240 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years enrolled in SOFT after receiving chemotherapy, the 5-year breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was 67.1% (95% CI, 54.6% to 76.9%) with tamoxifen alone, 75.9% with tamoxifen plus OFS (95% CI, 64.0% to 84.4%), and 83.2% with exemestane plus OFS (95% CI, 72.7% to 90.0%). For 145 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years in TEXT, 5-year BCFI was 79.2% (95% CI, 66.2% to 87.7%) with tamoxifen plus OFS and 81.6% (95% CI, 69.8% to 89.2%) with exemestane plus OFS. The most prominent quality of life symptom for patients younger than 35 years receiving OFS was vasomotor symptoms, with the greatest worsening from baseline at 6 months (on the order of 30 to 40 points), but loss of sexual interest and difficulties in becoming aroused were also clinically meaningful (≥ 8-point change). The level of symptom burden was similar in older premenopausal women. A total of 19.8% of women younger than 35 years stopped all protocol-assigned endocrine therapy early. Conclusion In women younger than 35 years with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, adjuvant OFS combined with tamoxifen or exemestane produces large improvements in BCFI compared with tamoxifen alone. Menopausal symptoms are significant but are not worse than those seen in older premenopausal women.

Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Breast Cancer Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial.

Purpose Earlier Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification trial findings suggested that a low-fat eating pattern may reduce breast cancers with greater mortality. Therefore, as a primary outcome-related analysis from a randomized prevention trial, we examined the long-term influence of this intervention on deaths as a result of and after breast cancer during 8.5 years (median) of dietary intervention and cumulatively for all breast cancers diagnosed during 16.1 years (median) of follow-up. Patients and Methods The trial randomly assigned 48,835 postmenopausal women with normal mammograms and without prior breast cancer from 1993 to 1998 at 40 US clinical centers to a dietary intervention with goals of a reduction of fat intake to 20% of energy and an increased intake of fruits, vegetables, and grains (40%; n = 19,541) or to a usual diet comparison (60%; n = 29,294). Results In the dietary group, fat intake and body weight decreased (all P < .001). During the 8.5-year dietary intervention, with 1,764 incident breast cancers, fewer deaths occurred as a result of breast cancer in the dietary group, which was not statistically significant (27 deaths [0.016% per year] v 61 deaths [0.024% per year]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.06; P = .08). During the same period, deaths after breast cancer (n = 134) were significantly reduced (40 deaths [0.025% per year] v 94 deaths [0.038% per year]; HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.94; P = .02) by the dietary intervention. During the 16.1-year follow-up, with 3,030 incident breast cancers, deaths after breast cancer also were significantly reduced (234 deaths [0.085% per year] v 443 deaths [0.11% per year]; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.96; P = .01) in the dietary group. Conclusion Compared with a usual diet comparison group, a low-fat dietary pattern led to a lower incidence of deaths after breast cancer.

Optimal Use of Adjuvant Bisphosphonates and Breast Cancer.

Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: Comparison of Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography and Breast MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Extent of Disease.

Purpose To compare the diagnostic performances of contrast material-enhanced spectral mammography and breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of index and secondary cancers in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer by using histologic or imaging follow-up as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study included 52 women who underwent breast MR imaging and contrast-enhanced spectral mammography for newly diagnosed unilateral breast cancer between March 2014 and October 2015. Of those 52 patients, 46 were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted ultrasonography because they had additional suspicious lesions at MR imaging. In six of the 52 patients, breast cancer had been diagnosed at an outside institution. These patients were referred for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography and targeted US as part of diagnostic imaging. Images from contrast-enhanced spectral mammography were analyzed by two fellowship-trained breast imagers with 2.5 years of experience with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated for both imaging modalities and compared by using the Bennett statistic. Results Fifty-two women with 120 breast lesions were included for analysis (mean age, 50 years; range, 29-73 years). Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography had similar sensitivity to MR imaging (94% [66 of 70 lesions] vs 99% [69 of 70 lesions]), a significantly higher PPV than MR imaging (93% [66 of 71 lesions] vs 60% [69 of 115 lesions]), and fewer false-positive findings than MR imaging (five vs 45) (P < .001 for all results). In addition, contrast-enhanced spectral mammography depicted 11 of the 11 secondary cancers (100%) and MR imaging depicted 10 (91%). Conclusion Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography is potentially as sensitive as MR imaging in the evaluation of extent of disease in newly diagnosed breast cancer, with a higher PPV. (©) RSNA, 2017.

Differential Depth Sensing Reduces Cancer Cell Proliferation via Rho-Rac Regulated Invadopodia.

Bone, which is composed of a porous matrix, is one of the principal secondary locations for cancer. However, little is known about the effect of this porous microenvironment in regulating cancer cell proliferation.Here, we examined how the depth of the pores could transduce a mechanical signal and reduce the proliferation of non-cancer breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and malignant breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) using micron-scale topographic features. Interestingly, cells extended actin-rich protrusions, such as invadopodia to sense the depth of the matrix pore and activate actomyosin contractility to decrease MCF-10A proliferation. However, in MDA-MB-231, depth sensing inactivates Rho-Rac regulated actomyosin contractility and phospho-ERK signaling. Inhibiting contractility on this porous matrix using blebbistatin further reduced MDA-MB-231 proliferation. Our findings support the notion of Mechanically-Induced Dormancy through depth sensing (DS) (MIDDS) where invadopodia-mediated depth sensing could inhibit the proliferation of non-cancer and malignant breast cancer cells through differential regulation of actomyosin contractility.

Imprint cytology-based breast malignancy screening: an efficient nuclei segmentation technique.

Imprint cytology (IC) refers to one of the most reliable, rapid and affordable techniques for breast malignancy screening; where shape variation of H&E stained nucleus is examined by the pathologists. This work aims at developing an automated and efficient segmentation algorithm by integrating Lagrange's interpolation and superpixels in order to delineate overlapped nuclei of breast cells (normal and malignant). Subsequently, a computer assisted IC tool has been designed for breast cancer (BC) screening. The proposed methodology consists of mainly three subsections: gamma correction for preprocessing, single nuclei segmentation and segmentation of overlapping nuclei. Single nuclei segmentation combines histogram-based thresholding and morphological operations; where segmentation of overlapping nuclei includes concave point detection, Lagrange's interpolation for overlapping arc area detection and the fine segmentation of overlapped arc area by superpixels. Total 16 significant features (p < 0.05) quantifying shape and texture of nucleus were extracted, and random forest (RF) classifier was skilled for automated screening. The proposed methodology has been tested on 120 IC images (approximately 12 000 nuclei); where 98% segmentation accuracy and 99% classification accuracy were achieved. Besides, performance evaluation was studied by using Jaccard's index (= 94%), correlation coefficient (= 95%), Dice similarity coefficient (= 97%) and Hausdorff distance (= 43%). The proposed approach could offer benefit to the pathologists for confirmatory BC screening with improved accuracy and could potentially lead to a better shape understanding of malignant nuclei.

Biological function of long noncoding RNA snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

Long noncoding RNA, snaR (small NF90-associated RNA), has been reported to be upregulated in various cancer cell lines. We evaluated the additional role of snaR in HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines.

NF-κB as the main node of resistance to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer.

Graphical abstract Although accounting for merely a minute portion of diagnosed breast cancers, disproportionate number of deaths and associated low survival rate of patients have made triple-negative breast cancer to be considered as the most lethal breast cancer subtype. More importantly, intrinsic or developed resistance to chemotherapeutic regimens and disappointing outcomes of trials associated with many newly developed agents are other obstacles in establishment of a durable response in these patients. Interestingly, these happen despite the outstanding preclinical outcomes observed by these agents, most importantly among them, targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Pursuing these disappointing outcomes, especially in the case of targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, many researches have focused on identification of the hidden factors involved. Highly inflammatory, rich in reactive oxygen species, and hypoxic microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancer tumors and the involving mediators were the first suggestions for observed resistance and poor clinical outcomes of targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Interestingly, for all aberrantly expressed mediators observed in microenvironment, downstream pathways converge in a common node, nothing but the nuclear factor-κB, the insidious factor proposed to be the cause of many events opposing achievement of a desired outcome. In first section of current review, we describe the signaling pathways underlying activation of receptor tyrosine kinases and their convergence at the nuclear factor-κB node, and in next section, we demonstrate how unique hypoxic, inflammatory, rich in free-radical microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancer exacerbate pathways in which otherwise could become mostly suppressed by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Specific antibodies and sensitive immunoassays for the human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2, HER3, and HER4).

The use of trastuzumab in patients with breast cancer that overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 has significantly improved treatment outcomes. However, a substantial proportion of this patient group still experiences progression of the disease after receiving the drug. Evaluation of the changes in expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptors could be of interest. Monoclonal antibodies against the extracellular domain of the human growth factor receptors, 2, 3, and 4, have been raised, and specific and sensitive immunoassays have been established. Sera from healthy individuals (Nordic Reference Interval Project and Database) were analyzed in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay (N = 805) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 and 4 assays (N = 114), and reference limits were calculated. In addition, sera from 208 individual patients with breast cancer were tested in all three assays. Finally, the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay was compared with a chemiluminescent immunoassay for serum human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu. Reference values were as follows: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, <2.5 µg/L; human epidermal growth factor receptor 3, <2.8 µg/L; and human epidermal growth factor receptor 4, <1.8 µg/L. There were significant differences in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 serum levels between the patients with tissue human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and tissue human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative ( p = 0.0026, p = 0.000011) tumors, but not in the serum levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 4 ( p = 0.054). There was good agreement between the in-house human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay and the chemiluminescent immunoassay. Our new specific antibodies for all the three human epidermal growth factor receptors may prove valuable in the development of novel anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapies with sensitive immunoassays for measuring serum levels of the respective targets and in monitoring established treatment.

The effect of distant metastases sites on survival in de novo stage-IV breast cancer: A SEER database analysis.

To investigate the effect of distant metastases sites on survival in patients with de novo stage-IV breast cancer. From 2010 to 2013, patients with a diagnosis of de novo stage-IV breast cancer were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to analyze the effect of distant metastases sites on breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. A total of 7575 patients were identified. The most common metastatic sites were bone, followed by lung, liver, and brain. Patients with hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- and hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ status were more prone to bone metastases. Lung and brain metastases were common in hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ and hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- subtypes, and patients with hormone receptor+/ human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ and hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ subtypes were more prone to liver metastases. Patients with liver and brain metastases had unfavorable prognosis for breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival, whereas bone and lung metastases had no effect on patient survival in multivariate analyses. The hormone receptor-/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- subtype conferred a significantly poorer outcome in terms of breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. hormone receptor+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2+ disease was associated with the best prognosis in terms of breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Patients with liver and brain metastases were more likely to experience poor prognosis for breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival by various breast cancer subtypes. Distant metastases sites have differential impact on clinical outcomes in stage-IV breast cancer. Follow-up screening for brain and liver metastases might be effective in improving breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival.

Photobiomodulation of breast and cervical cancer stem cells using low-intensity laser irradiation.

Breast and cervical cancers are dangerous threats with regard to the health of women. The two malignancies have reached the highest record in terms of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. Despite the use of novel strategies with the aim to treat and cure advanced stages of cancer, post-therapeutic relapse believed to be caused by cancer stem cells is one of the challenges encountered during tumor therapy. Therefore, further attention should be paid to cancer stem cells when developing novel anti-tumor therapeutic approaches. Low-intensity laser irradiation is a form of phototherapy making use of visible light in the wavelength range of 630-905 nm. Low-intensity laser irradiation has shown remarkable results in a wide range of medical applications due to its biphasic dose and wavelength effect at a cellular level. Overall, this article focuses on the cellular responses of healthy and cancer cells after treatment with low-intensity laser irradiation alone or in combination with a photosensitizer as photodynamic therapy and the influence that various wavelengths and fluencies could have on the therapeutic outcome. Attention will be paid to the biomodulative effect of low-intensity laser irradiation on cancer stem cells.

Sirtuin 6 plays an oncogenic role and induces cell autophagy in esophageal cancer cells.

Sirtuin 6, a member of sirtuin family, is generally regarded as a tumor suppressor as it participates in suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and MYC transcription activity by deacetylating H3K9 (histone H3 lysine 9) and H3K56 (histone H3 lysine) at promoters of target genes, leading to the aerobic glycolysis inhibition and cell growth suppression. However, its expression has recently been reported to be highly elevated in a series of tumors, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer, indicating that sirtuin 6 plays dual roles in tumorigenicity in a cell/tumor type-specific manner. To our knowledge, the biological roles of sirtuin 6 in esophageal cancer cells have still been underestimated. In the study, data from quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-based assays and immunohistochemical assays revealed that sirtuin 6 was remarkably overexpressed in esophageal squamous tumor tissues. Moreover, its upregulation was closely related with clinical features, such as gender, pathology, tumor-node-metastasis, and cell differentiation. Subsequently, the biological tests showed that it promoted cell proliferation and induced the expression of Bcl2, a key anti-apoptotic factor, in esophageal carcinoma cells. Moreover, using the ratio of LC3II/I, a widely recognized autophagy biomarker, we showed that it apparently induced cell autophagy, which was further confirmed by the autophagy flux assays. In addition, results from western blotting assays and immunoprecipitation assays displayed that sirtuin 6 specifically interacted with ULK1 and positively regulated its activity by inhibiting its upstream factor mammalian target of rapamycin activity. In summary, our studies shed insights into the crucial functions of sirtuin 6 in esophageal carcinoma cells and provide evidence supporting sirtuin 6-based personalized therapies in esophageal carcinoma cell patients.

Invalidation of mitophagy by FBP1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, was recently shown to be a tumor suppressor. However, the functions of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 in the regulation of mitophagy and apoptosis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 on mitophagy and apoptosis as well as their underlying mechanisms in breast cancer cells. In this work, the messenger RNA and protein expression of various molecules were determined by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Gene-expression correlations were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Cancer database and analyzed using cBioPortal. The levels of cellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic index were detected by flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potentials were assessed with a JC-1 fluorescent sensor. Subcellular structures were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The intracellular distribution of translocase of outer membrane 20 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Protein-protein interactions were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Our results indicated that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 expression was negatively correlated with autophagy level in breast cancer. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 restrained autophagy activity by increasing the level of p62 and decreasing the levels of LC3 and Beclin 1. Additionally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 promoted cell apoptosis by upregulating the levels of intracellular ROS and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved PARP, cleaved Caspase 3, and Bax and downregulating the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as PARP, Caspase 3, and Bcl-2. Finally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 limited the efficient removal of diseased mitochondria and reduced the messenger RNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α, BNIP3L/NIX, and BNIP3. More importantly, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 facilitated co-action between Bcl-2 and Beclin 1, which may be important in the mechanism of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated mitophagy inhibition. In summary, loss of mitophagy by fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.

The prognostic value of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in breast cancer: Deleterious or advantageous?

Breast cancer is one of the leading malignant tumors that endanger women's health worldwide. Despite the rapid progress on the therapies, including chemotherapy, surgical resection, and other auxiliary methods, there were still numerous people died of breast cancer, which promoted the researchers to concentrate on the prognostic factor of breast cancer. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been focused on the prognostic value of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in breast cancer. This article is a brief review of the associations between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the prognosis of breast cancer patients, which may give a greater insight into the development of breast cancer and enable clinicians to cure it completely.

Periodontitis and breast cancer: A case-control study.

The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the association between periodontitis and breast cancer in a sample of adult Brazilian women.

CDK4/6 and autophagy inhibitors synergistically induce senescence in Rb positive cytoplasmic cyclin E negative cancers.

Deregulation of the cell cycle machinery is a hallmark of cancer. While CDK4/6 inhibitors are FDA approved (palbociclib) for treating advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, two major clinical challenges remain: (i) adverse events leading to therapy discontinuation and (ii) lack of reliable biomarkers. Here we report that breast cancer cells activate autophagy in response to palbociclib, and that the combination of autophagy and CDK4/6 inhibitors induces irreversible growth inhibition and senescence in vitro, and diminishes growth of cell line and patient-derived xenograft tumours in vivo. Furthermore, intact G1/S transition (Rb-positive and low-molecular-weight isoform of cyclin E (cytoplasmic)-negative) is a reliable prognostic biomarker in ER positive breast cancer patients, and predictive of preclinical sensitivity to this drug combination. Inhibition of CDK4/6 and autophagy is also synergistic in other solid cancers with an intact G1/S checkpoint, providing a novel and promising biomarker-driven combination therapeutic strategy to treat breast and other solid tumours.

Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with tetrameric melittin: preparation and membrane disruption evaluation.

Melittin is the main component of bee venom consisting of 26 amino acids that has multiple effects, including antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory in various cell types. This peptide forms pores in biological membranes and triggers cell death. Therefore it has potential as an anti-cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic application of melittin is limited due to its main side effect, hemolysis, which is especially pronounced following intravenous administration. In the present study, we formulated tetrameric melittin-carrying poly-D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) and analyzed the lytic activity of this system on liposomes that resembles breast cancer cells. Tetrameric melittin binds avidly to PLGA-NPs with an encapsulation efficiency of 97% and retains its lytic activity demonstrating the effectiveness of PLGA-NPs as nanocarriers for this cytolytic peptide.

Downregulation of MicroRNA-152 and Inhibition of Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion in Breast Cancer.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of microRNA-152 (miR-152) in breast cancer initiation and progression. Expression levels of miR-152 were detected in human breast cancer tissues and in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines. In this study, analyzing miR-152 expression by qRT-PCR showed that it was remarkably down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Enforced miR-152 expression suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer. Moreover, ROCK1 was identified as a direct and functional target gene of miR-152 in breast cancer using luciferase assay. These findings indicated that miR-152 inhibited breast cancer growth and metastasis through negatively regulation of ROCK1 expression. Consequently, our data strongly suggested that miR-152/ROCK1 pathway may be useful to develop new therapeutic targets for breast cancer.

The value of biomarkers in bone metastasis.

The worst complication of cancer is represented by its spread to distant sites. In particular, bone provides a fertile soil for several cancer types, especially those derived from breast, prostate and lung tumours. Despite the progress in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, bone metastases (BM) still impact on quality of life and overall survival, making it necessary to identify the "high-risk" patients at an earlier stage. Since BM affect physiological bone turnover, measurement of bone turnover markers (BTM) has been widely investigated for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as well as to support the development of anti-cancer drugs. Furthermore, biomarkers are still under intensive investigation for their potential BM predictive role. The review summarises the current knowledge on BM development and the most recent advances in biomarker research, focusing on breast, prostate and lung malignancies.

Treatment of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema with Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells and Fat Grafts: A Feasibility and Safety Study.

Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a debilitating late complication with a lack of treatment opportunities. Recent studies have suggested that mesenchymal stromal cells can alleviate lymphedema. Herein, we report the results from the first human pilot study with freshly isolated adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRC) for treating lymphedema with 6 months follow-up. Ten BCRL patients were included. ADRC was injected directly into the axillary region, which was combined with a scar-releasing fat graft procedure. Primary endpoints were change in arm volume. Secondary endpoints were change in patient reported outcome and safety. The study is registered with (NCT02592213). During follow-up, a small volume reduction was noted but was not significant. Five patients reduced their use of conservative management. Patient-reported outcomes improved significantly over time. ADRCs were well tolerated and only minor transient adverse events related to liposuction were noted. In this pilot study, a single injection of ADRC improved lymphedema based on patient-reported outcome measures, and there were no serious adverse events in the 6 months follow-up period. In addition, half of the patients reduced their use of conservative management. ADRC therapy is a promising interventional therapy for alleviating lymphedema, but results need to be confirmed in randomized clinical trials. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

Progesterone suppresses the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells irrespective of their progesterone receptor status - a short report.

Pre-operative progesterone treatment of breast cancer has been shown to confer survival benefits to patients independent of their progesterone receptor (PR) status. The underlying mechanism and the question whether such an effect can also be observed in PR negative breast cancer cells remain to be resolved.

Cognitive function and discontinuation of adjuvant hormonal therapy in older breast cancer survivors: CALGB 369901 (Alliance).

To investigate the effects of cognitive function on discontinuation of hormonal therapy in breast cancer survivors ages 65+ ("older").