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Breast cancer - Top 30 Publications

Breast cancer: 10-year follow-up of the TEAM cohort reported.

The sharp descent into poverty.

When breast cancer treatment stopped mental health nurse Kath Clayson from working for six months, she quickly found herself sliding into debt.

Silk nanoparticles: proof of lysosomotropic anticancer drug delivery at single-cell resolution.

Silk nanoparticles are expected to improve chemotherapeutic drug targeting to solid tumours by exploiting tumour pathophysiology, modifying the cellular pharmacokinetics of the payload and ultimately resulting in trafficking to lysosomes and triggering drug release. However, experimental proof for lysosomotropic drug delivery by silk nanoparticles in live cells is lacking and the importance of lysosomal pH and enzymes controlling drug release is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate, in live single human breast cancer cells, the role of the lysosomal environment in determining silk nanoparticle-mediated drug release. MCF-7 human breast cancer cells endocytosed and trafficked drug-loaded native and PEGylated silk nanoparticles (∼100 nm in diameter) to lysosomes, with subsequent drug release from the respective carriers and nuclear translocation within 5 h of dosing. A combination of low pH and enzymatic degradation facilitated drug release from the silk nanoparticles; perturbation of the acidic lysosomal pH and inhibition of serine, cysteine and threonine proteases resulted in a 42% ± 2.2% and 33% ± 3% reduction in nuclear-associated drug accumulation for native and PEGylated silk nanoparticles, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of lysosomal activity for anticancer drug release from silk nanoparticles, thereby providing direct evidence for lysosomotropic drug delivery in live cells.

Changing Treatment Paradigms for Brain Metastases From Melanoma-Part 1: Diagnosis, Prognosis, Symptom Control, and Local Treatment.

Melanoma is the third most common cause of brain metastases, after lung and breast cancer. The management of melanoma brain metastases can be broadly divided into symptom control and therapeutic strategies. Supportive treatments include corticosteroids to reduce peritumoral edema, antiepileptics for seizure control, and medications to preserve cognitive function. Until recently, therapeutic strategies consisted primarily of local treatments, including surgery, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Surgery, WBRT, and SRS-alone and in various combinations-still play an important role in treatment, especially in patients with few and/or smaller brain lesions. Much work has been done recently to try to determine the optimal settings for these therapies, the most effective ways to combine them, and ideal radiation dose and fractions.

Experimental method and statistical analysis to fit tumor growth model using SPECT/CT imaging: a preclinical study.

Over the last decade, several theoretical tumor-models have been developed to describe tumor growth. Oncology imaging is performed using various modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Our goal is to extract useful, otherwise hidden, quantitative biophysical parameters (such as growth-rate, tumor-necrotic-factor, etc.) from these serial images of tumors by fitting mathematical models to images. These biophysical features are intrinsic to the tumor types and specific to the study-subject, and expected to add valuable information on the tumor containment or spread and help treatment plans. Thus, fitting realistic but practical models and assessing parameter-errors and degree of fit is important.

Ex-vivo assessment of drug response on breast cancer primary tissue with preserved microenvironments.

Interaction between cancerous, non-transformed cells, and non-cellular components within the tumor microenvironment plays a key role in response to treatment. However, short-term culture or xenotransplantation of cancer specimens in immunodeficient animals results in dramatic modifications of the tumor microenvironment, thus preventing reliable assessment of compounds or biologicals of potential therapeutic relevance. We used a perfusion-based bioreactor developed for tissue engineering purposes to successfully maintain the tumor microenvironment of freshly excised breast cancer tissue obtained from 27 breast cancer patients and used this platform to test the therapeutic effect of antiestrogens as well as checkpoint-inhibitors on the cancer cells. Viability and functions of tumor and immune cells could be maintained for over 2 weeks in perfused bioreactors. Next generation sequencing authenticated cultured tissue specimens as closely matching the original clinical samples. Anti-estrogen treatment of cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer tissue as well as administration of pertuzumab to a Her2 positive breast cancer both had an anti-proliferative effect. Treatment with anti-programmed-death-Ligand (PD-L)-1 and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 antibodies lead to immune activation, evidenced by increased lymphocyte proliferation, increased expression of IFNγ, and decreased expression of IL10, accompanied by a massive cancer cell death in ex vivo triple negative breast cancer specimens. In the era of personalized medicine, the ex vivo culture of breast cancer tissue represents a promising approach for the pre-clinical evaluation of conventional and immune-mediated treatments and provides a platform for testing of innovative treatments.

Lentinula edodes mycelia extract plus adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients: Results of a randomized study on host quality of life and immune function improvement.

Anthracycline-based chemotherapies for breast cancer are known to adversely affect patients' quality of life (QOL) and immune function. For that reason, adjuvants that improve those impairments are required. A randomized double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (LEM), which is an oral biological response modifier (BRM) medicine for cancer patients as such an adjuvant. A total of 47 breast cancer patients who were scheduled to receive postoperative adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy, i.e., 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) + cyclophosphamide + epirubicin (FEC regimen), 5-FU + cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin/pirarubicin (FAC regimen), cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin/pirarubicin (AC regimen) and cyclophosphamide + epirubicin (EC regimen), were entered in the study. The patients were randomly divided into either an LEM or a placebo tablet group; the tablets were orally ingested daily over 2 courses of each therapy. In the placebo group, the total scores for QOL were lower on day 8 of the second course of chemotherapy compared with the baseline scores, whereas in the LEM group the scores had not decreased. In the placebo group, the QOL functional well-being score was lower on day 8 after both the first and second courses of chemotherapy compared with the baseline score, but it had not decreased in the LEM group. Evaluation of immunological parameters indicated that an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells to peripheral blood CD4(+) cells tended to be inhibited in the LEM group compared with the placebo group. Oral LEM that was coadministered with anthracycline-based chemotherapies was useful for maintaining patients' QOL and immune function. Thus, LEM appears to be a useful oral adjuvant for patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

Association between Vitamin D deficiency and Breast Cancer.

To determine the association between vitamin D deficiency and breast cancer.

Therapeutic potential of flavonoids in inflammatory bowel disease: A comprehensive review.

The inflammatory process plays a central role in the development and progression of numerous pathological situations, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders. IBDs involve inflammation of the gastrointestinal area and mainly comprise Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both pathological situations usually involve recurring or bloody diarrhea, pain, fatigue and weight loss. There is at present no pharmacological cure for CD or UC. However, surgery may be curative for UC patients. The prescribed treatment aims to ameliorate the symptoms and prevent and/or delay new painful episodes. Flavonoid compounds are a large family of hydroxylated polyphenolic molecules abundant in plants, including vegetables and fruits which are the major dietary sources of these compounds for humans, together with wine and tea. Flavonoids are becoming very popular because they have many health-promoting and disease-preventive effects. Most interest has been directed towards the antioxidant activity of flavonoids, evidencing a remarkable free-radical scavenging capacity. However, accumulating evidence suggests that flavonoids have many other biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, and neuroprotective activities through different mechanisms of action. The present review analyzes the available data about the different types of flavonoids and their potential effectiveness as adjuvant therapy of IBDs.

Overexpressed somatic alleles are enriched in functional elements in Breast Cancer.

Asymmetric allele content in the transcriptome can be indicative of functional and selective features of the underlying genetic variants. Yet, imbalanced alleles, especially from diploid genome regions, are poorly explored in cancer. Here we systematically quantify and integrate the variant allele fraction from corresponding RNA and DNA sequence data from patients with breast cancer acquired through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We test for correlation between allele prevalence and functionality in known cancer-implicated genes from the Cancer Gene Census (CGC). We document significant allele-preferential expression of functional variants in CGC genes and across the entire dataset. Notably, we find frequent allele-specific overexpression of variants in tumor-suppressor genes. We also report a list of over-expressed variants from non-CGC genes. Overall, our analysis presents an integrated set of features of somatic allele expression and points to the vast information content of the asymmetric alleles in the cancer transcriptome.

Assessment of the role of ageing and non-ageing factors in death from non-communicable diseases based on a cumulative frequency model.

To quantify the effects of ageing and non-ageing factors, a characterization of the effects of ageing, genetic, and exogenous variables on 12 major non-communicable diseases was evaluated using a model assessing cumulative frequency of death and survival by age group from dead and surviving populations based on mortality statistics. Indices (0-1) of the roles of ageing (ARD), genetics (GRD) and exogenous (ERD) variables in deaths due to disease were established, and the sum of ARD, GRD and ERD was 1 (value of each indices was <1). Results showed that ageing plays an important role in death from chronic disease; exogenous factors may contribute more to the pattern of chronic disease than genetic factors (ARD, GRC and ERD were 0.818, 0.058 and 0.124 respectively for all non-communicable diseases). In descending order, ERD for non-communicable diseases were breast cancer, leukaemia, cancer of the cervix uteri and uterus, liver cancer, nephritis and nephropathy, stomach cancer, lung cancer, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, COPD, and Alzheimer's disease, while a smaller ERD indicated a tendency of natural death. An understanding of the aforementioned complex relationships of specific non-communicable diseases will be beneficial in designing primary prevention measures for non-communicable diseases in China.

Cell surface binding, uptaking and anticancer activity of L-K6, a lysine/leucine-rich peptide, on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

Cell surface binding and internalization are critical for the specific targeting and biofunctions of some cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with anticancer activities. However, the detailed cellular process for CAPs interacting with cancer cells and the exact molecular basis for their anticancer effects are still far from being fully understood. In the present study, we examined the cell surface binding, uptaking and anti-cancer activity of L-K6, a lysine/leucine-rich CAP, in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that L-K6 preferentially interact with MCF-7 cells. This tumor-targeting property of L-K6 might be partially due to its interactions with the surface exposed and negatively charged phosphatidylserine. Subsequently, L-K6 could internalize into MCF-7 cells mainly through a clathrin-independent macropinocytosis, without significant cell surface disruption. Finally, the internalized L-K6 induced a dramatic nuclear damage and MCF-7 cell death, without significant cytoskeleton disruption and mitochondrial impairment. This cytotoxicity of L-K6 against MCF-7 cancer cells could be further confirmed by using a mouse xenograft model. In summary, all these findings outlined the cellular process and cytotoxicity of L-K6 in MCF-7 cancer cells, and might help understand the complicated interactions between CAPs and cancer cells.

Prognostic value of routine laboratory variables in prediction of breast cancer recurrence.

The prognostic value of routine laboratory variables in breast cancer has been largely overlooked. Based on laboratory tests commonly performed in clinical practice, we aimed to develop a new model to predict disease free survival (DFS) after surgical removal of primary breast cancer. In a cohort of 1,596 breast cancer patients, we analyzed the associations of 33 laboratory variables with patient DFS. Based on 3 significant laboratory variables (hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, and international normalized ratio), together with important demographic and clinical variables, we developed a prognostic model, achieving the area under the curve of 0.79. We categorized patients into 3 risk groups according to the prognostic index developed from the final model. Compared with the patients in the low-risk group, those in the medium- and high-risk group had a significantly increased risk of recurrence with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-2.38) and 4.66 (95% CI 3.54-6.14), respectively. The results from the training set were validated in the testing set. Overall, our prognostic model incorporating readily available routine laboratory tests is powerful in identifying breast cancer patients who are at high risk of recurrence. Further study is warranted to validate its clinical application.

Mammary Tumors Induce Central Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Expression, but Not Behavioral Deficits in Balb/C Mice.

Breast cancer survivors are more likely to develop mood disorders and cognitive deficits than women in the general population. Previous studies suggest that peripheral tumors elicit central pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in turn leading to depression and cognitive deficits. In the current study, two cohorts of female Balb/C mice received bilateral orthotopic injections of syngeneic 67NR, 4T07, or 4T1cells (1 × 10(5) cells per injection) to induce mammary tumors. Approximately three weeks later, learned fear (via fear conditioning) or depressive-like behavior (via tail suspension and forced swim test) was assessed. Proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased in the serum (IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ) and livers (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) of mice with 4T07 or 4T1 tumors compared to 67NR tumors and the vehicle control. IL-1β was increased in both the hippocampus and cortex of mice injected with 4T07 or 4T1 cell lines relative to the other treatment groups. However, mammary tumors had no effect on hippocampal doublecortin + and did not alter depressive-like behavior or learned fear. These data demonstrate that similarly sized tumors can produce differential immune responses and that tumor-induced central pro-inflammatory cytokine production can exist in the absence of depressive-like behavior or cognitive deficits.

PPARγ Ligand-induced Annexin A1 Expression Determines Chemotherapy Response via Deubiquitination of Death Domain Kinase RIP in Triple Negative Breast Cancers.

Metastatic breast cancer is still remain incurable so far, new specifically targeted and more effective therapies for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are required in the clinic. In this study, our clinical data has established that basal and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer (TNBC types) express significantly higher levels of Annexin A1 (ANXA1) with poor survival outcomes. Using human cancer cell lines which model the TNBC subtype, we observed a strong positive correlation between expression of ANXA1 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ). A similar correlation between these two markers was also established in our clinical breast cancer patients' specimens. To establish a link between these two markers in TNBC, we show de novo expression of ANXA1 is induced by activation of PPARγ both in vitro and invivo and it has a predictive value in determining chemo-sensitivity to PPARγ ligands. Mechanistically, we show for the first time PPARγ-induced ANXA1 protein directly interacts with Receptor Interacting Protein-1 (RIP1), promoting its deubiquitination and thereby activating the caspase 8-dependent death pathway. We further identified this underlying mechanism also involved a PPARγ-induced ANXA1-dependent autoubiquitination of cIAP1, the direct E3 ligase of RIP1, shifting cIAP1 towards proteosomal degradation. Collectively, our study provides first insight for the suitability of using drug-induced expression of ANXA1 as a new player in RIP1-induced death machinery in TNBCs. Hitherto, presenting itself both as an inclusion criterion for patient selection and surrogate marker for drug response in future PPARγ chemotherapy trials.

Quantitative Whole Genome Sequencing of Circulating Tumor Cells Enables Personalized Combination Therapy of Metastatic Cancer.

Much effort has been dedicated to developing circulating tumor cells (CTC) as a noninvasive cancer biopsy, but with limited success as yet. In this study, we combine a method for isolation of highly pure CTCs using immunomagnetic enrichment/fluorescence-activated cell sorting with advanced whole genome sequencing (WGS), based on long fragment read technology, to illustrate the utility of an accurate, comprehensive, phased, and quantitative genomic analysis platform for CTCs. Whole genomes of 34 CTCs from a patient with metastatic breast cancer were analyzed as 3,072 barcoded subgenomic compartments of long DNA. WGS resulted in a read coverage of 23× per cell and an ensemble call rate of >95%. These barcoded reads enabled accurate detection of somatic mutations present in as few as 12% of CTCs. We found in CTCs a total of 2,766 somatic single-nucleotide variants and 543 indels and multi-base substitutions, 23 of which altered amino acid sequences. Another 16,961 somatic single nucleotide variant and 8,408 indels and multi-base substitutions, 77 of which were nonsynonymous, were detected with varying degrees of prevalence across the 34 CTCs. On the basis of our whole genome data of mutations found in all CTCs, we identified driver mutations and the tissue of origin of these cells, suggesting personalized combination therapies beyond the scope of most gene panels. Taken together, our results show how advanced WGS of CTCs can lead to high-resolution analyses of cancers that can reliably guide personalized therapy. Cancer Res; 77(16); 4530-41. ©2017 AACR.

The Effect of Receptor Status on Mastectomy and Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy Rates in Early Stage Invasive Breast Carcinoma.

There is an established relationship between hormone receptor (HR; estrogen and/or progesterone receptors) status, HER2 status, and locoregional recurrence. The purpose of this study was to analyze how HR and HER2 receptor status have influenced the surgical management trends among patients with early stage breast cancer.

Current and future perspectives on the evaluation, prevention and conservative management of breast cancer related lymphoedema: A best practice guideline.

Selinexor (KPT-330) demonstrates anti-tumor efficacy in preclinical models of triple-negative breast cancer.

Selinexor (KPT-330) is an oral agent that has been shown to inhibit the nuclear exporter XPO1. Given the pressing need for novel therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), we sought to determine the antitumor effects of selinexor in vitro and in vivo.

Classification of chronic radiation-induced ulcers in the chest wall after surgery in breast cancers.

To explore the methods of clinical classification in chronic radiation-induced ulcers in the chest wall (CRUCWs).

Role of IQGAP3 in metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide owing to its high rates of metastasis and recurrence. The oncogene IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein 3 (IQGAP3) is ubiquitously overexpressed in several human cancers, including liver, ovary, lung, large intestine, gastric, bone marrow, and breast malignancies and is involved in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Therefore, we aimed to determine the biological role and molecular mechanism of IQGAP3 in HCC.

Improvement of implantation potential in mouse blastocysts derived from IVF by combined treatment with prolactin, epidermal growth factor and 4-hydroxyestradiol.

Can supplementation of medium with prolactin (PRL), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OH-E2) prior to embryo transfer improve implantation potential in mouse blastocysts derived from IVF?

A novel antitumor compound nobiliside D isolated from sea cucumber (Holothuria nobilis Selenka).

An anticancer compound, triterpene glycoside, was isolated from Holothuria nobilis Selenka. Its chemical structure and configuration were determined by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The novel active compound was identified as nobiliside D, with the molecular formula C40H61O17SNa and chemical name 3-O-[-β-D-pyranosyl (1-2)-4'-O-sulfon-ate-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-alkoxy-9-ene-3β, 12α, 17α, 25β-4 alcohol. An antitumor test was performed using xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis. Nobiliside D exhibited inhibitory effects on human leukemic cell line K562, human leukemia cell line U937, human lung cancer cell line A-549, human cervix carcinoma cell line HeLa, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and human liver carcinoma cell line HepG2. Nobiliside exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on K562 and MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 0.83±0.14 and 0.82±0.11 µg/ml, respectively. When human tumor cell lines K562 and MCF-7 were treated by nobiliside D (0.5 µg/ml) for 24 h, 45.8% of K562 cells and 58.7% of MCF-7 cells were apoptotic, whereas only 0.5% of un-treated control cells were apoptotic. These data indicate the compound should offer potential as a novel drug for the treatment of a range of cancers.

CCAAT enhancer binding protein β has a crucial role in regulating breast cancer cell growth via activating the TGF-β-Smad3 signaling pathway.

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) on human breast cancer cells. The plasmids pCDH-C/EBPβ and pLKO.1-shC/EBPβ were constructed and were infected into MDA-MB-468 cells, to provide C/EBPβ overexpressing and C/EBPβ knockdown cells, respectively. Cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. Protein expression levels of C/EBPβ, TGF-β1, P-Smad3 and Smad3 were detected by western blotting. MTT assay showed that the absorbance of MDA-MB-468 cells in the pCDH-C/EBPβ group was increased, whereas that in the pLKO.1-shC/EBPβ group was decreased, compared with the respective control at 48 and 72 h. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the percentage of cells in the G2 phase was significantly increased in the pCDH-C/EBPβ group (P<0.05) and decreased in the pLKO.1-shC/EBPβ group compared with the respective control group. The proportion of apoptotic cells was decreased in the pCDH-C/EBPβ group and increased in the pLKO.1-shC/EBPβ group compared with the controls. The scratch-wound assay revealed that MDA-MB-468 cells depleted of C/EBPβ exhibited reduced motility compared with the control cells. Moreover, western blotting demonstrated that pCDH-C/EBPβ increased transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 and P-Smad3 protein expression and decreased Smad3 protein expression, whereas pLKO.1-shC/EBPβ decreased TGFβ1 and P-Smad3 protein expression and increased Smad3 protein expression levels. The present study demonstrated that C/EBPβ has a crucial role in regulating breast cancer cell growth through activating TGF-β-Smad3 signaling. These findings suggest that C/EBPβ may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer; however, in vivo studies are required to confirm this.

Expression of Kruppel-like factor 8 and Ki67 in lung adenocarcinoma and prognosis.

Kruppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) belongs to the KLF family and has various roles in the regulation of the cell cycle, proliferation and tumor genesis. KLF8 is overexpressed in gastric, ovarian, breast and renal cancer. Additionally, KLF8 may affect invasion and metastasis of tumors. However, whether KLF8 also acts as an ontogeny in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between KLF8 expression and various clinical and pathological parameters. Western blot assays and immune histochemistry analyses revealed that KLF8 level in LAC tissues was higher than that in the normal lung tissues and KLF8 expression was significantly associated with clinical variables (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that high expression of KLF8 was related to poor prognosis in patients with LAC. The present study also demonstrated that KLF8 was involved in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. This data suggested that KLF8 may act as a prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma progression.

MicroRNA-375 targets PAX6 and inhibits the viability, migration and invasion of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

MicroRNAs (miRs) are a type of small non-coding RNA that serve crucial roles in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, the exact role and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-375 in mediating the growth and metastasis of breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were conducted to examine RNA and protein expression. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the association between miR-375 and paired box 6 (PAX6). The results of the current study indicate that the expression of miR-375 was reduced in breast cancer tissues compared with matched adjacent normal tissues. Transfection with miR-375 mimics led to a significant increase in levels of miR-375 in human breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF)-7 cells (P<0.05). The increase in miR-375 expression caused a significant decrease in the viability, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells (P<0.05), accompanied by a reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 proteins. Luciferase reporter assay identified PAX6 as a novel target of miR-375 and miR-375 in turn, negatively regulated the protein expression of PAX6 in MCF-7 cells. By contrast, overexpression of PAX6 led to a significant increase in MCF-7 cell viability (P<0.01) but did not affect the migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of miR-375 on MCF-7 cell viability may be occurring, in part, via the direct targeting of PAX6.

PLGA-CTAB curcumin nanoparticles: Fabrication, characterization and molecular basis of anticancer activity in triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 cells).

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are aggressive cancers, which do not control by hormonal therapy or therapies that target HER-2 receptors. Curcumin (Cur) has shown cytotoxic effects in multiple cancer cell lines. However, its medical uses remain limited due to low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. Therefore, present study was aimed to fabricate the small positive charge curcumin nanoparticles (CN) by nanoprecipitation methods using PLGA and CTAB, and to evaluate its anticancer efficacy and underlying the mechanism in triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 cells). In in-vitro drug release assay, Cur was released from CN by flicking diffusion and anomalous transport process. CN showed a higher cellular incorporation than free Cur resulted in higher cytotoxicity. Checking the anticancer activity at the molecular level, Cur has shown to induce the reactive oxygen species production that subsequently causes the DNA damage and resulting in p38-MAPK activation. The p38-MAPK induce the expression of p16(/INKK4a), p21(/waf1/cip1) and p53 resulting in a reduction in the level of CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1 and cyclin E and subsequently cell cycle arrest at G1/S and G2/M phase. It also reduces the expression of DNA repair gene, i.e. BRCA1, BRCA2, Rad51, Rad50, Mre11 and NBS1 resulting in apoptosis induction due to persistent DNA damage. This study presents an effective delivery of curcumin in TNBC cancer cells and it could open the new frontiers in clinical cancer chemotherapy.

Caspase-dependent and caspase-independent induction of apoptosis in breast cancer by fucoidan via the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway in vivo and in vitro.

Purpose Fucoidan, a complex, sulfated polysaccharide obtained from brown seaweed, exerted anticancer activity through the down-regulation of β-catenin signaling in mouse breast cancer cells in our previous study. This study examines the anti-cancer effects of fucoidan as well as its underlying molecular mechanisms in the human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line and in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced experimental mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Methods in vitro studies, fluorescent staining, flow cytometry and Western blotting were performed to analyze apoptosis and protein expression in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo intervention experiments were conducted with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with DMBA-induced breast cancer. Tumor volumes and weights were measured. Results in vitro fucoidan treatment inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blotting detected that Cyt C and Smac were released into the cell cytoplasm and that caspase-3 and caspase-9 were activated in MDA-MB-231 cells. The levels of AIF and EndoG were significantly increased in the cytoplasm and in the nuclei by fucoidan. These data show that fucoidan induced caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. Moreover, fucoidan treatment down-regulated the expression of Bid, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and up-regulated the level of Bax. In vivo, fucoidan supplementation decreased the mean tumor weight.

The impact of breast cancer awareness interventions on breast screening uptake among women in the United Kingdom: A systematic review.

The impact of breast screening awareness campaigns on mammography attendance among British women was explored. British Nursing Index, Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health were searched between October 2012 and February 2013. Searches identified research on breast cancer awareness interventions and breast self-examination. In total, 867 articles were identified and 14 met criteria for review. Breast cancer awareness interventions were found to increase the uptake of breast self-examination behaviours and increase the likelihood of breast cancer screening attendance. Predicting the impact of these interventions on survivability and general morbidity/mortality outcomes remains a challenge due to a shortage of suitably evaluated campaigns.

Shared decision-making - Rhetoric and reality: Women's experiences and perceptions of adjuvant treatment decision-making for breast cancer.

This interview-based study uses phenomenology as a theoretical framework and thematic analysis to challenge existing explanatory frameworks of shared decision-making, in an exploration of women's experiences and perceptions of shared decision-making for adjuvant treatment in breast cancer. Three themes emerged are as follows: (1) women's desire to participate in shared decision-making, (2) the degree to which shared decision-making is perceived to be shared and (3) to what extent are women empowered within shared decision-making. Studying breast cancer patients' subjective experiences of adjuvant treatment decision-making provides a broader perspective on patient participatory role preferences and doctor-patient power dynamics within shared decision-making for breast cancer.