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Breast cancer - Top 30 Publications

Mitochondrial targeted doxorubicin-triphenylphosphonium delivered by hyaluronic acid modified and pH responsive nano-carriers to breast tumor: in vitro and in vivo studies.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle for chemotherapy. In a previous study, we have successfully synthesized a novel doxorubicin (DOX) derivative modified by triphenylphosphonium (TPP) to realize mitochondrial delivery of DOX and showed the potential of this compound to overcome DOX resistance in MDA-MB-435/DOX cells 1. To introduce specificity for DOX-TPP to cancer cells, here we report on the conjugation of DOX-TPP to hyaluronic acid (HA) by hydrazone bond with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as the acid-responsive linker, producing HA-hydra-DOX-TPP nanoparticles. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural water-soluble linear glycosaminoglycan, which was hypothesized to increase the accumulation of nanoparticles containing DOX-TPP in the mitochondria of tumor cells upon systemic administration, overcoming DOX resistance, in vivo. Our results showed HA-hydra-DOX-TPP to self-assemble to core/shell nanoparticles of good dispersibility and effective release of DOX-TPP from the HA-hydra-DOX-TPP conjugate in cancer cells which was followed by enhanced DOX mitochondria accumulation. The HA-hydra-DOX-TPP nanoparticles also showed improved anti-cancer effects, induced better tumor cell apoptosis and a better safety profile compared to free DOX in MCF-7/ADR bearing mice.

Hidden estrogen production from ovarian remnants leading to progression of disease in metastatic breast cancer.

In premenopausal women with hormone dependent breast cancers, ovarian suppression is an important part of treatment, and is often achieved with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). However, this procedure can lead to ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS), a rare condition where the adnexal tissue is not completely removed and can produce estrogen. We describe a case of ORS in a patient with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer who had progression of disease after undergoing a BSO, despite optimal therapy. ORS therefore poses a significant treatment challenge in premenopausal ER+ breast cancer patients thought to be rendered menopausal with a BSO.

Contribution of Adipose Tissue to Development of Cancer.

Solid tumor growth and metastasis require the interaction of tumor cells with the surrounding tissue, leading to a view of tumors as tissue-level phenomena rather than exclusively cell-intrinsic anomalies. Due to the ubiquitous nature of adipose tissue, many types of solid tumors grow in proximate or direct contact with adipocytes and adipose-associated stromal and vascular components, such as fibroblasts and other connective tissue cells, stem and progenitor cells, endothelial cells, innate and adaptive immune cells, and extracellular signaling and matrix components. Excess adiposity in obesity both increases risk of cancer development and negatively influences prognosis in several cancer types, in part due to interaction with adipose tissue cell populations. Herein, we review the cellular and noncellular constituents of the adipose "organ," and discuss the mechanisms by which these varied microenvironmental components contribute to tumor development, with special emphasis on obesity. Due to the prevalence of breast and prostate cancers in the United States, their close anatomical proximity to adipose tissue depots, and their complex epidemiologic associations with obesity, we particularly highlight research addressing the contribution of adipose tissue to the initiation and progression of these cancer types. Obesity dramatically modifies the adipose tissue microenvironment in numerous ways, including induction of fibrosis and angiogenesis, increased stem cell abundance, and expansion of proinflammatory immune cells. As many of these changes also resemble shifts observed within the tumor microenvironment, proximity to adipose tissue may present a hospitable environment to developing tumors, providing a critical link between adiposity and tumorigenesis. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:237-282, 2018.

Early prediction of triple negative breast cancer response to cisplatin treatment using diffusion-weighted MRI and 18F-FDG-PET.

We evaluated the potential of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and 18F-FDG-PET for the early prediction of a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) response to cisplatin.

Impact on disease-free survival of the duration of ovarian function suppression, as postoperative adjuvant therapy, in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: a retrospective single-institution study.

Although tamoxifen (TAM) plus ovarian function suppression (OFS) is considered as a standard adjuvant treatment for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, the optimal duration of OFS has not yet been established. This retrospective study was designed to assess the duration of OFS and the impact of the duration of OFS on the DFS in these patients.

Matricellular CCN6 (WISP3) protein: a tumor suppressor for mammary metaplastic carcinomas.

Located at 6q22-23, Ccn6 (WISP3) encodes for a matrix-associated protein of the CCN family, characterized by regulatory, rather than structural, roles in development and cancer. CCN6, the least studied member of the CCN family, shares the conserved multimodular structure of CCN proteins, as well as their tissue and cell-type specific functions. In the breast, CCN6 is a critical regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) and tumor initiating cells. Studies using human breast cancer tissue samples demonstrated that CCN6 messenger RNA and protein are expressed in normal breast epithelia but reduced or lost in aggressive breast cancer phenotypes, especially inflammatory breast cancer and metaplastic carcinomas. Metaplastic carcinomas are mesenchymal-like triple negative breast carcinomas, enriched for markers of EMT and stemness. RNAseq analyses of the TCGA Breast Cancer cohort show reduced CCN6 expression in approximately 50% of metaplastic carcinomas compared to normal breast. Our group identified frameshift mutations of Ccn6 in a subset of human metaplastic breast carcinoma. Importantly, conditional, mammary epithelial-cell specific ccn6 (wisp3) knockout mice develop invasive high-grade mammary carcinomas that recapitulate human spindle cell metaplastic carcinomas, demonstrating a tumor suppressor function for ccn6. Our studies on CCN6 functions in metaplastic carcinoma highlight the potential of CCN6 as a novel therapeutic approach for this specific type of breast cancer.

Runx2, an inducer of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation.

Runx2 is a transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation. Ihh, expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, is required for the specification of Runx2+ osteoprogenitors in endochondral bone development. Runx2 induces Sp7, an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. Canonical Wnt signaling is also required for osteoblast differentiation. Runx2+ osteoprogenitors retain the capacity to differentiate into chondrocytes, and Sp7 and canonical Wnt signaling direct cells to osteoblasts, thereby inhibiting chondrocyte differentiation. The function of Runx2 after the commitment to osteoblasts remains controversial. Runx3 has a redundant function with Runx2 in chondrocyte maturation. Runx2 regulates the expression of Ihh, Col10a1, Spp1, Ibsp, Mmp13, and Vegfa in the respective layers in growth plates. Runx2 enhances chondrocyte proliferation through the induction of Ihh. Ihh induces Pthlh, which inhibits Runx2 and chondrocyte maturation, forming a negative feedback loop for chondrocyte maturation. Runx2 is one of the genes responsible for the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) because RUNX2 is up-regulated in chondrocytes in OA cartilage and a germline haplodeficiency or deletion of Runx2 in articular chondrocytes decelerates OA progression. Runx2 plays an important role in the bone metastasis of breast and prostate cancers by up-regulating Spp1, Ibsp, Mmp9, Mmp13, Vegfa, Tnfsf11, and Ihh expression and down-regulating Tnfrsf11b expression. Cbfb forms a heterodimer with Runx2 and is required for the efficient DNA binding of Runx2. Cbfb stabilizes Runx proteins at different levels among Runx family proteins by inhibiting their ubiquitination-mediated degradation. Cbfb plays more important roles in endochondral ossification than in intramembranous ossification.

Identification and analysis of CHEK2 germline mutations in Chinese BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients.

Cell-cycle-checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) is an important moderate-penetrance breast cancer predisposition gene; however, recurrent CHEK2 mutations found in Caucasian women are very rare in Chinese population. We investigated the mutation spectrum and clinical relevance of CHEK2 germline mutations in Chinese breast cancer patients.

Management and outcomes of women diagnosed with primary breast lymphoma: a multi-institution experience.

Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) comprises < 1% of breast malignancies, leading to a paucity of data to guide management. We evaluated PBL recurrence patterns across two academic hospitals in the era of modern systemic-therapy and radiotherapy.

Anti-estrogenic activity of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate through disruption of co-activator recruitment: experimental and computational studies.

As a potential endocrine disruptor, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC) has previously been demonstrated to reduce expression of estrogen-dependent vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA in adult zebrafish. However, the underlying toxicity pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in TBC-induced endocrine disruption remain elusive. In the current study, E-Screen and MVLN assays were employed to explore the potential anti-estrogenic effects of TBC via the estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated signaling pathway. Within a dose range between 1 × 10- 9 and 1 × 10- 7 M, TBC significantly inhibited 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced cell proliferation in a breast cancer cell line. The luciferase activity induced by E2 was also significantly inhibited by TBC in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, neither TBC nor E2 affected proliferation of the ERα-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. These experimental results confirmed that TBC has anti-estrogenic effects by affecting the ERα-mediated signaling pathway. By comparing TBC with known antagonists of ERα, we found that TBC has similar molecular structure as certain co-activator binding inhibitors. Therefore, using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, TBC was further predicted to competitively occupy the surface site of ERα rather than the canonical E2-binding pocket of ERα, thus disrupt subsequent co-activator recruitment and transcription activation. Our findings elucidate the anti-estrogenic mechanism of TBC at the atomic level and highlight the biological importance of surface sites of nuclear receptors for a risk assessment of potential environmental pollutants.

Comparison of the Radiologic and Clinical Findings of Adolescents With Breast Complaints.

The American College of Radiology's Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was developed to guide imaging-based surgical treatment in patients with breast cancer. Studies confirming the BI-RADS did not include adolescents. To evaluate the validity of this classification system in adolescents, we aim to investigate the relationship between the BI-RADS and pathology findings in adolescents.

Sonic hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways mediate curcumin inhibition of breast cancer stem cells.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an essential role in the progression of many tumors. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are crucial in maintaining the stemness of CSCs. Curcumin has been shown to possess anticancer activity. However, the interventional effect of curcumin on breast CSCs has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of Shh and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in curcumin inhibition of breast CSCs. We showed that the levels of breast CSCs markers were significantly elevated in SUM159 and MCF7 sphere-forming cells. We further illustrated that curcumin effectively decreased breast CSCs activity by inhibiting tumor sphere formation, decreasing breast CSCs markers (CD44, ALDH1A1, Nanog, and Oct4), as well as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, we showed that downregulation of Shh and Wnt/β-catenin activity resulted in breast CSCs inhibition; curcumin exerted an inhibitory effect on breast CSCs by suppressing both Shh and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Taken together, these results indicated curcumin inhibition of breast CSCs by downregulation of Shh and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Findings from this study could provide new insights into the potential therapeutic application of curcumin in breast CSCs elimination and cancer intervention.

Targeting LSD2 in breast cancer.

The impact of false positive breast cancer screening mammograms on screening retention: A retrospective population cohort study in Alberta, Canada.

The impact of false positives on breast cancer screening retention is inconsistent across international studies. We investigate factors associated with screening retention, including false positive screening results, invasiveness of diagnostic procedures, and geographic variation in Alberta, Canada.

Beyond BI-RADS Density: A Call for Quantification in the Breast Imaging Clinic.

Restoring Body Image After Cancer (ReBIC): Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Purpose This study aimed to test a group psychosocial intervention focused on improving disturbances of body image (BI), sexual functioning, and quality of life in breast cancer (BC) survivors. Methods A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of an 8-week group intervention in women after BC treatment. The manual-based intervention combined two powerful ingredients: expressive guided-imagery exercises integrated within a model of group-therapy principles. The intervention facilitates exploration of identity, the development of new self-schemas, and personal growth. In addition, the intervention included an educational component on the social and cultural factors affecting women's self-esteem and BI. The control condition included standard care plus educational reading materials. One hundred ninety-four BC survivors who had expressed concerns about negative BI and/or difficulties with sexual functioning participated in the study; 131 were randomly assigned to the intervention, and 63 were assigned to the control condition. Participants were followed for 1 year. Results Women in the intervention group reported significantly less concern/distress about body appearance ( P < .01), decreased body stigma ( P < .01), and lower level of BC-related concerns ( P < .01), compared with women in the control group. BC-related quality of life was also better in the intervention group compared with the control group at the 1-year follow-up ( P < .01). There was no statistically significant group difference in sexual functioning. Conclusion Restoring Body Image After Cancer (ReBIC), a group intervention using guided imagery within a group-therapy approach, is an effective method for addressing BI-related concerns and quality of life post-BC. The manual-based intervention can be easily adapted to both cancer centers and primary care settings.

Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome, Sarcopenic Obesity, and Circulating Biomarkers in Overweight or Obese Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Purpose Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer recurrence in survivors of breast cancer. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of a 16-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers among ethnically diverse, sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Methods Eligible survivors of breast cancer (N = 100) were randomly assigned to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). The exercise group participated in supervised moderate-to-vigorous-65% to 85% of heart rate maximum-aerobic and resistance exercise three times per week for 16 weeks. Metabolic syndrome z-score (primary outcome), sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline, postintervention (4 months), and 3-month follow-up (exercise only). Results Participants were age 53 ± 10.4 years, 46% were obese, and 74% were ethnic minorities. Adherence to the intervention was 95%, and postintervention assessments were available in 91% of participants. Postintervention metabolic syndrome z-score was significantly improved in exercise versus usual care (between-group difference, -4.4; 95% CI, -5.9 to -2.7; P < .001). Sarcopenic obesity (appendicular skeletal mass index, P = .001; body mass index, P = .001) and circulating biomarkers, including insulin ( P = .002), IGF-1 ( P = .001), leptin ( P = .001), and adiponectin ( P = .001), were significantly improved postintervention compared with usual care. At 3-month follow-up, all metabolic syndrome variables remained significantly improved compared with baseline in the exercise group ( P < .01). Conclusion Combined resistance and aerobic exercise effectively attenuated metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and relevant biomarkers in an ethnically diverse sample of sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Our findings suggest a targeted exercise prescription for improving metabolic syndrome in survivors of breast cancer and support the incorporation of supervised clinical exercise programs into breast cancer treatment and survivorship care plans.

The Effect of Lymphaticovenous Anastomosis in Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: A Review of the Literature.

Lymphedema affects ∼15% of all patients after breast cancer treatment. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical effects (improvement in arm circumference and quality of life) of lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) in treating breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL).

Complex Decongestive Therapy Enhances Upper Limb Functions in Patients with Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

We aimed to evaluate the effects of complex decongestive therapy (CDT) on upper extremity functions, the severity of pain, and quality of life. We also searched the impact of the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on the improvement in upper extremity functions.

No Evidence for the Pathogenicity of the BRCA2 c.6937 + 594T>G Deep Intronic Variant: A Case-Control Analysis.

The role of deep intronic variants in hereditary cancer susceptibility has been largely understudied. Previously, the BRCA2 c.6937 + 594T>G variant has been shown to preferentially promote the inclusion of a 95 nucleotide cryptic exon and to introduce a premature termination codon. Our objective was to further assess the pathogenicity of the BRCA2 c.6937 + 594T>G deep intronic variant.

A Site-Specifically Modified Imaging-Enabled Antibody-Drug Conjugate for Therapy and ImmunoPET.

The conjugation of antibodies with cytotoxic drugs can alter their in vivo pharmacokinetics. As a result, the careful assessment of the in vivo behavior and specifically the tumor-targeting properties of antibody-drug conjugates represents a crucial step in their development. In order to facilitate this process, we have created a methodology that facilitates the dual labeling of an antibody with both a toxin and a radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET). To minimize the impact of these modifications, this chemoenzymatic approach leverages strain-promoted azide-alkyne click chemistry to graft both cargoes to the heavy chain glycans of the immuoglobulin's Fc domain. As a proof-of-concept, a HER2-targeting trastuzumab immunoconjugate was created bearing both a monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) toxin as well as the long-lived positron-emitting radiometal 89Zr (t1/2 ~ 3.3 days). Both the tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy of the 89Zr-trastuzumab-MMAE immunoconjugate were validated in vivo using a murine model of HER2-expressing breast cancer. The site-specifically dual-labeled construct enabled the clear visualization of tumor tissue via PET imaging, producing tumoral uptake of ~70 %ID/g. Furthermore, a longitudinal therapy study revealed that the immunoconjugate exerts significant anti-tumor activity, leading to a >90% reduction in tumor volume over the course of 20 days.

Mechanistic Investigation into the Selective Anticancer Cytotoxicity and Immune System Response of Surface-Functionalised, Dichloroacetate-Loaded, UiO-66 Nanoparticles.

The high drug loading and excellent biocompatibilities of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have led to their application as drug delivery systems (DDSs). Nanoparticle surface chemistry dominates both biostability and dispersion of DDSs while governing their interactions with biological systems, cellular and/or tissue targeting, and cellular internalisation, leading to a requirement for versatile and reproducible surface functionalisation protocols. Herein, we explore not only the effect of introducing different surface functionality to the biocompatible Zr-MOF UiO-66, but also the efficacy of three surface modification protocols: (i) direct attachment of biomolecules (folic acid, biotin) introduced as modulators of UiO-66 synthetic, (ii) our previously reported ''click-modulation" approach to covalently attach polymers (poly(ethylene glycol), poly-L-lactide, poly-N-isopropylacrylamide) to the surface of UiO-66 through click chemistry, and (iii) surface ligand exchange, to postsynthetically coordinate folic acid, biotin and heparin to UiO-66. The innovative use of a small molecule with metabolic anticancer activity, dichloroacetic acid (DCA), as a modulator during synthesis is described, and found to be compatible with all three protocols, yielding surface-coated, DCA-loaded (10-20% w/w) nanoMOFs (70-170 nm). External surface modification generally enhances stability and colloidal dispersion of UiO-66. Cellular internalisation routes and efficiencies of UiO-66 by HeLa cervical cancer cells can be tuned by surface chemistry, and anticancer cytotoxicity of DCA-loaded MOFs correlates with endocytosis efficiency and mechanisms. The MOFs with the most promising coatings (folic acid, poly(ethylene glycol), poly-L-lactide, and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide) were extensively tested for selectivity of anti-cancer cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HEK293 healthy kidney cells, as well as for cell proliferation and ROS production against J774 macrophages and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) isolated from the blood of human donors. DCA-loaded, folic acid modified UiO-66 selectively kills cancer cells without harming healthy ones or provoking immune system response in vitro, suggesting a significant targeting effect and great potential in anticancer drug delivery. The results provide mechanistic insight into the design and functionalisation of MOFs for drug delivery, and underline the availability of various in vitro techniques to potentially minimise early-stage in vivo animal studies, following the three Rs: reduction, refinement and replacement.

Spatial barriers impact upon appropriate delivery of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients.

Radiotherapy (RT) is the standard treatment for breast cancer patients after conserving surgery or mastectomy when patients are at high risk of relapse. Major obstacles to appropriate RT delivery are journey times. Since studies on access to RT were carried out mostly in large countries, this study investigated factors in an Italian region and the influence of RT delivery on survival. A total of 4735 female candidates for RT were included in the study. A geographic information system calculated journey times from patients' homes and surgery hospitals to RT centers. Logistic regression analyzed the influence of journey times, socioeconomic status, and other factors on RT delivery. Survival probabilities and excess mortality were assessed in 4364 propensity score-matched patients. Journey times of 40 min or less from residence and from surgery hospital to RT center played a major role in access to RT. A large survival difference emerged between treated and untreated breast cancer patients. The excess mortality for untreated patients compared with propensity score-matched women receiving RT was 3.1 (95% CI: 2.2-4.3). Expansion of RT facilities during the 11-year study period improved RT delivery and outcomes by increasing availability but mainly by shortening journey times.

5-Chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine, CDHP, prevents lung metastasis of basal-like breast cancer cells by reducing nascent adhesion formation.

A drug for metastasis prevention is necessary. The orally administered anticancer drug S-1 contributes to cancer therapy. In a mouse xenograft model of metastatic breast cancer from our previous study, the administration of S-1 inhibited lung metastasis. However, the mechanism of inhibition remains elusive. S-1 contains 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), which does not have the antigrowth activity, but prevents the degradation of 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer reagent. In this study, we found that CDHP treatment shrinks cell morphology in metastatic basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Wound healing assays showed reduced cell migration in CDHP-treated cells. At the molecular level, CDHP treatment reduced the number of nascent adhesions, whereas the number of mature focal adhesions was not changed. These findings indicate that CDHP impairs focal adhesion formation, which results in a reduction in cell migration. For the in vivo metastasis assay, we used a highly lung-metastatic cell line. We xenografted them into immunodeficient mice, and administered CDHP. To determine whether CDHP prevents metastasis, we measured the weights of harvested lungs. The results showed that the lung weights of the CDHP-treated animals were not significantly different compared to the no-tumor controls, whereas the vehicle group showed a number of metastatic foci and an increase in lung weight. These observations indicate that CDHP administration prevents metastasis. This study reveals a novel effect of CDHP for lung metastasis prevention. Our findings may facilitate the establishment of future metastasis prevention therapies.

SALL4 - KHDRBS3 network enhances stemness by modulating CD44 splicing in basal-like breast cancer.

Understanding the mechanism by which cancer cells enhance stemness facilitates cancer therapies. Here, we revealed that a stem cell transcription factor, SALL4, functions to enhance stemness in basal-like breast cancer cells. We used shRNA-mediated knockdown and gene overexpression systems to analyze gene functions. To evaluate stemness, we performed a sphere formation assay. In SALL4 knockdown cells, the sphere formation ability was reduced, indicating that SALL4 enhances stemness. CD44 is a membrane protein and is known as a stemness factor in cancer. CD44 splicing variants are involved in cancer stemness. We discovered that SALL4 modulates CD44 alternative splicing through the upregulation of KHDRBS3, a splicing factor for CD44. We cloned the KHDRBS3-regulated CD44 splicing isoform (CD44v), which lacks exons 8 and 9. CD44v overexpression prevented a reduction in the sphere formation ability by KHDRBS3 knockdown, indicating that CD44v is positively involved in cancer stemness. In addition, CD44v enhanced anoikis resistance under the control of the SALL4 - KHDRBS3 network. Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive subtype among breast cancers, and there is no effective therapy so far. Our findings provide molecular targets for basal-like breast cancer therapy. In the future, this study may contribute to the establishment of drugs targeting cancer stemness.

Six New Polyhydroxysteroidal Glycosides, Anthenosides S1-S6, from the Starfish Anthenea sibogae.

Six new polyhydroxysteroidal glycosides, anthenosides S1-S6 (1-6), along with a mixture of two previously known related glycosides, 7 and 8, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the starfish Anthenea sibogae. The structures of 1-6 were established by NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques as well as by chemical transformations. All new compounds have a 5α-cholest-8(14)-ene-3α,6β,7β,16α-tetrahydroxysteroidal nucleus and differ from majority of starfish glycosides in positions of carbohydrate moieties at C(7) and C(16) (1-4, 6) or only at C(16) (5). The 4-O-methyl-β-D-glucopyranose residue (2) and Δ24 -cholestane side chain (3) have not been found earlier in the starfish steroidal glycosides. The mixture of 7 and 8 slightly inhibited the proliferation of human breast cancer T-47D cells and decreased the colony size in the colony formation assay. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Contribution of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for therapeutic de-escalation in early breast cancer: Report of a single institution's experience.

The spread of systematic screening and the emergence of oncoplastic techniques allow more breast conservative treatment associating lumpectomy and external beam radiation therapy. In order to furthermore facilitate the patient's treatment, intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been developed. The oncological safety of this technique has been studied, and is considered acceptable. Many questions remain unsolved in regard of the toxicity of this procedure as well as the patient's selection criteria. In this study, we present the first results and complications rate of patients treated by IORT in a single French institution. Between 2012 and 2015, all patients with breast cancer treated in a one-step procedure associating lumpectomy and IORT were retrospectively included in a monocentric cohort. Acute and long-term toxicities were evaluated using CTCAE v4.0 classification. 280 breast cancers were treated using IORT procedure. Additional external beam radiation therapy was requested for 45.7% patients. The acute complications rate was 14.6%, with 5 surgical revisions needed (1.78%). With a median follow up of 911 days, the long-term grade-3 toxicity rate was 1.1%. The only risk factor for local fibrosis was external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (OR = 1.99; IC95 [1.05-3.81], P = 0.036). Three patients (1.07%) were diagnosed with local recurrence. The results from this cohort confirm the low complication and recurrence rate of IORT procedure. A good selection of patients is necessary in order to lower the EBRT rate and allow therapeutic de-escalation. The classification of tumors into IHC subsets seems a good selection gate. Intraoperative radiation therapy appears to have a low toxicity rate with an acceptable local recurrence risk, and should therefore be considered as an option in the treatment of early breast cancer.

Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) for margin analysis in breast cancer.

One of the major problems in breast cancer surgery is defining surgical margins and establishing complete tumor excision within a single surgical procedure. The goal of this work is to establish instrumentation that can differentiate between tumor and normal breast tissue with the potential to be implemented in vivo during a surgical procedure.

GLA supplementation regulates PHD2 mediated hypoxia and mitochondrial apoptosis in DMBA induced mammary gland carcinoma.

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on mitochondrial mediated death apoptosis, hypoxic microenvironment and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway against 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary gland carcinoma. The effects of GLA were evaluated morphologically and biochemically against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinoma. The metabolic study was done for evaluation of biomarkers using 1H NMR. The present study was also verified through immunoblotting and qRT-PCR studies for the evaluation of various pathways. GLA treatment has a delineate implementation upon morphology of the tissues when evaluated through carmine staining, hematoxyline and eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy. GLA also demarked a commendatory proclamation of the fifteen key serum metabolites analogous with amino acid metabolism and fatty acid metabolism when recognized through1H NMR studies. The immunoblotting and qRT-PCR studies accomplished that gamma linolenic acid mediated mitochondrial death apoptosis, curtail hypoxic microenvironment along with hindrance of de novo fatty acid synthesis and also mediate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway to proclaim its anticancer effects. Afterwards, it was concluded that GLA causes mitochondrial death of cells along with curtailment of hypoxic microenvironment and mediates cholinergic anti-inflammatory activity.

Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid triggered DNA damage of adenocarcinoma breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

Targeting cancer cells with a certain photosensitizer (PS) excited by appropriate laser irradiation to release singlet oxygen as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) remains a challengeable technique to destroy them effectively. This research aimed to assess the cytogenetic potential of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) activated with laser irradiation (5-ALA/PDT) to damage the intact DNA of adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Cancer cells were treated with 0.5 and 1 mM 5-ALA for 4 h, the precursor of the photochemical protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), and then exposed to laser irradiation at 633 nm and 0.25W for 4 min before incubation for 24 h. Cytotoxicity of cancer cells was assessed using trypan blue exclusion assay. Genotoxicity was recorded by micronucleus test and comet assay. Both 5-ALA and laser irradiation, separately, were nontoxic on cancer cell lines, however, 5-ALA/PDT enhanced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, 5-ALA/PDT generated high percentages of micronuclei in MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines as recorded in binucleated cells. Similarly, the mean percentages of DNA damage and tail moment ratio were intensified extremely in cancer cell lines treated with 5-ALA/PDT rather than non-treated cells or cells treated by 5-ALA or laser irradiation separately. In conclusion, the singlet oxygen of 5-ALA targets DNA of cancer cells when activated by laser irradiation. Therefore, photodynamic therapy is a perfect applicable process to damage DNA effectively during M-phase and prohibit cancer cells proliferation.