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COPD - Top 30 Publications

Predictive factors for early hospital readmission and 1-year mortality in elder patients following surgical treatment of a hip fracture.

Early hospital readmission after surgically treated hip fracture is a common entity, often involving an adverse event and causing strains on an already overburdened healthcare system. The main purposes of the present study were to determine the 30-day readmission rate, analyze the predictive factors for early hospital readmissions, and assess 1-year mortality following surgical treatment of hip fracture in elderly patients. Retrospective case-control study.


Over recent years the number of mechanically ventilated patients in internal medicine departments has grown. These patients are elderly, mostly disabled and suffer from many chronic illnesses. Most of them require prolonged mechanical ventilation.

Combined Impact of Smoking and Early Life Exposures on Adult Lung Function Trajectories.

Both adverse early life exposures and adult smoking can negatively influence adult lung function trajectory but few studies consider how the impact of early life exposures may be modified by subsequent smoking.

Patients' and healthcare professionals' perceptions of self-management support interactions: Systematic review and qualitative synthesis.

Objective To review studies examining the experience of self-management support in patient-provider interactions and the shaping of goals through interactions. Methods We undertook a systematic review and thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature. We searched six databases (2004-2015) for published studies on the provision of self-management support in one-to-one, face-to-face, patient-provider interactions for obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with 14 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Results Themes identified from studies were (1) dominance of a traditional model of care, encompassing the provision of generic information, exclusion of the psychosocial and temporal nature of interactions and (2) a context of individual responsibility and accountability, encompassing self-management as patients' responsibility and adherence, accountability and the attribution of blame. Interactions were constrained by consultation times, patient self-blame and guilt, desire for autonomy and beliefs about what constitutes 'effective' self-management. Discussion Encounters were oriented towards a traditional model of care delivery and this limited opportunity for collaboration. These findings suggest that healthcare professionals remain in a position of authority, limiting opportunities for control to be shared with patients and shared understandings of social context to be developed.

Update in Asthma 2016.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, with major respiratory and systemic expressions. Obesity is defined as a BMI>30 kg/ m2 and its prevalence has doubled in recent decades. The possible relationship of obesity to COPD, and its influence on respiratory pathophysiology, is considered a mystery. Studies show obesity to be a survival advantage among COPD patients, unlike in the general population, in which obesity correlates to decreased life expectancy. This study aims to assess the differences between obese and non-obese COPD patients. The main clinical aspect assessed is the number of COPDexacerbation related hospital admissions.


Macrolide agents have both antibacterial properties as well as various effects on the inflammatory system. In recent years there is growing evidence regarding the favourable effects of macrolides in a range of chronic respiratory conditions. Historically, erythromycin and clarithromycin were found to stabilize pulmonary deterioration in diffuse panbronchiolitis. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized with pseudomonas aeruginosa, long term treatment with azithromycin reduces exacerbations and presents improved lung function. A similar effect on prevention of exacerbations has been demonstrated in noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. In patients undergoing lung transplantation, long term azithromycin prevents bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), azithromycin prevents acute exacerbations. Chronic treatment with macrolides is associated with adverse effects including gastrointestinal symptoms, interactions with other drugs and cardiovascular complications. Of the macrolides, azithromycin is associated with the lowest interactions and adverse effects and is also the most investigated.

Role of the CXCL8-CXCR1/2 Axis in Cancer and Inflammatory Diseases.

The chemokine receptors CXCR1/2 and their ligand CXCL8 are essential for the activation and trafficking of inflammatory mediators as well as tumor progression and metastasis. The CXCL8-CXCR1/2 signaling axis is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Interaction between CXCL8 secreted by select cancer cells and CXCR1/2 in the tumor microenvironment is critical for cancer progression and metastasis. The CXCL8-CXCR1/2 axis may play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis by regulating cancer stem cell (CSC) proliferation and self-renewal. During the past two decades, several small-molecule CXCR1/2 inhibitors, CXCL8 releasing inhibitors, and neutralizing antibodies against CXCL8 and CXCR1/2 have been reported. As single agents, such inhibitors are expected to be efficacious in various inflammatory diseases. Several preclinical studies suggest that combination of CXCR1/2 inhibitors along with other targeted therapies, chemotherapies, and immunotherapy may be effective in treating select cancers. Currently, several of these inhibitors are in advanced clinical trials for COPD, asthma, and metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the role of the CXCL8-CXCR1/2 axis and select genes co-expressed in this pathway in disease progression. We also discuss the latest progress in developing small-molecule drugs targeting this pathway.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with increased risk of bipolar disorder.

Epidemiological studies have identified a trend in the development of depressive and anxiety disorders following a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between COPD and subsequent bipolar disorder remains unclear. From January 1, 2000, we identified adult patients with COPD from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A nationwide population-based study was conducted; 46,778 COPD patients and 46,778 age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched subjects between 2000 and 2011 were enrolled. The two cohorts were followed up till December 31, 2011 and observed for occurrence of bipolar disorder. We observed the COPD and comparison cohorts for 263,020 and 267,895 person-years, respectively, from 2000 to 2011. The incidence rate for bipolar disorder was 1.6/1000 person-years in the COPD cohort and 1.2/1000 person-years in the comparison cohort ( p < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for subsequent bipolar disorder among the COPD patients was 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.64; p < 0.001). In the COPD patients, short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) was associated with a significantly increased risk of bipolar disorder development (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69, p = 0.002). Other COPD medications were not associated with the risk of bipolar disorder development. The study results indicate that COPD may be an independent risk factor for the development of bipolar disorder. The regular use of SABAs might increase the risk of bipolar disorder in COPD patients.

A Novel Public Health Approach to Measuring Tobacco Cessation Needs Among Cancer Survivors in Alaska.

Cancer survivors who continue to smoke have poorer response to treatment, higher risk for future cancers and lower survival rates than those who quit tobacco after diagnosis. Despite the increased risk for negative health outcomes, tobacco use among Alaskan cancer survivors is 19%, among the highest in the nation. To characterize and address tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who called a quit line for help in quitting tobacco, Alaska's Comprehensive Cancer Control program initiated a novel partnership with the state's Tobacco Quit Line. Alaska's Tobacco Quit Line, a state-funded resource that provides confidential coaching, support, and nicotine replacement therapies for Alaskan adults who wish to quit using tobacco, was used to collect demographic characteristics, health behaviors, cessation referral methods and other information on users. From September 2013- December 2014, the Alaska Quit Line included questions about previous cancer status and other chronic conditions to assess this information from cancer survivors who continue to use tobacco. Alaska's Tobacco Quit Line interviewed 3,141 smokers, 129 (4%) of whom were previously diagnosed with cancer. Most cancer survivors who called in to the quit line were female (72%), older than 50 years of age (65%), white (67%), and smoked cigarettes (95%). Cancer survivors reported a higher prevalence of asthma, COPD and heart disease than the non-cancer cohort. Approximately 34% of cancer survivors were referred to the quit line by a health care provider. This report illustrates the need for health care provider awareness of persistent tobacco use among cancer survivors in Alaska. It also provides a sound methodologic design for assessing ongoing tobacco cessation needs among cancer survivors who call a quit line. This survey methodology can be adapted by other public health programs to address needs and increase healthy behaviors among individuals with chronic disease.

Budesonide, fluticasone propionate, and azithromycin do not modulate the membrane vesicle release by THP-1 macrophages and respiratory pathogens during macrophage infection.

Patients with more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease frequently experience exacerbations and it is estimated that up to 50% of these exacerbations are associated with bacterial infections. The mainstay treatment for these infection-related exacerbations constitutes the administration of glucocorticoids, alone or in combination with antibiotics. A recent line of evidence demonstrates that many hormones including the steroid beclomethasone can also directly affect bacterial growth, virulence, and antibiotic resistance. The effect of these regimens on the release of potentially virulent and toxic membrane vesicles (MVs) is at present unclear. In this study, we determined the effect of several pharmacological agents on MVs release by and bacterial growth of common respiratory pathogens. We found that neither the release of MVs nor the bacterial growth was affected by the glucocorticoids budesonide and fluticasone. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin only inhibited the growth of Moraxella catarrhalis but no effects were observed on bacterial MV release at a concentration that is achieved locally in the epithelial lining on administration. The macrophage pro-inflammatory response to MVs was significantly reduced after treatment with budesonide and fluticasone but not by azithromycin treatment. Our findings suggest that these glucocorticoids may have a positive effect on infection-related inflammation although the bacterial growth and MV release remained unaffected.

Effect of Home Noninvasive Ventilation With Oxygen Therapy vs Oxygen Therapy Alone on Hospital Readmission or Death After an Acute COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Outcomes after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are poor and there are few treatments to prevent hospital readmission and death.

Home Noninvasive Ventilation to Reduce Readmissions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Bronchodilator therapy for chronic cough.

Experimental studies indicate that airway calibre increases the sensitivity of the afferents involved in the cough reflex but it has proved difficult to demonstrate that airway calibre increases the sensitivity of the afferents involved in the cough reflex. Therefore, bronchodilators might have a role, although rather minor, in the treatment of cough. However, although bronchodilators represent the standard of care in the treatment of airway obstruction associated with asthma or COPD, controversy persists regarding the mechanism(s) by which these agents alleviate cough. Furthermore, the available evidence indicates that the effects of bronchodilators on cough are rather inconsistent in humans and casts doubt on the appropriateness of the common practice of using bronchodilators in the treatment of patients with cough without any other evidence of airway obstruction. Regrettably, appropriate long-term trials specifically aimed at evaluating the clinical efficacy of bronchodilators in pathologic cough have not yet been performed. Therefore, properly executed clinical studies of bronchodilators in various types of acute and chronic pathologic cough are required.

Emerging bronchoscopic treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by pathophysiological factors including airflow limitation, hyperinflation and reduced gas exchange. Treatment consists of lifestyle changes, lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies such as long acting beta-2-agonists (LABA) and long acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA). More recently bronchoscopic treatments are emerging for COPD. Among them endobronchial valves(EBV) and endobronchial coils (EBC), next to endobronchial stents, sclerosing agents, targeted lung denervation and liquid nitrogen metered cryospray. In this review we aim to summarise the new emerging bronchoscopic treatments and their effects sizes compared with lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies.

"We are all there for the same purpose": Support for an integrated community exercise program for older adults with HF and COPD.

Despite well-established improvements following rehabilitation, functional gains often diminish following discharge.

Urging Europe to put non-adherence to inhaled respiratory medication higher on the policy agenda: a report from the First European Congress on Adherence to Therapy.

Telehealth Interventions to Support Self-Management of Long-Term Conditions: A Systematic Metareview of Diabetes, Heart Failure, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Cancer.

Self-management support is one mechanism by which telehealth interventions have been proposed to facilitate management of long-term conditions.

The SENSOR Study: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study of Self-Management Checks to Predict Exacerbations of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Patients with Long-Term Respiratory Conditions.

There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease. Earlier detection of exacerbations may improve morbidity and mortality by expediting treatment. Aseptika Ltd has developed a system for patients to self-monitor important physiological measurements including levels of physical activity, peak flow, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and biomarkers for P aeruginosa in sputum.

Risk-adjusted adverse outcomes in complex abdominal wall hernia repair with biologic mesh: A case series of 140 patients.

Biologic mesh is preferred for repair of complex abdominal wall hernias (CAWHs) in patients at high risk of wound infection. We aimed to identify predictors of adverse outcomes after complex abdominal wall hernia repair (CAWR) using biologic mesh with different placement techniques and under different surgical settings.

Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on exacerbation number and severity in people with COPD: An historical cohort study using electronic health records.

In previous systematic reviews, predominantly of randomised controlled trials, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been shown to reduce hospital admissions for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). However, findings have been less consistent for cohort studies. We aimed to compare rates of hospitalized and general practice (GP) treated AECOPD before and after PR.

Role of vaccination after COPD exacerbation.

Over-diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Primary Care. Prevalence and determining factors.

COPD under-diagnosis is common in Primary Health Care medicine, due to the low use of spirometry, but there is less information about over-diagnosis of the disease in patients that have a clinical diagnosis of COPD.

A behaviour change intervention to reduce sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Replacing sedentary behaviour with light intensity physical activity (ie, activities classified as less than three metabolic equivalents, such as slow-paced walking) may be a more realistic strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than only aiming to increase levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Behaviour change interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not yet been developed or tested.

The -786 T/C polymorphism of NOS3 gene is a susceptibility marker of COPD among Tunisians that correlates with nitric oxide levels and airflow obstruction.

The goal of this study was to examine the role of G894T (rs1799983), -786T/C (rs3918161) and a 27 bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) 4B/4A of NOS3 gene on the risk and severity of COPD.

Reduced HDAC2 in skeletal muscle of COPD patients.

Skeletal muscle weakness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important predictor of poor prognosis, but the molecular mechanisms of muscle weakness in COPD have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of histone deacetylases(HDAC) in skeletal muscle weakness in COPD.

Long acting β2-adrenocepter agonists are not associated with atrial arrhythmias after pulmonary resection.

Long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists have been shown to increase the risk of atrial arrhythmias in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perioperative long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists treatment would increase the risk of postoperative atrial arrhythmias after lung cancer surgery in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

Effect of esmolol on hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in patients with septic shock.

To evaluate the effect of heart rate control with esmolol on hemodynamics, inflammatory cytokines and clinical outcomes in patients with septic shock.

Why do patients decline participation in offered pulmonary rehabilitation? A qualitative study.

The purpose of this study is to produce insight in the explanations for declining pulmonary rehabilitation given by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Impact of a Patient Navigator Program on Hospital-Based and Outpatient Utilization Over 180 Days in a Safety-Net Health System.

With emerging global payment structures, medical systems need to understand longer-term impacts of care transition strategies.