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COPD - Top 30 Publications

Proceedings of the COST action BM1407 inaugural conference BEAT-PCD: translational research in primary ciliary dyskinesia - bench, bedside, and population perspectives.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare heterogenous condition that causes progressive suppurative lung disease, chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic otitis media, infertility and abnormal situs. 'Better Experimental Approaches to Treat Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia' (BEAT-PCD) is a network of scientists and clinicians coordinating research from basic science through to clinical care with the intention of developing treatments and diagnostics that lead to improved long-term outcomes for patients. BEAT-PCD activities are supported by EU Framework Programme Horizon 2020 funded COST Action (BM1407). The Inaugural Conference of BEAT-PCD was held in December 2015 in Southampton, UK. The conference attracted ninety-six scientists, clinicians, allied health professionals, industrial partners and patient representatives from twenty countries. We aimed to identify the needs for PCD research and clinical care, particularly focussing on basic science, epidemiology, diagnostic testing, clinical management and clinical trials. The multidisciplinary conference provided an interactive platform for exchanging ideas through a program of lectures, poster presentations, breakout sessions and workshops. This allowed us to develop plans for collaborative studies. In this report, we summarize the meeting, highlight developments, and discuss open questions thereby documenting ongoing developments in the field of PCD research.

Influenza virus infections among patients attending emergency department according to main reason to presenting to ED: A 3-year prospective observational study during seasonal epidemic periods.

The role of influenza virus in patients presenting at ED during seasonal-epidemic periods has not previously been specified. Our objective was to determine its frequency according to clinical presentation.

Diabetes risks and outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: Two nationwide population-based retrospective cohort studies.

The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes remains incompletely understood. This study evaluated diabetes risk and post-diabetes outcomes in COPD patients with and without exacerbations.

Validating the Concept of COPD Control: A Real-world Cohort Study from the United Kingdom.

The concept of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) control has been developed to inform therapeutic decision-making. We explored the validity of a definition of COPD control in a representative population of patients with COPD in the United Kingdom. Electronic medical records and linked COPD questionnaire data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database were used to characterize control status. Patients were aged ≥40 years, with spirometry-confirmed COPD, current or ex-smokers, and continuous records throughout the study period. Control was evaluated based on COPD stability and patients' (i) clinical features or (ii) COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score over a three-month baseline period and linked to time to first exacerbation. Of 2788 eligible patients, 2511 (90%) had mild/moderate COPD and 277 (10%) had severe/very severe COPD based on Body Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exacerbations (BODEx) cut-off of 4. Within the mild/moderate cohort, 4.5% of patients were controlled at baseline according to clinical features and 21.5% according to CAT threshold of 10. Within the severe/very severe cohort, no patients were controlled at baseline according to the proposed clinical features and 8.3% were controlled according to CAT threshold of 20. Compared with uncontrolled patients, time to first exacerbation was longer for controlled patients with mild/moderate COPD but not for those with severe/very severe COPD. Lowering the BODEx threshold for severity classification to 2 increased the number of patients achieving control. CAT scores were not good predictors of the risk of future exacerbation. With the proposed definition, very few patients were defined as controlled.

Through the Looking Glass and What was Found There: Imaging Biomarkers of COPD.

Recent Advances in CT Imaging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Lung imaging is increasingly being used to diagnose, quantify and phenotype chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although spirometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COPD and for severity staging, the role of computed tomography (CT) imaging has expanded in both clinical practice and research. COPD is a heterogeneous disease with considerable variability in clinical features, radiographic disease, progression and outcomes. Recent studies have examined the utility of CT imaging in enhancing diagnostic certainty, improving phenotyping, predicting disease progression and prognostication, patient selection for intervention, and also in furthering our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of this disease. Multiple CT metrics show promise for use as imaging biomarkers in COPD.

Effects of Sodium Houttuyfonate on Pulmonary Inflammation in COPD Model Rats.

The anti-inflammatory effect of sodium houttuyfonate (SH), an herbal-originated drug that used in China clinically, was investigated on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) inflammatory model rats induced by combination usage of cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The morphology of the lung tissue, the expression levels of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the protein levels of TLR4, NF-κB p65, and SIGIRR, and the mRNA levels of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65, and SIGIRR in lung tissues were investigated, respectively. After treated by SH (24.3 mg/kg), the abnormal morphology changes of lung tissues in COPD rats, such as neutrophil infiltration and airway obstruction, were considerably alleviated, as well as both proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, significantly decreased in BALF. The mRNA level of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 and protein expression of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 in lung tissues decreased significantly after SH treatment, while both SIGIRR mRNA and protein levels increased significantly. These results suggest that SH markedly attenuated the pulmonary inflammation induced by CS and LPS and protected the lung tissue in COPD model rat. The anti-inflammatory effects were related to suppress the TLR4/NF-κB pathway dependent on MyD88. TIR8/SIGIRR might contribute to the protective effects of SH on pulmonary inflammation.

Respiratory complications after colonic procedures in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: does laparoscopy offer a benefit?

Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at a higher risk for postoperative respiratory complications. Despite the benefits of a minimally invasive approach, laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum can substantially reduce functional residual capacity and raise alveolar dead space, potentially increasing the risk of respiratory failure which may be poorly tolerated by COPD patients. This raises controversy as to whether open techniques should be preferentially employed in this population.

Early Complications and Outcomes in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: An NSQIP Study Based on 5803 Patients.

Retrospective analysis.

Role of Vitamin D in reducing number of acute exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow and air trapping and usually this debilitating disorder limits the outside activities of the patients depriving them of sunlight which is a rich source of Vitamin D. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients.

Values of procalcitonin and C-reactive proteins in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having concomitant bacterial infection.

To observe the changes in the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) in serum of patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and to compare with the values of CRP in combination with PCT in the diagnosis and treatment of infective exacerbation of COPD.

Assessment of the role of ageing and non-ageing factors in death from non-communicable diseases based on a cumulative frequency model.

To quantify the effects of ageing and non-ageing factors, a characterization of the effects of ageing, genetic, and exogenous variables on 12 major non-communicable diseases was evaluated using a model assessing cumulative frequency of death and survival by age group from dead and surviving populations based on mortality statistics. Indices (0-1) of the roles of ageing (ARD), genetics (GRD) and exogenous (ERD) variables in deaths due to disease were established, and the sum of ARD, GRD and ERD was 1 (value of each indices was <1). Results showed that ageing plays an important role in death from chronic disease; exogenous factors may contribute more to the pattern of chronic disease than genetic factors (ARD, GRC and ERD were 0.818, 0.058 and 0.124 respectively for all non-communicable diseases). In descending order, ERD for non-communicable diseases were breast cancer, leukaemia, cancer of the cervix uteri and uterus, liver cancer, nephritis and nephropathy, stomach cancer, lung cancer, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, COPD, and Alzheimer's disease, while a smaller ERD indicated a tendency of natural death. An understanding of the aforementioned complex relationships of specific non-communicable diseases will be beneficial in designing primary prevention measures for non-communicable diseases in China.

A multi-center randomized, controlled, open-label trial evaluating the effects of eosinophil-guided corticosteroid-sparing therapy in hospitalised patients with COPD exacerbations - The CORTICO steroid reduction in COPD (CORTICO-COP) study protocol.

The most commonly applied treatment for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a 5-day course of high-dose systemic corticosteroids. However, this treatment has not been shown to reduce mortality and can potentially have serious side effects. Recent research has shown that, presumably, only a subgroup of COPD patients identifieable by blood eosinophil count benefit from a rescue course of prednisolone. By applying a biomarker-guided strategy, the aim of this study is to determine whether it is possible to reduce the use of systemic corticosteroids in AECOPD without influencing the outcome.

Efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to the Cochrane systematic evaluation. Methods: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, VIP and CBM, Wanfang Data were searched(from the foundation date to Jan. 2016) for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of tiotropium Respimat in the treatment of patients with COPD. Two reviewers independently retrieved the RCTs according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the methodological quality of the included trials.and performed statistical analysis on the data using RevMan 5.3 software. Results: Totally 11 RCTs on efficacy were finally included.The results of the combined analysis showed that FEV(1) was significantly improved in the tiotropium Respimat group than that in the placebo group[MD=0.12, 95%CI(0.10-0.14), P<0.000 01], while FEV(1) was similar between the tiotropium Respimat group and the tiotropium HandiHaler group[5 μg: MD=0.00, 95%CI(-0.04-0.04), P=0.94; 2.5 μg: MD=-0.04, 95%CI(-0.10-0.01), P=0.12; 10 μg: MD=0.02, 95%CI(-0.06-0.09), P=0.66]. FVC was significantly improved in the tiotropium Respimat group than that in the placebo group[MD=0.18, 95%CI(0.09-0.28), P=0.0002], while FVC was similar between the tiotropium Respimat group and the HandiHaler group[2.5 μg: MD=-0.06, 95%CI(-0.16-0.04), P=0.24; 5 μg: MD=-0.00, 95%CI(-0.08-0.08), P=1.00; 10 μg: MD=0.02, 95%CI(-0.14-0.19), P=0.78]. The risk of acute exacerbations was lower in the tiotropium Respimat group (5 μg / kg) than in the placebo group [OR=0.72, 95%CI(0.60-0.86), P=0.000 3]. It was similar in the tiotropium Respimat group (5 μg) and the HandiHaler group[OR=1.01, 95%CI(0.94-1.09), P=0.71]. The SGRQ total score of the tiotropium Respimat group (5 μg) was significantly different from that of the placebo group[MD=-3.6, 95%CI(-3.88--3.32), P<0.000 01]. C(max, ss) and AUC(0-6 h, ss) were also similar between the tiotropium Respimat group and the HandiHaler group[MD=0.2, 95%CI(-5.1-5.5), P=0.94]; MD=-1.01, 95%CI(-11.78-9.77), P=0.85]. Nine RCTs were included in the evaluation of the incident rates of adverse drug reactions(ADR). There was no significant difference between the tiotropium Respimat group HandiHaler group and the placebo group[RR=0.95, 95%CI(0.89-1.00), P=0.05], [OR=1.07, 95%CI(1.00-1.16), P=0.06]. Conclusions: The efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat was similar to tiotropium HandiHaler in the treatment of COPD. They can effectively improve the pulmonary function and clinical symptoms of patients. But the long-term efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat still need to be confirmed by higher quality and larger RCTs with long-term follow-up.

Home mechanical Ventilation - Concepts and Therapy Recommendations.

The prognosis of patients receiving home mechanical ventilation is very heterogeneous and depends on the underlying disease, the degree of respiratory dependency and the comorbidities. Due to the severe chronic diseases, the initiation of a long-term NIV must be done during an inpatient treatment. Two recently published randomized controlled trials using more aggressive forms of NPPV targeted at normalizing hypercapnic PaCO2 values, showed improved long term survival also in patients with an underlying diagnosis of COPD. Consequently, the number of patients receiving home mechanical ventilation has dramatically increased in recent years and more and more outpatient settings has been established without scientific evidence. Nevertheless, beside reliable care structures, ethical aspects and health related quality of life are of great importance in the context of home mechanical ventilation.

miR-542 Promotes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and SMAD Activity and is Raised in ICU Acquired Weakness.

Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a common consequence of critical illness and a range of chronic diseases but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear.

Triple Therapy for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management. Are Our Expectations Fulfilled?

Health risks in the cleaning industry: a Belgian census-linked mortality study (1991-2011).

Cleaning work has been associated with a wide range of occupational health hazards. However, little is known about mortality risks in the cleaning industry. This study examines differences in cause-specific mortality between cleaners, manual and non-manual workers.

External validation of a 5-year survival prediction model after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

The benefit of prophylactic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is based on the risk of rupture exceeding the risk of death from other comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to validate a 5-year survival prediction model for patients undergoing elective repair of asymptomatic AAA <6.5 cm to assist in optimal selection of patients.

External validation of Vascular Study Group of New England risk predictive model of mortality after elective abdominal aorta aneurysm repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative and comparison against established models.

The purpose of this study is to externally validate a recently reported Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) risk predictive model of postoperative mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to compare its predictive ability across different patients' risk categories and against the established risk predictive models using the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) AAA sample.

Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in SMP30 knockout mice.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly a cigarette smoke (CS)-triggered disease with features of chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidants derived from CS can induce DNA damage and stress-induced premature cellular senescence in the respiratory system, which play significant roles in COPD. Therefore, antioxidants should provide benefits for the treatment of COPD; however, their therapeutic potential remains limited owing to the complexity of this disease. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been reported as a preventive and therapeutic antioxidant. Molecular H2 can selectively reduce hydroxyl radical accumulation with no known side effects, showing potential applications in managing oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. However, there have been no reports on the efficacy of molecular H2 in COPD patients. In the present study, we used a mouse model of COPD to investigate whether CS-induced histological damage in the lungs could be attenuated by administration of molecular H2. We administered H2-rich pure water to senescence marker protein 30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice exposed to CS for 8 weeks. Administration of H2-rich water attenuated the CS-induced lung damage in the SMP30-KO mice and reduced the mean linear intercept and destructive index of the lungs. Moreover, H2-rich water significantly restored the static lung compliance in the CS-exposed mice compared with that in the CS-exposed H2-untreated mice. Moreover, treatment with H2-rich water decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage markers such as phosphorylated histone H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and senescence markers such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, and β-galactosidase in the CS-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that H2-rich pure water attenuated CS-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice by reducing CS-induced oxidative DNA damage and premature cell senescence in the lungs. Our study suggests that administration of molecular H2 may be a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy for COPD.

Recognition of anxiety, depression, and PTSD in patients with COPD and CHF: Who gets missed?

This study sought to identify patient factors associated with mental health (MH) recognition and treatment in medically ill Veterans.

MicroRNA-181c inhibits cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by regulating CCN1 expression.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstinate pulmonary disease, causing irreversible alveoli collapse and increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has shown that the dysregulation of miRNAs is crucially involved in the pathogenesis and development of COPD. However, the effects and role of microRNA-181c (miR-181c) have not been investigated in a murine model of COPD.

Estimating the Public Health Impact of Air Pollution for Informing Policy in the Twin Cities: A Minnesota Tracking Collaboration.

The Minnesota Department of Health and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency used local air pollution and public health data to estimate the impacts of particulate matter and ozone on population health, to identify disparities, and to inform decisions that will improve health.

Reaching for the Holy Grail of COPD Outcomes: Can Medications Modify Lung Function Decline?

Climate Change Effects on Respiratory Health: Implications for Nursing.

Greenhouse gases are driving climate change. This article explores the adverse health effects of climate change on a particularly vulnerable population: children and adults with respiratory conditions.

Lung cancer and COPD - growing clinical problem.

A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer. The harmful substances of the tobacco smoke are the causes of the development of diseases outside the group of respiratory disorders which affects the greater scope of comorbidity among this patient group in comparison to the normal population. The similarity of the clinical picture of lung cancer and COPD may cause numerous problems for a proper and prompt diagnosis and the implementation of the appropriate treatment. On the other hand, it is evident that the patients with COPD are carefully examined and often diagnosed with cancer while those who already suffer from cancer and undertake additional function testing are in 40-50% diagnosed with COPD. The coexistance of these two diseases influences the therapeutic procedure: COPD limits the possibilities of a radical lung cancer treatment which is determined by the general health condition and the respiratory system insufficiency as far as COPD patients are concerned. The knowledge of common pathogenesis both of cancer and COPD and the mutual relations between them shall positively affect the diagnostic and therapeutic process in the high-risk patient groups.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - importance of active case finding and consideration of comorbidities.

Abridged version of the AWMF guideline for the medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure: S2K Guideline of the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (GHUP) in collaboration with the German Association of Allergists (AeDA), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the German Society for Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM), the German Society for Hospital Hygiene (DGKH), the German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP), the German Mycological Society (DMykG), the Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the German Federal Association of Pediatric Pneumology (BAPP), and the Austrian Society for Medical Mycology (ÖGMM).

This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established. Apart from allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and mould-caused mycoses, only sufficient evidence for an association between moisture/mould damage and the following health effects has been established: allergic respiratory disease, asthma (manifestation, progression and exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis), and increased likelihood of respiratory infections/bronchitis. In this context the sensitizing potential of moulds is obviously low compared to other environmental allergens. Recent studies show a comparatively low sensitizing prevalence of 3-10% in the general population across Europe. Limited or suspected evidence for an association exist with respect to mucous membrane irritation and atopic eczema (manifestation, progression and exacerbation). Inadequate or insufficient evidence for an association exist for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in children, rheumatism/arthritis, sarcoidosis and cancer. The risk of infection posed by moulds regularly occurring indoors is low for healthy persons; most species are in risk group 1 and a few in risk group 2 (Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus) of the German Biological Agents Act (Biostoffverordnung). Only moulds that are potentially able to form toxins can be triggers of toxic reactions. Whether or not toxin formation occurs in individual cases is determined by environmental and growth conditions, above all the substrate. In the case of indoor moisture/mould damage, everyone can be affected by odour effects and/or mood disorders. However, this is not a health hazard. Predisposing factors for odour effects can include genetic and hormonal influences, imprinting, context and adaptation effects. Predisposing factors for mood disorders may include environmental concerns, anxiety, condition, and attribution, as well as various diseases. Risk groups to be protected particularly with regard to an infection risk are persons on immunosuppression according to the classification of the German Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention, KRINKO) at the Robert Koch- Institute (RKI) and persons with cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis); with regard to an allergic risk, persons with cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis) and patients with bronchial asthma should be protected. The rational diagnostics include the medical history, physical examination, and conventional allergy diagnostics including provocation tests if necessary; sometimes cellular test systems are indicated. In the case of mould infections the reader is referred to the AWMF guideline "Diagnosis and Therapy of Invasive Aspergillus Infections". With regard to mycotoxins, there are currently no useful and validated test procedures for clinical diagnostics. From a preventive medicine standpoint it is important that indoor mould infestation in relevant dimension cannot be tolerated for precautionary reasons. With regard to evaluating the extent of damage and selecting a remedial procedure, the reader is referred to the revised version of the mould guideline issued by the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA).

Impaired mRNA Expression of the Migration Related Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells of COPD Patients.

Defective tissue repair and remodeling are main aspects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) pathophysiology. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been implicated in this direction, as their functional impairment and recruitment could possibly contribute to disease development and progression. The present study characterizes for the first time the expression of migration related chemokine receptors and their ligands in BM-MSCs from COPD patients. CXCR4/SDF1a and CCR7/CCL19-CCL21 mRNA levels were evaluated in BM-MSCs obtained from twelve COPD patients and seven healthy donors. SDF1a protein levels in sera and BM-MSCs' conditioned media were also evaluated. CXCR4, SDF1a, CCL19, and CCL21 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in COPD BM-MSCs while CCR7 levels were undetectable. Notably, SDF1a protein levels were marginally elevated in both patient sera and BM-MSCs' conditioned media while the increase in SDF1a serum levels significantly correlated with disease severity in COPD. Our findings show posttranscriptional regulation of SDF1a levels in BM-MSCs of COPD patients and significant downregulation of SDF1a and CXCR4 mRNA indicating an involvement of the SDF1a signaling pathway in the disease pathophysiology.