PubTransformer

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Corneal abrasion - Top 30 Publications

An Observational Study to Determine Whether Routinely Sending Patients Home With a 24-Hour Supply of Topical Tetracaine From the Emergency Department for Simple Corneal Abrasion Pain Is Potentially Safe.

To determine if the number of emergency department (ED) rechecks, persistent fluorescein uptake, ophthalmology referrals, or complications would be affected by the prescription of topical tetracaine for pain relief from simple corneal abrasions (SCAs).

Efficacy of Topical Analgesics in Pain Control for Corneal Abrasions: A Systematic Review.

Corneal abrasions are one of the most common ocular injuries seen in the emergency department. While most patients with corneal abrasions complain of excruciating pain, permanent sequelae may develop if not managed properly. The use of topical antibiotics and other standards of treatment have greatly reduced the incidence of complications. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the proper management of pain in corneal abrasions. Proposed analgesics for the control of corneal abrasion pain include topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical anesthetics, and topical cycloplegics. For this review, ten published randomized controlled trials were identified, focusing on the efficacy and safety of different topical analgesics used in treating corneal abrasions.  Six of the trials focused on topical NSAIDs, three on topical anesthetics, and one on topical cycloplegics. There were mixed results regarding the efficacy of topical analgesics in reducing pain in patients with corneal abrasions. This review of the literature revealed that topical NSAIDs produced reductions in pain symptoms, whereas topical anesthetics and cycloplegics did not demonstrate significant improvements in either healing rates or pain control. Thus, this evidence supports the use of topical NSAIDs in the standard management of corneal abrasions. Unfortunately, the power of these studies is largely limited by small sample sizes. Larger studies must be conducted before topical analgesics can be recommended or discouraged for pain management in corneal abrasions. However, based on this review of the literature, the use of topical NSAIDs does not appear to complicate wound healing, and thus remains a safe option in patients desiring medical treatment.

Ocular Injuries in Patients of Zygomatico-Complex (ZMC) Fractures.

Mid face injuries commonly destroy the integrity of the orbital skeleton, and are frequently complicated by injury to the eye, ranging between 2.7 and 90.6 % as reported in literature. The eye injuries range from simple subconjunctival haemorrhage to globe rupture. The paper aims to study the types of ocular injuries in patients with ZMC fractures.

Local Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Corneal Regeneration after Epithelial Abrasion.

Corneal injuries and infections are the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that control healing of the damaged cornea is critical for the development of new therapies to promptly restore vision. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified heterogeneous cell population that has been reported to orchestrate immunity and promote tissue repair in the lungs and skin after injury. However, whether ILCs can modulate the repair process in the cornea remains poorly understood. We identified a population of cornea-resident group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) in mice that express CD127, T1/ST2, CD90, and cKit. This cell population was relatively rare in corneas at a steady state but increased after corneal epithelial abrasion. Moreover, ILC2s were maintained and expanded locally at a steady state and after wounding. Depletion of this cell population caused a delay in corneal wound healing, whereas supplementation of ILC2s through adoptive transfer partially restored the healing process. Further investigation revealed that IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin had critical roles in corneal ILC2 responses and that CCR2(-) corneal macrophages were an important producer of IL-33 in the cornea. Together, these results reveal the critical role of cornea-resident ILC2s in the restoration of corneal epithelial integrity after acute injury and suggest that ILC2 responses depend on local induction of IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin.

Child Abuse and the Eye in an African Population.

There is a paucity of data on child abuse and the eye in West Africa. Therefore, a need exists to determine the causes and circumstances surrounding these occurrences and their effects on the eye and vision in a pediatric population.

Eye and Orbital Injuries in Sports.

Sports-related eye and orbital injuries continue to occur regularly and may have serious consequences. They are completely preventable when appropriate protection is worn, particularly with polycarbonate lenses. Eye protection is available for most sports and should be worn in accordance with the standards of regional authorities. It is important for first responders to identify red flags in the history and physical examination of an injured athlete for urgent referral to an ophthalmologist. Common sports-related eye injuries include corneal abrasion, subconjunctival hemorrhage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal tears and detachment. The mechanism and treatment of these injuries are discussed in further detail.

Topical Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane and Umbilical Cord Eye Drops Promote Re-Epithelialization in a Murine Corneal Abrasion Model.

To evaluate morselized amniotic membrane and umbilical cord (AMUC) eye drops in promoting corneal re-epithelialization.

Analysis of novel Sjogren's syndrome autoantibodies in patients with dry eyes.

Dry eye is a common problem in Ophthalmology and may occur for many reasons including Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Recent studies have identified autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), which occur early in the course of SS. The current studies were designed to evaluate how many patients with idiopathic dry eye and no evidence of systemic diseases from a dry eye practice have these autoantibodies.

Epi-Bowman Keratectomy: Clinical Evaluation of a New Method of Surface Ablation.

Purpose A new device for epithelial abrasion before excimer laser surface ablation or corneal cross-linking (CXL) has recently been introduced (Epi-Clear™, Orca Surgical, Kiryat-Shmona, Israel). We have reviewed the literature on the clinical results, potential benefits and drawbacks of this instrument, compared to other methods of epithelial removal. Method Literature search for "Epi-Bowman Keratectomy", "Epi-clear", and "Epikeratome" yielded 1 peer-review publication, 1 non-peer-review publication, 18 posters and presentations at international conferences (European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons [ESCRS] and American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery [ASCRS]) on the use of the Epi-Clear™ device before surface ablation, 2 posters on the use of Epi-Clear before corneal crosslinking and 1 presentation on the experimental use of Epi-Clear for removal of a pterygium. Results Comparison of laser ablation after epithelial removal with the Epi-Clear device (Epi-Bowman Keratectomy™, EBK™) to other established methods of surface ablation, i.e. alcohol-assisted PRK or PRK with a metallic scraper, EBK, suggests that the results are generally similar. Pain perception, haze formation, and epithelial healing are reported to be better than with conventional surface ablation methods. Studies evaluating the use of the Epi-Clear device before CXL report that the healing time is significantly reduced and that less pain is perceived. Conclusion The Epi-Clear device seems to be a promising new option for epithelial removal before refractive laser ablation, although a convincing explanation for its potential superiority is still missing. In contrast, when the Epi-Clear device is used before CXL, then the Bowman's layer remains intact; this may provide an adequate explanation for the reported benefits of this application. However, currently available studies are of low level of evidence, so that more prospective randomised trials are needed for a robust evaluation of this treatment.

CCR2(-) and CCR2(+) corneal macrophages exhibit distinct characteristics and balance inflammatory responses after epithelial abrasion.

Macrophages are distributed throughout the body and are crucial for the restoration of damaged tissues. However, their characteristics in the cornea and roles in the repair of corneal injures are unclear. Here we show that corneal macrophages can be classified as CCR2(-) macrophages, which already exist in the cornea at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and are similar to yolk sac-derived macrophages, microglia, in phenotype and gene expression, and CCR2(+) macrophages, which do not appear in the cornea until E17.5. At a steady state, CCR2(-) corneal macrophages have local proliferation capacity and are rarely affected by monocytes; however, following corneal epithelial abrasion, most CCR2(-) corneal macrophages are replaced by monocytes. In contrast, CCR2(+) macrophages are repopulated by monocytes under both a steady-state condition and following corneal wounding. Depletion of CCR2(+) macrophages decreases corneal inflammation after epithelial abrasion, whereas depletion of CCR2(-) macrophages increases inflammation of the injured cornea. Loss of either cell type results in a delay in corneal healing. These data indicate that there are two unique macrophage populations present in the cornea, both of which participate in corneal wound healing by balancing the inflammatory response.Mucosal Immunology (2016) advance online publication 25 January 2017 doi:10.1038/mi.2016.139.

How to care for a patient's eyes in critical care settings.

Rationale and key points Eye care is an important aspect of the nursing management of patients who are critically ill. All patients in acute care settings with absent or compromised eye defence mechanisms are at risk of eye complications and ocular surface disease. This article aims to assist nurses to care for the eyes of patients in critical care settings to enable early detection and routine management of ophthalmic issues, thereby avoiding visual compromise on patient discharge from critical care settings. » Corneal exposure is reported to occur in many patients who are critically ill. » Incomplete eyelid closure and lack of lubrication are the main mechanisms that underlie the development of corneal damage in patients who are critically ill. » Unconscious, sedated and/or paralysed patients and those with a reduced Glasgow Coma Scale score depend on healthcare professionals to maintain their ocular surface to prevent complications such as corneal abrasion, infection and ulceration, perforations and blindness. » Meticulous nursing care is required to prevent ophthalmic complications that can result from corneal exposure in this patient group. Regular, evidence-based eye care should be part of routine nursing practice for patients who are critically ill. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help you update your practice and ensure it remains evidence-based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice? 2. How you could use this resource to educate your colleagues in eye care of the unconscious patient?

Mechanisms of perioperative corneal abrasions: alterations in tear film proteome.

Perioperative corneal abrasion is an ophthalmic complication commonly found in patients underwent general anesthesia. In this study, correlations between development of corneal injury and proteomic changes in tear film during general anesthesia were examined using an animal (rabbit) model. Being started after 1-h anesthesia, the process of accumulation of pathological changes in the cornea unequivocally led clinically significant abrasions following 3-6 h of the narcosis. The corneal damage was associated with alterations in profiles of major proteins of the tear film. Analysis of the tear proteome pointed to depression of lachrymal glands function, and suggested serotransferrin, serum albumin and annexin A1 as potential tear markers of the complication. The tear film alterations included fast drop of total antioxidant activity and activity of superoxide dismutase, and decrease in interleukin-4 and increase in interleukin-6 content indicating development of oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses. These findings suggest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy as prospective approach for prevention/treatment of perioperative corneal abrasions. The observed anesthesia-induced effects should be considered in any study of ocular surface diseases employing anesthetized animals.

Eye trauma in Laurel and Hardy movies - another nice mess.

One of the characteristics in Laurel and Hardy films is a lot of physical violence. The present study examines the occurrence of eye trauma in Laurel and Hardy movies and discusses the impact they could have been had if the films were set in reality.

IL-20 promotes epithelial healing of the injured mouse cornea.

After corneal epithelial injury, the ensuing inflammatory response is necessary for efficient wound healing. While beneficial healing effects are attributed to recruited neutrophils and platelets, dysregulated inflammation (too little or too much) is associated with impaired wound healing. The purpose of this study was to use an established C57BL/6J mouse model of corneal injury to evaluate the potential modulatory role of interleukin-20 (IL-20) on the inflammatory and healing responses to epithelial wounding. In the uninjured cornea, immunofluorescence staining for IL-20 and its receptor, IL-20RA, was observed on basal epithelial cells at the limbus. After a 2 mm central epithelial abrasion, IL-20 staining was also observed in stromal keratocytes and ELISA studies showed a significant increase (nearly 3-fold) in IL-20 expression. Injured corneas healed more slowly when treated with a topical application of a neutralizing anti-IL-20 antibody. While corneal epithelial cell division and epithelial nerve recovery measured at 24 h post-injury were reduced compared to controls, neutrophil influx into the cornea was increased. In contrast, topical application of recombinant IL-20 (rIL-20) decreased corneal inflammation as evidenced by reductions in limbal vessel dilatation, platelet extravasation, neutrophil recruitment and CXCL1 expression. In wild type mice, topical rIL-20 had a limited effect on corneal wound healing and resulted in only a slight increase in epithelial cell division and epithelial nerve recovery; the rate of wound closure was unaffected. To clarify the effect of IL-20 on corneal wound healing, rIL-20 was topically applied to neutropenic wild type (WT) mice and mutant mice (ɣδ T cell deficient mice and CD11a deficient mice), all of which have well characterized reductions in neutrophil recruitment and delayed wound healing after corneal injury. In each case, rIL-20 restored corneal wound healing to baseline levels while neutrophil recruitment remained low. Thus, it appears that IL-20 plays a beneficial and direct role in corneal wound healing while negatively regulating neutrophil and platelet infiltration.

Correlation between weather and incidence of selected ophthalmological diagnoses: a database analysis.

Our aim was to correlate the overall patient volume and the incidence of several ophthalmological diseases in our emergency department with weather data.

Utilization of Ophthalmology-Specific Emergency Department Services.

To describe utilization trends of an ophthalmology-specific emergency department (ED).

Patching for corneal abrasion.

Published audits have demonstrated that corneal abrasions are a common presenting eye complaint. Eye patches are often recommended for treating corneal abrasions despite the lack of evidence for their use. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effects of the eye patch when used to treat corneal abrasions.

Intranasal delivery of nanomicelle curcumin promotes corneal epithelial wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

Corneal nerves are mainly derived from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion (TG). Corneal neuropathy contributes to epithelial degenerative changes in diabetic keratopathy. Efficient drug delivery to TG may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic keratopathy. This article described intranasal delivery of nanomicelle curcumin to correct pathophysiological conditions in TG to promote corneal epithelial/nerve wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. A diabetic mice model with corneal epithelium abrasion was established. Ocular topical and/or intranasal nanomicelle curcumin treatments were performed, and treatment efficacy and mechanisms of action were explored. Results showed that intranasal nanomicelle curcumin treatment promoted corneal epithelial wound healing and recovery of corneal sensation. Enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species, reduced free radical scavengers, increased mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines, and decreased mRNA expressions of neurotrophic factors in the cornea and TG neuron were observed in diabetic mice with corneal epithelium abrasions. Intranasal nanomicelle curcumin treatment effectively recovered these pathophysiological conditions, especially that of the TG neuron, and a strengthened recovery was observed with ocular topical combined with intranasal treatment. These findings indicated that intranasal curcumin treatment effectively helped promote diabetic corneal epithelial/nerve wound healing. This novel treatment might be a promising strengthened therapy for diabetic keratopathy.

Ophthalmic referrals from emergency wards-a study of cases referred for urgent eye care (The R.E.S.C.U.E Study).

To characterize emergency department (ED) referrals in order to identify the most common pathologies, compare accuracy of diagnosis, and measure correlation of visual acuity (VA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements between the ED and ophthalmology setting.

Evaluation of the Painful Eye.

Eye problems constitute 2% to 3% of all primary care and emergency department visits. Common eye conditions that can cause eye pain are conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, and hordeolum, and some of the most serious eye conditions include acute angle-closure glaucoma, orbital cellulitis, and herpetic keratitis. The history should focus on vision changes, foreign body sensation, photophobia, and associated symptoms, such as headache. The physical examination includes an assessment of visual acuity and systematic evaluation of the conjunctiva, eyelids, sclera, cornea, pupil, anterior chamber, and anterior uvea. Further examination with fluorescein staining and tonometry is often necessary. Because eye pain can be the first sign of an ophthalmologic emergency, the physician should determine if referral is warranted. Specific conditions that require ophthalmology consultation include acute angle-closure glaucoma, optic neuritis, orbital cellulitis, scleritis, anterior uveitis, and infectious keratitis.

Risk factors for visual impairment associated with corneal diseases in southern China.

To identify the most common etiologies of corneal disease and the risk factors associated with worse visual outcomes in Changsha, Hunan, located in southern China.

Adverse Reaction to Cetuximab, an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor.

Dear Editor, Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a new strategy in treatment of a variety of solid tumors, such as colorectal carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and pancreatic cancer (1). Cetuximab is a chimeric human-murine monoclonal antibody against EGFR. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse reactions occurring during epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRI) therapy. Papulopustular rash (acne like rash) develop with 80-86% patients receiving cetuximab, while xerosis, eczema, fissures, teleangiectasiae, hyperpigmentations, and nail and hair changes occur less frequently (2). The mechanism underlying these skin changes has not been established and understood. It seems EGFRI alter cell growth and differentiation, leading to impaired stratum corneum and cell apoptosis (3-5). An abdominoperineal resection of the rectal adenocarcinoma (Dukes C) was performed on a 43-year-old female patient. Following surgery, adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was applied. After two years, the patient suffered a metastatic relapse. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was detected on multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) images, with an increased value of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tumor marker (maximal value 57 ng/mL). Hematological and biochemical tests were within normal limits, so first-line chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and a 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX4) protocol was introduced. A wild type of the KRAS gene was confirmed in tumor tissue (diagnostic prerequisite for the introduction of EGFRI) and cetuximab (250 mg per m2 of body surface) was added to the treatment protocol. The patient responded well to the treatment with confirmed partial regression of the tumor formations. Three months after the patient started using cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, the patient presented with a papulopustular eruption in the seborrhoeic areas (Figure 1) and eczematoid reactions on the extremities with dry, scaly, itchy skin (Figure 2). Furthermore, hair and nail changes gradually developed, culminating with trichomegaly (Figure 3) and paronychia (Figure 4). The patient was treated with oral antibiotics (tetracycline) and a combination of topical steroids with moisturizing emollients due to xerosis, without reduction of EGFRI therapy and with a very good response. Trichomegaly was regularly sniped with scissors. Nail fungal infection was ruled out by native examination and cultivation, so antiseptics and corticosteroid ointments were introduced for paronychia treatment. During the above-mentioned therapy, apart from skin manifestations, iatrogenic neutropenia grade IV occurred, with one febrile episode, and because of this, the dose of cytostatic drugs was reduced. After 10 months of therapy, progression of the disease occurred with lung metastases, so EGFRI therapy was discontinued and the patient was given second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. This led to gradual resolution of all aforementioned cutaneous manifestations. Since the pathogenesis of skin side-effects due to EGFRI is not yet fully understood, there are no strict therapy protocols. Therapy is mainly based on clinical experience and follows the standard treatments for acne, rosacea, xerosis, paronychia, and effluvium. The therapeutic approach for papulopustular exanthema includes topical and systemic antibiotics for their antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory effect, sometimes in combination with topical steroids. Topical application of urea cream with K1 vitamin yielded positive results in skin-changes prevention during EGFRI therapy, especially with xerosis, eczema, and pruritus (6). Hair alterations in the form of effluvium are usually tolerable, and if needed a 2% minoxidil solution may be applied. Trichomegaly or abnormal eyelash growth can lead to serious complications, so ophthalmologic examination is needed. At the beginning of the growth, regular lash clipping may reduce possibility of corneal abrasion (7,8). Nail changes can just be a cosmetic problem (pigmentary changes, brittle nails), and in the occurrence of paronychia or onycholysis (of several or all nails) they result in high morbidity and impair daily activities. Nail management should be started as soon as possible because of slow nail growth and the relatively long half-life of EGFRI. Combination of topical iodide, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and antifungals with avoidance of nail traumatization will yield the best results (9). EGFRI are potentially life prolonging therapies, and our goal as dermatovenereologists is to provide optimal patient care and improve their quality of life in a multidisciplinary collaboration with oncologists, radiotherapists, and ophthalmologists.

Perioperative Corneal Abrasion: Updated Guidelines for Prevention and Management.

Corneal abrasion is the most common ocular complication in surgery. Treatment requires pain control, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and close monitoring. Pain improves significantly after 24 hours and should be resolved by 48 hours. Persistent, worsening, or new symptoms warrant immediate specialist consultation. The authors review the pathophysiology of perioperative corneal abrasion, and propose updated evidence-based guidelines for improved patient care.

Clinical Evaluation of Red Eyes in Pediatric Patients.

Patients with the primary symptom of a red eye are commonly seen in pediatric primary care clinics. The differential diagnoses of a red eye are broad, but with a succinct history and physical examination, the diagnosis can be readily identified in many patients. Identifying conditions that threaten vision and understanding the urgency of referral to an ophthalmologist is paramount. Some systemic diseases such as leukemia, sarcoidosis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis can present with the chief symptom of a red eye. Finally, trauma, ranging from mild to severe, often precipitates an office visit with a red eye, and thus understanding the signs that raise concern for a ruptured globe is essential. In the primary care setting, with a focused history, a few simple examination techniques, and an appreciation of the differential diagnosis, one can feel confident in managing patients with acute red eyes.

Toxic Keratopathy Following the Use of Alcohol-Containing Antiseptics in Nonocular Surgery.

Corneal abrasion is the most common ocular complication associated with nonocular surgery, but toxic keratopathy is rare.

Prevention of corneal abrasion during LASIK.

Assessment of postoperative pain after corneal collagen cross-linking by iontophoresis vs the rapid epithelium-off technique in progressive keratoconus patients.

Cross-linking (CXL) increases corneal biomechanical strength in progressive keratoconus. Since riboflavin cannot penetrate intact corneal epithelium, removal of epithelium is necessary for the classic CXL procedure (epi-off), but can cause severe postoperative pain. To avoid this problem, a method preserving the epithelium (epi-on) is used. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare postoperative pain after epi-off CXL and epi-on CXL.

Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies and Fragments: Bevacizumab.

Bevacizumab (Avastin) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin antibody that has two antigen-binding domains and blocks all active forms of vascular endothelial growth factor-A. It was originally designed and is still in use as antitumor agent (for colorectal and non-small cell lung cancers). Besides inhibiting vessel growth and neovascularization, the drug promotes the regression of existing microvessels and induces 'normalization' of surviving mature vasculature, stabilizes vessels and prevents leakage. Its molecular weight is 149 kDa and its estimated terminal half-life is approximately 20 days for both men and women. The effectiveness and safety of bevacizumab was proven in retrospective and prospective controlled clinical trials for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, retinal vein occlusion and retinopathy of prematurity, especially for zone I. Uncontrolled trials have shown its effectiveness in various other conditions as myopic and uveitic choroidal neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma. There are no absolute contraindications to intravitreal injection though it is recommended to withhold treatment in patients who have recently suffered from a cardiovascular or cerebrovascular event and during pregnancy. Ocular complications from intravitreal use are usually mild and transient (corneal abrasion, chemosis, subconjunctival hemorrhage and vitreous hemorrhage). Bacterial endophthalmitis is rare (about 0.1%). New or progressive subretinal hemorrhages, tears of the retinal pigment epithelium and an increased incidence of geographic atrophy have also been reported.

Analysis of online patient education materials in pediatric ophthalmology.

Patients increasingly consult online resources for healthcare information. The American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that online education resources be written between a 3rd- and 7th-grade level. This study assesses whether online health information abides by these guidelines.

Safety and Effectiveness of Topical Anesthetics in Corneal Abrasions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Topical anesthetics are used in the emergency department (ED) to relieve eye pain and allow eye examinations in patients with corneal abrasions. There is concern for delayed corneal healing, which is associated with the long-term use of topical anesthetics, so outpatient use is not recommended.