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Coronary artery disease - Top 30 Publications

Genotyping, Platelet Activation, and Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Two Pieces of the Puzzle of Clopidogrel Resistance.

Individual platelet responses to antiplatelet therapy depend on genetic, cellular, and clinical factors. CYP2C19 and P2Y12 receptor polymorphisms are implicated in platelet responses to antiplatelet treatment. We aimed to evaluate the impact of CYP2C19 and C34T P2Y12 genotyping on platelet reactivity and cardiovascular outcome in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on clopidogrel treatment.

Comparison of the prognostic value of negative non-invasive cardiac investigations in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease-a meta-analysis.

To compare the prognostic value of negative non-invasive cardiac investigations (coronary computed tomographic angiography [CCTA], cardiovascular magnetic resonance [CMR], exercise electrocardiographic testing [EET], positron emission tomography [PET], stress-echocardiography [SE], and single-photon emission tomography [SPECT]) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) and to explore the effect of adjustment for population event risk and presence of CAD.

Pre- and postoperative tricuspid regurgitation in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis: importance of pre-operative tricuspid annulus diameter.

Secondary tricuspid regurgitation (STR) is commonly found in patients with aortic stenosis and is associated with increased morbidity. The study sought to evaluate the prevalence of pre-operative STR and its progression after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Also, it sought to analyse the predictors of post-operative changes in STR.

Intravascular multimodality imaging: feasibility and role in the evaluation of coronary plaque pathology.

Coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in the developed world. Over recent years, research has been focused on the development of diagnostic intravascular imaging techniques that enable assessment of plaque composition and morphology, and allow identification of vulnerable, high-risk lesions. Nevertheless recent studies of coronary atherosclerosis have shown that invasive modalities have a limited accuracy in detecting lesions that will progress and cause events, whilst histology-based studies also highlighted the limitations of invasive imaging in assessing plaque characteristics. To overcome these drawbacks, multimodality imaging has been proposed. Although it is apparent that coronary imaging with two or three imaging modalities is time consuming and is associated with a risk of complications, evidence from small clinical studies demonstrated that it provides incremental information about plaque pathology and biology and underscored the need to develop dual-probe hybrid imaging catheters that would enable complete and comprehensive assessment of plaque morphology. This paper reviews the current clinical evidence that supports the use of multimodality intravascular imaging in the study of atherosclerosis, summarizes the key findings of the first invasive imaging studies that utilize hybrid dual-probe catheters, and discusses the limitations of combined intravascular imaging that restrict its broad application in both the clinical and research arena.

Single coronary artery and neonatal arterial switch operation: early and long-term outcomes†.

The presence of single coronary artery (CA) in the arterial switch operation (ASO) for neonatal treatment with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) has been reported to be an independent risk factor for early death after surgical repair and late reintervention. The study objective was to evaluate the mortality and the CA stenosis risk at early and long term in neonatal ASO for TGA and single CA.

Coronary revascularization vs. medical therapy following coronary-computed tomographic angiography in patients with low-, intermediate- and high-risk coronary artery disease: results from the CONFIRM long-term registry.

To identify the effect of early revascularization on 5-year survival in patients with CAD diagnosed by coronary-computed tomographic angiography (CCTA).

Outcome after procedures for retained blood syndrome in coronary surgery.

Incomplete drainage of blood from around the heart and lungs can lead to retained blood syndrome (RBS) after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of and the outcome after procedures for RBS in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Effects of noise on vascular function, oxidative stress, and inflammation: mechanistic insight from studies in mice.

Epidemiological studies indicate that traffic noise increases the incidence of coronary artery disease, hypertension and stroke. The underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Field studies with nighttime noise exposure demonstrate that aircraft noise leads to vascular dysfunction, which is markedly improved by vitamin C, suggesting a key role of oxidative stress in causing this phenomenon.

Improved risk stratification with computed tomographic coronary angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

Myocardial revascularization in patients with left main or multivessel coronary artery disease at high surgical risk: conventional wisdom versus risk prediction model.

Outcome in middle-aged individuals with anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the opposite sinus: a matched cohort study.

Anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus (ACAOS) has been associated with adverse cardiac events in the young. It remains unknown whether this holds true for middle-aged patients with uncorrected ACAOS as well. We assessed the outcome in middle-aged patients with newly diagnosed ACAOS by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) compared with a matched cohort.

Concomitant therapy: off-pump coronary revascularization and transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) is common among patients evaluated for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Only little data exist on outcome of patients undergoing concomitant off-pump coronary revascularization and TAVI. The goal of this study was to analyse the impact of concomitant off-pump revascularization on early clinical outcome and 2-year follow-up of patients undergoing TAVI.

Low target-INR anticoagulation is safe in selected aortic valve patients with the Medtronic Open Pivot mechanical prosthesis: long-term results of a propensity-matched comparison with standard anticoagulation.

To investigate the long-term results of a low international normalized ratio (INR)-anticoagulation program in selected patients after aortic valve replacement (AVR) with the Medtronic Open Pivot mechanical heart valve (OPMHV).

Incidence, presentation and risk factors of late postoperative pericardial effusions requiring invasive treatment after cardiac surgery.

Occurrence and risk factors of late postoperative pericardial effusions requiring invasive treatment, i.e. pretamponade and tamponade, following cardiac surgery are incompletely described in current literature. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and presentation of late pretamponade and tamponade as well as to outline significant predisposing factors.

Coronary Artery Calcification and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death Among Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is highly prevalent in dialysis-naive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are sparse data on the association of CAC with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in this population.

Annexin A1 in blood mononuclear cells from patients with coronary artery disease: Its association with inflammatory status and glucocorticoid sensitivity.

Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a key player in resolution of inflammation and a mediator of glucocorticoid actions. In atherosclerotic tissue, increased expression of AnxA1 has been associated with protective plaque-stabilizing effects. Here, we investigated the expression of AnxA1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood was collected from 57 patients with stable CAD (SCAD) and 41 healthy controls. We also included a minor group (n = 10) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). AnxA1 mRNA was measured in PBMCs. Expression of AnxA1 protein (total and surface-bound) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) were detected in PBMC subsets by flow cytometry. Also, salivary cortisol, interleukin(IL)-6 and IL-10 in plasma, and LPS-induced cytokine secretion from PBMCs, with or without dexamethasone, were assessed. AnxA1 mRNA was found to be slightly increased in PBMCs from SCAD patients compared with controls. However, protein expression of AnxA1 or GRs in PBMC subsets did not differ between SCAD patients and controls, despite SCAD patients showing a more proinflammatory cytokine profile ex vivo. Only surface expression of AnxA1 on monocytes correlated with dexamethasone-mediated suppression of cytokines. In ACS patients, a marked activation of AnxA1 was seen involving both gene expression and translocation of protein to cell surface probably reflecting a rapid glucocorticoid action modulating the acute inflammatory response in ACS. To conclude, surface expression of AnxA1 on monocytes may reflect the degree of glucocorticoid sensitivity. Speculatively, "normal" surface expression of AnxA1 indicates that anti-inflammatory capacity is impaired in SCAD patients.

PRISMA-combined Myeloperoxidase -463G/A gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of 4744 subjects.

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) -463G/A gene polymorphism may be associated with an increased risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD). Studies on the subject, however, do not provide a clear consensus. This meta-analysis was performed to explore the relationship between MPO gene -463G/A polymorphism and CAD risk.

Drug-coated balloon in combination with bare metal stent strategy for de novo coronary artery disease: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Studies examining the efficiency of drug-coated balloon (DCB) + bare metal stent (BMS) compared with stents alone for de novo lesions have reported inconsistent results. The present comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed and compared the clinical efficacy and safety of DCB + BMS with those of stents alone for de novo coronary artery disease.

Direct Xa inhibitors in addition to antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome: meta-analysis of randomized trials.

We carried out a meta-analysis summarizing the efficacy and safety of direct factor Xa inhibitor (DXI) in patients receiving guideline-based antiplatelet therapy (GBAT) after an acute coronary syndrome.

Iatrogenic left circumflex vessel occlusion after minimal access mitral valve repair: the role of optical coherence tomography.

Mid-Term Follow-up of Minimally Invasive Multivessel Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Is the Early Learning Phase Detrimental?

Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICS CABG) through a small left thoracotomy is a novel technique for surgical coronary revascularization, which is increasingly being adopted around the world. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and mid-term outcomes of a series of MICS CABG to identify areas for improvement.

Genetic Risk, Lifestyle, and Coronary Artery Disease.

Genetic Risk, Lifestyle, and Coronary Artery Disease.

Genetic Risk, Lifestyle, and Coronary Artery Disease.

PCSK9 inhibitor access barriers-issues and recommendations: Improving the access process for patients, clinicians and payers.

The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies likely represent the greatest advance in lipid management in 30 years. In 2015 the US Food and Drug Administration approved both alirocumab and evolocumab for high-risk patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease requiring additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Though many lipid specialists, cardiovascular disease prevention experts, endocrinologists, and others prescribed the drugs on label, they found their directives denied 80% to 90% of the time. The high frequency of denials prompted the American Society for Preventive Cardiology (ASPC), to gather multiple stakeholder organizations including the American College of Cardiology, National Lipid Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), and FH Foundation for 2 town hall meetings to identify access issues and implement viable solutions. This article reviews findings recognized and solutions suggested by experts during these discussions. The article is a product of the ASPC, along with each author writing as an individual and endorsed by the AACE.

The clinical use of stress echocardiography in ischemic heart disease.

Stress echocardiography is an established technique for the assessment of extent and severity of coronary artery disease. The combination of echocardiography with a physical, pharmacological or electrical stress allows to detect myocardial ischemia with an excellent accuracy. A transient worsening of regional function during stress is the hallmark of inducible ischemia. Stress echocardiography provides similar diagnostic and prognostic accuracy as radionuclide stress perfusion imaging or magnetic resonance, but at a substantially lower cost, without environmental impact, and with no biohazards for the patient and the physician.The evidence on its clinical impact has been collected over 35 years, based on solid experimental, pathophysiological, technological and clinical foundations. There is the need to implement the combination of wall motion and coronary flow reserve, assessed in the left anterior descending artery, into a single test. The improvement of technology and in imaging quality will make this approach more and more feasible. The future issues in stress echo will be the possibility of obtaining quantitative information translating the current qualitative assessment of regional wall motion into a number. The next challenge for stress echocardiography is to overcome its main weaknesses: dependance on operator expertise, the lack of outcome data (a widesperad problem in clinical imaging) to document the improvement of patient outcomes. This paper summarizes the main indications for the clinical applications of stress echocardiography to ischemic heart disease.

Left ventricular tumour masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: how one can be misled by transthoracic echocardiography.

Coronary Artery Calcium Score and Bone Metabolism: A Pilot Study in Postmenopausal Women.

Since 1991 many studies evaluated the link between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis, two age-related conditions, but the main common pathologic pathway has not been determined yet. The histological similarity between arterial calcified plaque and bone matrix and involvement of similar cells and mediators provide a special field of research. Therefore in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium score (CACS) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and bone mediators and parameters in postmenopausal women.

Porphyromonas gingivalis is the most abundant species detected in coronary and femoral arteries.

An association between oral bacteria and atherosclerosis has been postulated. A limited number of studies have used 16S RNA gene sequencing-based metagenomics approaches to identify bacteria at the species level from atherosclerotic plaques in arterial walls. The objective of this study was to establish detailed oral microbiome profiles, at both genus and species level, of clinically healthy coronary and femoral artery tissues from patients with atherosclerosis. Tissue specimens were taken from clinically non-atherosclerotic areas of coronary or femoral arteries used for attachment of bypass grafts in 42 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Bacterial DNA was sequenced using the MiSeq platform, and sequence reads were screened in silico for nearly 600 oral species using the HOMINGS ProbeSeq species identification program. The number of sequence reads matched to species or genera were used for statistical analyses. A total of 230 and 118 species were detected in coronary and femoral arteries, respectively. Unidentified species detected by genus-specific probes consisted of 45 and 30 genera in coronary and in femoral artery tissues, respectively. Overall, 245 species belonging to 95 genera were detected in coronary and femoral arteries combined. The most abundant species were Porphyromonas gingivalis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Finegoldia magna based on species probes. Porphyromonas, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Streptococcus genera represented 88.5% mean relative abundance based on combined species and genus probe detections. Porphyromonas was significantly more abundant than Escherichia (i.e. 46.8% vs. 19.3%; p = 0.0005). This study provides insight into the presence and types of oral microbiome bacterial species found in clinically non-atherosclerotic arteries.

Head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography and dobutamine-stress echocardiography in the evaluation of acute chest pain with normal ECG findings and negative troponin tests: A prospective multicenter study.

To perform a head-to-head comparison of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and dobutamine-stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients presenting recent chest pain when troponin and ECG are negative.