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Coronary artery disease - Top 30 Publications

Association of dietary factors with severity of coronary artery disease.

Cardiovascular disease has taken epidemic proportions during past decades. Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to progression of coronary lesions, worsening the patient's prognosis. This study was planned to analyze the association of dietary factors with severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Indian patients.

Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived lipid core burden index predicts adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients with coronary artery disease during long-term follow-up.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is able to quantify cholesterol within coronary arteries by the lipid core burden index (LCBI). We studied the prognostic value of NIRS-derived LCBI in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for adverse cardiac outcome during long-term follow-up.

Fifteen new risk loci for coronary artery disease highlight arterial-wall-specific mechanisms.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although 58 genomic regions have been associated with CAD thus far, most of the heritability is unexplained, indicating that additional susceptibility loci await identification. An efficient discovery strategy may be larger-scale evaluation of promising associations suggested by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, we genotyped 56,309 participants using a targeted gene array derived from earlier GWAS results and performed meta-analysis of results with 194,427 participants previously genotyped, totaling 88,192 CAD cases and 162,544 controls. We identified 25 new SNP-CAD associations (P < 5 × 10(-8), in fixed-effects meta-analysis) from 15 genomic regions, including SNPs in or near genes involved in cellular adhesion, leukocyte migration and atherosclerosis (PECAM1, rs1867624), coagulation and inflammation (PROCR, rs867186 (p.Ser219Gly)) and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation (LMOD1, rs2820315). Correlation of these regions with cell-type-specific gene expression and plasma protein levels sheds light on potential disease mechanisms.

Genetic Susceptibility Contributing to Periodontal and Cardiovascular Disease.

Periodontal disease (PD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are common diseases characterized by an overaggressive inflammatory response to diverse stimuli. Whereas PD leads to destruction of the tooth-supporting structures, CAD is a chronic inflammatory condition ultimately causing myocardial infarction via narrowing and occluding of blood vessels. Classical twin studies led to the conclusion that both complex diseases have a similar degree of heritability and that a significant fraction of the genetic factors accounting for this heritability is shared. Recent genome-wide association and large-scale candidate gene studies highlight that variations in >50 genes are associated with premature CAD, while variations in only 4 genes showing nominally significant associations with aggressive periodontitis and/or chronic periodontitis have so far been identified. Remarkably, 3 of the PD loci (75%) show shared associations with CAD ( ANRIL/CDKN2B-AS1, PLG, CAMTA1/VAMP3), suggesting involvement of common pathogenic mechanisms. In this critical review, we highlight recent progress in identifying genetic markers and variants associated with PD, present their overlap with CAD, and discuss functional aspects. In addition, we answer why a significant fraction of the heritability of PD is still missing, and we suggest approaches that may be taken to close the gap.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after intravenous epinephrine administration following cardiac arrest provoked by pneumoperitoneum - a case report.

In stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) high levels of catecholamines, including epinephrine, may be detected in blood. On the other hand, administration of exogenous epinephrine may occasionally result in TC.

EVALUATION OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE TREATMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF STROKE.

An ischemic stroke is an event that occurs due to cerebral vascular disease and is directly related to the degree of vascular damage. This process is associated with atherosclerosis progression and is influenced by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors.

THE CORONARY SINUS REDUCER: A DEVICEBASED THERAPY FOR REFRACTORY ANGINA.

Alongside the remarkable progress in therapeutic strategies destined to patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), a growing number of patients who suffer from severe and diffuse CAD not amenable for revascularization, continue to experience severe debilitating angina despite optimal medical therapy. The Coronary Sinus (CS) Reducer has emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with refractory angina pectoris. The Reducer is a stainless steel, balloon-expandable, hourglass shaped device implanted percutaneously through the right internal jugular vein in the coronary sinus. After implantation it creates a controlled narrowing of the lumen, leading to an increase in coronary venues pressure, which improves blood flow to ischemic layers of the myocardium by redistribution of blood from the subepicardial myocardium to the more ischemic subendocardial layers of the myocardium, thus improving angina symptoms and quality of life.

Coronary Artery Aneurysms: A Review of the Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are uncommon and describe a localized dilatation of a coronary artery segment more than 1.5-fold compared with adjacent normal segments. The incidence of CAAs varies from 0.3 to 5.3%. Ever since the dawn of the interventional era, CAAs have been increasingly diagnosed on coronary angiography. Causative factors include atherosclerosis, Takayasu arteritis, congenital disorders, Kawasaki disease (KD), and percutaneous coronary intervention. The natural history of CAAs remains unclear; however, several recent studies have postulated the underlying molecular mechanisms of CAAs, and genome-wide association studies have revealed several genetic predispositions to CAA. Controversies persist regarding the management of CAAs, and emerging findings support the importance of an early diagnosis in patients predisposed to CAAs, such as in children with KD. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge of CAAs and collate the recent advances regarding the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease.

Advances in dyslipidemia management for prevention of atherosclerosis: PCSK9 monoclonal antibody therapy and beyond.

In 2003, select families with familial hypercholesterolemia were first identified to have gain-of-function mutations for proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) followed, in 2006, by the identification of those with lifelong low levels of LDL-C and lowered atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk who had loss-of-function PCSK9 mutations. These discoveries led to the rapid development of PSCK9-targeted monoclonal antibody (PCSK9 mAb) therapies and, in 2015, 2 'fully-humanized' PCSK9 mAbs (alirocumab and evolocumab) were marketed in the United States, Europe, and other countries. In a wide range of high risk patients, with and without ASCVD, these PCSK9 mAbs, as once or twice monthly subcutaneous injections, potently reduce LDL-C 50-65% beyond levels achieved by maximally tolerated statin therapy; approximately one-third of patients achieve LDL-C levels <25 mg/dL. In the US, PCSK9 mAb therapy has current limited indications for persons with ASCVD or familial hypercholesterolemia requiring additional LDL-C reduction beyond maximally tolerated statin therapy. The first of the ASCVD outcomes-driven trials, the FOURIER trial has very recently shown in over 27,000 subjects randomized to evolocumab or placebo on top of moderate or high intensity statin therapy, a 15% risk reduction in the primary and 20% reduction in the secondary outcome over 2.2 years of treatment. Also of interest in patients with coronary artery disease on statin therapies, once-monthly evolocumab treatment, for only 76 weeks, resulted in significant plaque atheroma volume regression, as assessed by serial intravascular ultrasonography imaging, in approximately two-thirds of treated patients. Finally, in development is a highly durable RNA interference therapeutic inhibitor of PCSK9 synthesis which from a single dosage has been shown to maintain, for 6 months, a 75% reduction in PCSK9 levels and 50% reductions in LDL-C levels. The potential role of this vaccination-like product, as well as currently available PCSK9 mAb therapies, represents significant therapeutic advances to address ASCVD residual risk.

Basal hyperinsulinemia beyond a threshold predicts major adverse cardiac events at 1 year after coronary angiogram in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study.

There is a substantial reduction in cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality in the general population attributed to improved treatment of cardiac risk factors and disease, the same magnitude of benefit has not been observed in those with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with the cardiac outcome at 1 year after coronary angiogram in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to compare the outcomes with nondiabetics.

Normalization of Diffuse ST-Depression with aVR Elevation After Rehydration in a Patient with Severe Aortic Stenosis.

BACKGROUND Isolated ST elevation in lead aVR in combination with global ST depression with normalization after rehydration is a unique electrocardiographic pattern that is associated with a broad range of diagnoses. Its association with left main coronary artery disease and other acute coronary syndromes suggest the need for early and aggressive cardiac evaluation. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old man presented with altered mental status and loss of consciousness. He was unresponsive, hypotensive, tachycardiac, and diaphoretic. An initial ECG showed diffuse ST depression with isolated ST elevation in lead aVR, and initial troponin levels were negative. After rehydration, a repeat ECG showed sinus rhythm without ischemic changes. An emergent echocardiogram showed severe aortic stenosis and global hypokinesis. Repeat troponin results were elevated. The patient had 2 subsequent cardiac arrests. Emergent cardiac catheterization showed an occluded right coronary artery with collaterals and complete occlusion of the LAD. Urgent intra-aortic balloon pump was placed, followed by coronary artery bypass graft, aortic valve replacement, and a placement of a left ventricular assist device. Despite maximal hemodynamic support, the patient died after cardiac arrest due to massive myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS Normalization of diffuse ST depression with isolated aVR ST elevation on electrocardiography with improvement in clinical and hemodynamic status through fluid resuscitation can mask a stuttering myocardial infarction given its association with left main coronary artery disease and partial right coronary artery occlusion.

Reproducibility of flow mediated skin fluorescence to assess microvascular function.

Recent technical developments enable skin fluorescence to be quantified in vivo in humans. The present study aimed at determining whether flow mediated skin fluorescence was reproducible, sensitive to changes within an individual, and if it could differ between patients with coronary artery disease and healthy volunteers.

Outcomes of patients with myocardial infarction who underwent orbital atherectomy for severely calcified lesions.

This study analyzed the outcomes of patients who presented with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and subsequently underwent orbital atherectomy for severe coronary artery calcification (CAC).

Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition may reduce diastolic function in women with ischemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease.

Ischemia, in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, is prevalent in women, and associated with increased risk for major cardiovascular events. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is prevalent in these patients, and associated with impaired diastolic function. Despite our general understanding, however, optimal treatment of this cohort remains elusive.

Rapid rest/stress regadenoson ungated perfusion CMR for detection of coronary artery disease in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion has been established as a useful imaging modality for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there are several limitations when applying standard, ECG-gated stress/rest perfusion CMR to patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study we investigate an approach with no ECG gating and a rapid rest/stress perfusion protocol to determine its accuracy for detection of CAD in patients with AF. 26 patients with AF underwent a rapid rest/regadenoson stress CMR perfusion imaging protocol, and all patients had X-ray coronary angiography. An ungated radial myocardial perfusion sequence was used. Imaging protocol included: rest perfusion image acquisition, followed nearly immediately by administration of regadenoson to induce hyperemia, 60 s wait, and stress image acquisition. CMR perfusion images were interpreted by three blinded readers as normal or abnormal. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by comparison to X-ray angiography. 21 of the CMR rest/stress perfusion scans were negative, and 5 were positive by angiography criteria. Majority results of the ungated datasets from all of the readers showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 80, 100 and 96%, respectively, for detection of CAD. An ungated, rapid rest/stress regadenoson perfusion CMR protocol appears to be useful for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD in patients with AF.

C-GRApH: A Validated Scoring System for Early Stratification of Neurologic Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Treated With Targeted Temperature Management.

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) results in significant morbidity and mortality, primarily from neurologic injury. Predicting neurologic outcome early post-OHCA remains difficult in patients receiving targeted temperature management.

Predicting long-term bleeding risk after acute coronary syndrome: a step closer to optimising dual antiplatelet therapy duration?

Exercise Is Medicine: Proof . . . and Possibilities?

Coronary CT Angiography With PET Perfusion Imaging: Hybrid or Hype?

Impact of Exercise on the Relationship Between CAC Scores and All-Cause Mortality.

This study aims to assess the correlations among coronary artery calcium (CAC), self-reported exercise, and mortality in asymptomatic patients.

Long-Term Prognosis of Patients With Intramural Course of Coronary Arteries Assessed With CT Angiography.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in low-to-intermediate pre-test probability patients who were referred for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and did not show obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), whether an intramural course of a coronary artery is associated with worse outcome compared with patients without an intramural course of the coronary arteries.

Prognostic Value of Coronary CT Angiography With Selective PET Perfusion Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of sequential hybrid imaging strategy in which positron emission tomography (PET) perfusion imaging is performed selectively in patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA).

Sclerosing Aortic and Coronary Arteritis Due to IgG4-Related Disease.

We present the case of a 55-year-old woman admitted for a coronary artery bypass operation because of three-vessel coronary artery disease based on angiographic findings and clinical symptoms. Unexpected intraoperative findings with diffuse tissue thickening of the ascending aorta and coronary arteries indicated an alternate pathogenesis rather than coronary artery atherosclerosis. Histopathologic findings and clinical evaluation could confirm IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). IgG4-RD is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory condition that can present in a variety of organs and is characterized by common histopathologic features. Low disease awareness among clinicians makes this condition underdiagnosed.

Predictors Associated With Increased Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Chinese Patients with Atherosclerotic Risk Factors.

Epidemiological screening studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) of Asian origin appears to be low and so increases uncertainty about the cost effectiveness of screening for AAAs in Chinese people. Some studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence of AAA in patients with atherosclerotic risk factors. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAA and to explore the high risk group of AAA in Chinese patients with atherosclerotic risk factors.

Lutein exerts anti-inflammatory effects in patients with coronary artery disease.

Many coronary artery disease (CAD) patients exhibit chronic low-grade inflammation. Carotenoids are anti-oxidants with potential anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we first assessed relationships between interleukin (IL)-6 and individual carotenoids in plasma from CAD patients. Based on the results, we proceeded to assess anti-inflammatory effects of one carotenoid, lutein, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CAD patients.

Changes in sternal perfusion following internal mammary artery bypass surgery.

Coronary bypass surgery using the internal mammary artery (IMA) is among the most commonly performed procedures in treatment of advanced coronary vessel disease. Further, bilateral harvesting of the IMA is associated with increased rates of sternal wound infections.

Development of a new risk nomogram of perioperative major adverse cardiac events for Chinese patients undergoing colorectal carcinoma surgery.

The purpose of this study is to create a new risk nomogram to predict perioperative major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing colorectal carcinoma surgery.

Two-year outcome and risk factors for mortality in patients with coronary artery disease and renal failure: The prospective, observational CAD-REF Registry.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are strongly associated. CAD is the most frequent cause of cardiovascular death in patients with CKD.

Trastuzumab emtansine versus capecitabine plus lapatinib in patients with previously treated HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (EMILIA): a descriptive analysis of final overall survival results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

The antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine is indicated for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane. Approval of this drug was based on progression-free survival and interim overall survival data from the phase 3 EMILIA study. In this report, we present a descriptive analysis of the final overall survival data from that trial.

TNF-α is superior to conventional inflammatory mediators in forecasting IVIG nonresponse and coronary arteritis in Chinese children with Kawasaki disease.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α is of inflammatory cytokines produced chiefly by activated monocyte/macrophages, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD). We elucidated the relationship of plasma TNF-α with conventional inflammatory mediators, clinical classification, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) response and coronary arteritis in the course of KD.