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Crescent - Top 30 Publications

Structure of mycobacterial 3'-to-5' RNA:DNA helicase Lhr bound to a ssDNA tracking strand highlights distinctive features of a novel family of bacterial helicases.

Mycobacterial Lhr is a DNA damage-inducible superfamily 2 helicase that uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to drive unidirectional 3'-to-5' translocation along single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and to unwind RNA:DNA duplexes en route. ATPase, translocase and helicase activities are encompassed within the N-terminal 856-amino acid segment. The crystal structure of Lhr-(1-856) in complex with AMPPNP•Mg2+ and ssDNA defines a new helicase family. The enzyme comprises two N-terminal RecA-like modules, a winged helix (WH) domain and a unique C-terminal domain. The 3' ssDNA end binds in a crescent-shaped groove at the interface between the first RecA domain and the WH domain and tracks 5' into a groove between the second RecA and C domains. A kissing interaction between the second RecA and C domains forms an aperture that demarcates a putative junction between the loading strand tail and the duplex, with the first duplex nucleoside bookended by stacking on Trp597. Intercalation of Ile528 between nucleosides of the loading strand creates another bookend. Coupling of ATP hydrolysis to RNA:DNA unwinding is dependent on Trp597 and Ile528, and on Thr145 and Arg279 that contact phosphates of the loading strand. The structural and functional data suggest a ratchet mechanism of translocation and unwinding coupled to ATP-driven domain movements.

Antibacterial Assessment of Heteroaryl, Vinyl, Benzyl, and Alkyl Tetrazole Compounds.

In previous reports, the antibacterial properties of certain tetrazole derivatives have been described. We have previously reported the antibacterial properties of aryl 1H-tetrazole compounds.

Strengthening mental health care systems for Syrian refugees in Europe and the Middle East: integrating scalable psychological interventions in eight countries.

The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees.

Temporal expression pattern of genes during the period of sex differentiation in human embryonic gonads.

The precise timing and sequence of changes in expression of key genes and proteins during human sex-differentiation and onset of steroidogenesis was evaluated by whole-genome expression in 67 first trimester human embryonic and fetal ovaries and testis and confirmed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). SRY/SOX9 expression initiated in testis around day 40 pc, followed by initiation of AMH and steroidogenic genes required for androgen production at day 53 pc. In ovaries, gene expression of RSPO1, LIN28, FOXL2, WNT2B, and ETV5, were significantly higher than in testis, whereas GLI1 was significantly higher in testis than ovaries. Gene expression was confirmed by IHC for GAGE, SOX9, AMH, CYP17A1, LIN28, WNT2B, ETV5 and GLI1. Gene expression was not associated with the maternal smoking habits. Collectively, a precise temporal determination of changes in expression of key genes involved in human sex-differentiation is defined, with identification of new genes of potential importance.

11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase-1 Deficiency Alters Brain Energy Metabolism In Acute Systemic Inflammation.

Chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels impair cognition and are pro-inflammatory in the brain. Deficiency or inhibition of 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11 β -HSD1), which converts inactive into active glucocorticoids, protects against glucocorticoid-associated chronic stress- or age-related cognitive impairment. Here, we hypothesised that 11 β -HSD1 deficiency attenuates the brain cytokine response to inflammation. Because inflammation is associated with altered energy metabolism, we also examined the effects of 11 β -HSD1 deficiency upon hippocampal energy metabolism. Inflammation was induced in 11 β -HSD1 deficient (Hsd11b1(Del/Del)) and C57BL/6 control mice by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS reduced circulating neutrophil and monocyte numbers and increased plasma corticosterone levels equally in C57BL/6 and Hsd11b1(Del/Del) mice, suggesting a similar peripheral inflammatory response. However, the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs in the hippocampus was attenuated in Hsd11b1(Del/Del) mice. Principal component analysis of mRNA expression revealed a distinct metabolic response to LPS in hippocampus of Hsd11b1(Del/Del) mice. Expression of Pfkfb3 and Ldha, key contributors to the Warburg effect, showed greater induction in Hsd11b1(Del/Del) mice. Consistent with increased glycolytic flux, levels of 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate were reduced in hippocampus of LPS injected Hsd11b1(Del/Del) mice. Expression of Sdha and Sdhb, encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase/complex II that determines mitochondrial reserve respiratory capacity, was induced specifically in hippocampus of LPS injected Hsd11b1(Del/Del) mice, together with increased levels of its product, fumarate. These data suggest 11 β -HSD1 deficiency attenuates the hippocampal pro-inflammatory response to LPS, associated with increased capacity for aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP generation. This may provide better metabolic support and be neuroprotective during systemic inflammation or aging.

Quantifying infective endocarditis risk in patients with predisposing cardiac conditions.

There are scant comparative data quantifying the risk of infective endocarditis (IE) and associated mortality in individuals with predisposing cardiac conditions.

Discontinuation of Hemodialysis in a Patient with Anti-GBM Disease by the Treatment with Corticosteroids and Plasmapheresis despite Several Predictors for Dialysis-Dependence.

A 26-year-old man highly suspected of having antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease was treated with corticosteroid pulse therapy 9 days after initial infection-like symptoms with high procalcitonin value. The patient required hemodialysis the next day of the treatment due to oliguria. In addition to corticosteroid therapy, plasmapheresis was introduced and the patient could discontinue hemodialysis 43 days after the treatment. Kidney biopsy after initiation of hemodialysis confirmed anti-GBM disease with 86.3% crescent formation. Physician should keep in mind that active anti-GBM disease shows even high procalcitonin value in the absence of infection. To pursue recovery of renal function, the challenge of the immediate and persistent treatment with high-dose corticosteroids plus plasmapheresis for highly suspected anti-GBM disease is vitally important despite the presence of reported predictors for dialysis-dependence including oliguria and requiring hemodialysis at presentation.

Partial humeral replacement for peri-prosthetic fractures of the humerus.

Treating peri-prosthetic fractures of the humerus can be very challenging, especially when there is poor bone stock and in the presence of adjacent joint prostheses. We discuss the option of a partial humeral replacement as a salvage procedure for such cases with some technical comments.

An apoptosis-driven 'onco-regenerative niche': roles of tumour-associated macrophages and extracellular vesicles.

The cell-death programme, apoptosis, is well established as a tumour suppressor mechanism. Paradoxically, high levels of apoptosis in tumours are closely coupled with poor prognosis. Indeed, where it has been studied, cell loss is a striking feature of high-grade cancers, illustrating the importance of considering malignant disease as an imbalance between cell gain and cell loss that favours cell gain rather than as a unidirectional disorder of cell gain alone. In addition to orchestrating cell loss, apoptosis can signal regenerative responses-for example compensatory proliferation-in neighbouring cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that normal tissue repair and regenerative processes are hijacked in the malignant tissue microenvironment such that cancer may be likened to a 'wound that fails to stop repairing'. We have proposed that a critical requirement for the successful growth, progression and re-growth of malignant tumours is a complex milieu, conceptually termed the 'onco-regenerative niche', which is composed, in addition to transformed neoplastic cells, of a network of normal cells and factors activated as if in tissue repair and regeneration. Our work is based around the hypothesis that tumour cell apoptosis, macrophage activation and endothelial activation are key, interlinked elements of the onco-regenerative niche and that apoptotic tumour cell-derived extracellular vesicles provide critical intercellular communication vehicles of the niche. In aggressive B-cell lymphoma, tumour cell apoptosis promotes both angiogenesis and the accumulation of pro-tumour macrophages in the lymphoma microenvironment. Furthermore, apoptotic lymphoma-derived extracellular vesicles have potent pro-tumour potential. These findings have important implications for the roles of apoptosis in regulation of malignant diseases and for the efficacy of apoptosis-inducing anti-cancer therapies.This article is part of the discussion meeting issue 'Extracellular vesicles and the tumour microenvironment'.

Slender women and overweight men: gender differences in the educational gradient in body weight in South Korea.

Little is known about the gender-specific mechanisms through which education is associated with weight status in societies that have experienced a rapid rise in their obesity rates. This study extends previous literature by examining how the link between education and weight status operates within the structure of gender relations in South Korea where huge gender differences have been observed in the educational inequalities in weight status.

Chondroprotection in Models of Cartilage Injury by Raising the Temperature and Osmolarity of Irrigation Solutions.

Objectives During arthroscopic or open joint surgery, articular cartilage may be subjected to mechanical insults by accident or design. These may lead to chondrocyte death, cartilage breakdown and posttraumatic osteoarthritis. We have shown that increasing osmolarity of routinely used normal saline protected chondrocytes against injuries that may occur during orthopedic surgery. Often several liters of irrigation fluid are used during an orthopedic procedure, which is usually kept at room temperature, but is sometimes chilled. Here, we compared the effect of normal and hyperosmolar saline solution at different temperatures on chondrocyte viability following cartilage injury using in vitro and in vivo models of scalpel-induced injury. Design Cartilage injury was induced in bovine osteochondral explants and the patellar groove of rats in vivo by a single pass of a scalpel blade in the presence of normal saline (300 mOsm) or hyperosmolar saline solution (600 mOsm, sucrose addition) at 4°C, 21°C, or 37°C. Chondrocytes were fluorescently labeled and visualized by confocal microscopy to assess cell death. Results Hyperosmolar saline reduced scalpel-induced chondrocyte death in both bovine and rat cartilage by ~50% at all temperatures studied (4°C, 21°C, 37°C; P < 0.05). Raising temperature of both irrigation solutions to 37°C reduced scalpel-induced cell death ( P < 0.05). Conclusions Increasing the osmolarity of normal saline and raising the temperature of the irrigation solutions to 37°C reduced chondrocyte death associated with scalpel-induced injury in both in vitro and in vivo cartilage injury models. A hyperosmolar saline irrigation solution at 37°C may protect cartilage by decreasing the risk of chondrocyte death during mechanical injury.

The importance of the contribution of rapid test, serological and molecular methods in the diagnosis of two imported malaria cases with atypical microscopy.

Malaria is a widespread and life-threatening disease in tropical and subtropical regions. In patients with typical clinical symptoms, malaria is considered as a preliminary diagnosis if there is a travel history to malaria-endemic areas. The basis of the laboratory diagnosis of malaria is the microscopic examination of Giemsa stained smears. On the other hand, the diagnosis and differentiation of Plasmodium species with microscopic examination may have some difficulties. In the first case, adifferent appearance from the classical Plasmodium vivax erythrocytic forms in infected erythrocytes were detected in 1% of all erythrocytes in thin smear blood preparations of a 26-year-old male with complaints of fever and chills and a story of travel to Nigeria. It was observed that parasitic nuclei were not prominent, and were located in the cytoplasm irregularly as chromatin or dye particles, nucleus fragments similar to Schüffner's granules in the form of scattered and granular spots were present in some erythrocytes, the cytoplasm of some Plasmodium erythrocytic forms were irregular and nuclei were not seen. There were no Schüffner's granules in any of the infected erythrocytes. P.vivax was detected by the rapid diagnostic test (OptiMAL, DiaMed GmbH, Switzerland), which searches for the antigens of Plasmodium species, in the peripheral blood sample of the patients. The P.vivax 18S rRNA gene was also detected by the multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Antibodies against Plasmodium species were searched by using the Pan Malaria Antibody CELISA (CeLLabs Pty Ltd, Brookvale, Australia) kit in the patient's serum sample and the optical density (OD) value of the patient sample was measured five times the OD value of the positive control. In the second case, adifferent appearance from the classical P.falciparum erythrocytic forms in infected erythrocytes were detected in 12% of all erythrocytes in thin smear blood preparations of a 31-year-old male who has been suffering from persistent fever, severe headache, pain in the eyes and was known to be working in Nigeria. It was observed that some Plasmodium trophozoites have 1/3 of the size of erythrocytes such as P.vivax and have non-granular cytoplasm, some erythrocytic forms were round and the nucleus and cytoplasm were hardly distinguished, some of them were seen as crescent and close to the nucleus of the cytoplasm and some erythrocytic forms had characteristically a single nucleus and a scattered cytoplasm, similar to mature trophozoites of P.vivax. Although the Plasmodium young trophozoites were similar to P.vivax in means of magnitude, the forms in which the nuclei adhered to the erythrocyte wall were common. There were no P.falciparum gametocyte forms. P.falciparum like young trophozoite was observedonly in one of the four smears. P.falciparum was detected by the commercial rapid diagnostic test and P.falciparum 18S rRNA gene was also detected by the multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Antibody formation against Plasmodium species was not detected in the ELISA test. In these case reports, the importance of the support of rapid diagnostic tests, serological and molecular methods to microscopic diagnosis and species determination of two imported malaria cases were demonstrated.

Publisher Correction: Global trade statistics lack granularity to inform traceability and management of diverse and high-value fishes.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

A general synthetic route to isomerically pure functionalized rhodamine dyes.

A well-documented obstacle in the synthesis of functionalized rhodamine dyes is the generation of regioisomers which are difficult to separate. These isomers occur due to the use of unsymmetrical anhydride reagents, which possess two potential points of reactivity where condensation with meta-aminophenols can take place. In this report we describe a method which eliminates this problem by using phthalaldehydic acids as anhydride replacements. These reagents provide only one point of reactivity for the aminophenol, thus allowing direct access to single isomer tetramethylrhodamines and avoiding isomer generation altogether. A range of functionalities are shown to be tolerated at the 5- and 6-position of the dye compounds which are prepared in up to gram quantities using our method. The scope of the method is further demonstrated by the preparation of additional rhodamine family members Rhodamine B and X-Rhodamine.

Compassion in Practice - evaluating the awareness, involvement and perceived impact of a national nursing and midwifery strategy amongst health care professionals in NHS Trusts in England.

To report the findings from an evaluation of the impact of the Compassion in Practice Vision & Strategy (CiPVS) (National Health Service England (NHSE), 2012) on nursing, midwifery and care staff.

Multi-locus sequence typing of African swine fever viruses from endemic regions of Kenya and Eastern Uganda (2011-2013) reveals rapid B602L central variable region evolution.

The central variable region (CVR) within the B602L gene of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is highly polymorphic within the 23 ASFV genotypes defined by sequencing of the C-terminal end of the p72 locus. Sequencing the p54 gene further discriminates ASFV genotypes that are conserved at the p72 locus. Variation in the thymidine kinase locus is a novel additional tool for ASFV genotyping whose application for this purpose is described for the first time herein. We evaluated genetic variation at these four polymorphic loci in 39 ASFV isolates obtained from outbreaks in Kenya and a region of Eastern Uganda between 2011 and 2013. Analysis of the p72 and p54 loci revealed high genetic conservation among these isolates; all clustered within p72 genotype IX and were similar to isolates associated with earlier outbreaks in East Africa. The thymidine kinase gene of the Kenyan isolates in this study were distinct relative to Southern African isolates and synonymous substitutions were observed among viruses from central Kenya. Analysis of the CVR within the B602L gene revealed two previously unknown polymorphisms that were restricted to Western Kenya and Eastern Uganda. A novel variant was revealed within CVR subgroup XXIV and a novel CVR subgroup XXIVa that contains tetrameric repeat F which has previously only been associated with p72 genotype I, was also identified for the first time in East Africa. Phylogeographic analysis of isolates based on CVR polymorphisms revealed rapid evolution and dissemination of variants present within ASFV genotype IX in East Africa.

Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases Causing the Air Crescent Sign: A State-of-the-Art Review.

Aspergilloma, also known as mycetoma or fungus ball, is characterized by a round or oval mass with soft-tissue attenuation within a preexisting lung cavity. The typical computed tomography (CT) aspect of an aspergilloma is a mass separated from the wall of the cavity by an airspace of variable size and shape, resulting in the air crescent sign, also known as the meniscus sign. This CT feature is non-specific and can be simulated by several other entities that result in intracavitary masses. This review describes the main clinical and imaging aspects of the infectious and non-infectious diseases that may present with fungus-ball appearance, including pulmonary hydatid cyst, Rasmussen aneurysm, pulmonary gangrene, intracavitary clot, textiloma, lung cancer, metastasis, and teratoma, focusing on the differential diagnosis.

A clinical analysis of micafungin treatment of pulmonary invasive fungal infection in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of micafungin (MCF) for pulmonary invasive fungal disease (PIFD) in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Method: Twenty-five neutropenic PIFD children with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were selected from January 2012 to June 2015, including 12 males and 13 females, age range 2-15 (average 6.2±2.0) years. There were 12 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after chemotherapy, 4 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and 9 cases of β-thalassemia major after allo-HSCT. All children received MCM for the treatment of PIFD, the dosage of MCM was 3-4 mg/ (kg·d) , once a day. The children received 2 to 6 courses of treatment, individually with a course of 7 days. 1, 3-β-D glucan assay (G test), galactomannan antigen test (GM test), high-resolution CT and the biochemical indexes for organ functions were closely monitored. Result: Twenty-five cases were diagnosed as PIFD, including 2 patients diagnosed as proven, 6 as probable and 17 as possible. Of the 25 cases, 1 was confirmed aspergillus by biopsy pathology and 1 was candida albicans by blood culture. The G and GM test with positive results was 5 and 2 respectively. Chest CT scans of the 25 cases had obvious lesions: air crescent sign and cavitation in 4 cases, diffuse ground glass change in 9 cases, double lung scattered patchy, small nodules and cord like high density shadow in 7 cases, unilateral or bilateral chest wall wedge-shaped consolidation edge in 5 cases and pleural effusion in 5 patients. The effective rate of MCF in treatment of PIFD was 68% (17/25), including 13 cases cured, 4 cases improved, 4 cases were improved clinically and in 4 cases the treatment was ineffective. Eight cases were effective in MCF monotherapy group (12 cases) and nine were effective in MCF combined therapy group(13 cases), respectively. Side-effects including allergies, gastrointestinal side effects, electrolyte disturbances, impairment of liver and kidney function, and myelosuppression were not found in those children treated with MCF. Conclusion: Micafungin is effective and safe in the treatment of pulmonary invasive fungal disease in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

WITHDRAWN: Electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation and flutter.

Atrial fibrillation increases stroke risk and adversely affects cardiovascular haemodynamics. Electrical cardioversion may, by restoring sinus rhythm, improve cardiovascular haemodynamics, reduce the risk of stroke, and obviate the need for long-term anticoagulation.

11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases and Hypertension in the Metabolic Syndrome.

The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome. This is not increased systemic in circulating cortisol, rather increased bioavailability of active glucocorticoids within tissues. This review examines the role of covert glucocorticoid excess on the hypertension of the metabolic syndrome. Here, the role of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, which exert intracrine and paracrine control over glucocorticoid signalling, is examined. 11βHSD1 amplifies glucocorticoid action in cells and contributes to hypertension through direct and indirect effects on the kidney and vasculature. The deactivation of glucocorticoid by 11βHSD2 controls ligand access to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors: loss of function promotes salt retention and hypertension. As for hypertension in general, high blood pressure in the metabolic syndrome reflects a complex interaction between multiple systems. The clear association between high dietary salt, glucocorticoid production, and metabolic disorders has major relevance for human health and warrants systematic evaluation.

Modification of membrane properties and fatty acids biosynthesis-related genes in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus: Implications for the antibacterial mechanism of naringenin.

In this work, modifications of cell membrane fluidity, fatty acid composition and fatty acid biosynthesis-associated genes of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (S. aureus), during growth in the presence of naringenin (NAR), one of the natural antibacterial components in citrus plants, was investigated. Compared to Escherichia coli, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly inhibited by NAR in low concentrations. Combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with fluorescence polarization analysis revealed that E. coli and S. aureus cells increased membrane fluidity by altering the composition of membrane fatty acids after exposure to NAR. For example, E. coli cells produced more unsaturated fatty acids (from 18.5% to 43.3%) at the expense of both cyclopropane and saturated fatty acids after growth in the concentrations of NAR from 0 to 2.20mM. For S. aureus grown with NAR at 0 to 1.47mM, the relative proportions of anteiso-branched chain fatty acids increased from 37.2% to 54.4%, whereas iso-branched and straight chain fatty acids decreased from 30.0% and 33.1 to 21.6% and 23.7%, respectively. Real time q-PCR analysis showed that NAR at higher concentrations induced a significant down-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated genes in the bacteria, with the exception of an increased expression of fabA gene. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of NAR against these two bacteria was determined, and both of bacteria underwent morphological changes after exposure to 1.0 and 2.0 MIC.

Disentangling regional trade agreements, trade flows and tobacco affordability in sub-Saharan Africa.

In principle, trade and investment agreements are meant to boost economic growth. However, the removal of trade barriers and the provision of investment incentives to attract foreign direct investments may facilitate increased trade in and/or more efficient production of commodities considered harmful to health such as tobacco. We analyze existing evidence on trade and investment liberalization and its relationship to tobacco trade in Sub-Saharan African countries.

Calcific aortic valve stenosis: hard disease in the heart: A biomolecular approach towards diagnosis and treatment.

Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is common in the ageing population and set to become an increasing economic and health burden. Once present, it inevitably progresses and has a poor prognosis in symptomatic patients. No medical therapies are proven to be effective in holding or reducing disease progression. Therefore, aortic valve replacement remains the only available treatment option. Improved knowledge of the mechanisms underlying disease progression has provided us with insights that CAVS is not a passive disease. Rather, CAVS is regulated by numerous mechanisms with a key role for calcification. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is actively regulated involving cellular and humoral factors that may offer targets for diagnosis and intervention. The discovery that the vitamin K-dependent proteins are involved in the inhibition of AVC has boosted our mechanistic understanding of this process and has opened up novel avenues in disease exploration. This review discusses processes involved in CAVS progression, with an emphasis on recent insights into calcification, methods for imaging calcification activity, and potential therapeutic options.

Crystal growth and transport properties of Weyl semimetal TaAs.

We report single crystal growth and transport properties of a Weyl semimetal TaAs. Unsaturated large MR about 22100 % at 2 K and 9 T is observed. From the Hall measurement, carrier concentrations n = 4.608×1024 m-3 and p = 3.099×1024 m-3, and mobilities μp = 2.502 m2 V-1 s-1 and μn = 16.785 m2 V-1 s-1 at 2 K are extracted. The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations at 2 K and 9 T suggest the presence of a Fermi surface, and the quantum electronic parameters such as effective cyclotron mass and Dingle temperature were obtained using Lifshitz-Kosevich (L-K) fitting. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements at different static magnetic fields suggest the formation of an insulating gap in a Weyl semimetal TaAs. ARPES study reveals the Fermi arc surface states with different shaped features such as a long elliptical contour around each point, a bowtie-shaped contour around each point, and a crescent-shaped feature near the midpoint of each line.

An overview of platelet products (PRP, PRGF, PRF, etc.) in the Iranian studies.

The aim of the study was to carry out a review of published studies on various platelet products in Iranian studies.

Can the cellular internalization of cargo proteins be enhanced by fusing a Tat peptide in the center of proteins? A fluorescence study.

Aim to investigate whether the cellular uptake of cargo proteins can be enhanced by fusing a Tat peptide in the center of proteins, GST-Tat-GFP and GST-GFP-Tat proteins were firstly constructed and expressed. The cellular internalization of both proteins was then evaluated and compared in HeLa cells by using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry, as well as the transdermal delivery in human skin by using confocal microscopy. Results from in-vitro cell experiments showed that GST-Tat-GFP protein efficiently internalized into HeLa cells when a Tat peptide was fused in the center of proteins, whereas its efficiency is lower than that of GST-GFP-Tat protein with a Tat peptide terminal fused. Ex-vivo transdermal delivery data also demonstrated that the lower efficiency of GST-Tat-GFP penetrating through human SC layer when compared with GST-GFP-Tat. Furthermore, both GST-GFP-Tat and GST-Tat-GFP presented a various degree of a mixture of cytoplasmic diffuse staining and punctate surface staining, and the pattern of distribution varied considerably in HeLa cells experiments depending on the concentration of protein used. Therefore, an improved mechanism for Tat-conjugated proteins was proposed, in which Tat-conjugated proteins were first associated with cell membrane, then accumulated on the cell surface, and finally internalized into cells by pore formation mechanism.

Traditions, beliefs and indigenous technologies in connection with the edible longhorn grasshopper Ruspolia differens (Serville 1838) in Tanzania.

Edible insects are an important source of food to many African populations. The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville 1838), commonly known as senene in Tanzania is one of the most appreciated edible insects by societies around Lake Victoria crescent. Senene is primarily an essential treat for the tribes around the lake, e.g., the Haya of Tanzania, Luo of Kenya and Baganda of Uganda. Despite its importance as a food item and appreciation as a delicacy, there are few studies dealing with culture, beliefs and indigenous technology in connection with the senene. The main objective of this study was to survey indigenous technologies, processing methods and traditions in relation to senene consumption among the Haya tribe in Kagera region of Tanzania.

Classification and Treatment of Sacroiliac Joint Dislocation.

To develop a renewed classification and treatment regimen for sacroiliac joint dislocation.

Individualized Approach to Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

The primary goal of cancer screening is early detection of cancer to reduce cancer-specific mortality and morbidity. The benefits of screening in older adults are uncertain due to paucity of evidence. Extrapolating data from younger populations, evidence suggests that the benefit occurs years later from the time of initial screening and therefore may not be applicable in those older adults with limited life expectancy. Contrast this with the harms of screening, which are more immediate and increase with age and comorbidities. An individualized approach to cancer screening takes these factors into consideration, allowing for thoughtful decision making for older adults.

Socio-economic inequalities in the incidence of four common cancers: a population-based registry study.

To investigate the relationship between socio-economic circumstances and cancer incidence in Scotland in recent years.