A site to transform Pubmed publications into these bibliographic reference formats: ADS, BibTeX, EndNote, ISI used by the Web of Knowledge, RIS, MEDLINE, Microsoft's Word 2007 XML.

Detachment - Top 30 Publications

Slanted Functional Gradient Micropillars for Optimal Bioinspired Dry Adhesion.

For biologically-inspired dry adhesives, the fibrillar structure of the surface requires sufficient flexibility to form contacts and meanwhile high rigidity to maintain stability. This fundamental conflict has greatly hindered the advance of the synthetic adhesives towards mass-scale and practical applications, where adhesion is desired to be simultaneously strong, durable, directional, and roughness-adaptive. In this work, we overcome such a long-term challenge by developing fibrillar structures that combine both slanted geometry and gradient material of micropillars. The termed slanted functional gradient pillars (s-FGPs), fabricated by a magnetically-assisted mold replication technique, exhibit flexible tips for contacts, gradually-stiffened stalks for reinforcement, slanted structure to give rise to anisotropy, and high aspect ratio (AR) to facilitate surface adaptation. We demonstrate that the material and structure of the s-FGPs complement each other, synergetic effects of which result in a multifunctional combination of adhesion properties including high strength (~ 9 N/cm2 in shear), ultra-durability (over 200 cycles of attachment/detachment without adhesion degradation), super anisotropy (anisotropic ratio of ~ 7), and good adaptability to rough surfaces. The s-FGPs not only step forward the bioinspired adhesion towards optimized designs and performances for practical applications, they may also open up other concepts for various high-AR and structurally-stable fibrillar surfaces with emerging functionalities and applications in the fields of self-cleaning, superhydrophobicity, biosensors, energy harvesting, etc.

Staged Prone/Supine Fixation of High-Energy Multicolumnar Tibial Plateau Fractures: A Multicenter Analysis.

We present a surgical strategy to manage multicolumnar tibial plateau fracture variants by addressing the predominant posterior fragment employing a Lobenhoffer approach in the prone position followed by supine patient repositioning for anterolateral column access.

Effect of Origanum vulgare Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Motility Capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains Isolated from Discolored Mozzarella Cheese.

The study was focused on P. fluorescens strains isolated from Mozzarella cheese, with the aim of evaluating the effects of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OEO) on the biofilm formation and eradication, as well as on the motility and blue pigment production at 10°C.

Correlation between baseline retinal microstructures in spectral-domain optic coherence tomography and need for early intervention in central serous chorioretinopathy.

To investigate the association between baseline retinal microstructures observed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the need for early intervention in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).

Dry adhesives from carbon nanofibers grown in an open ethanol flame.

Based on magnetic-field-assisted growth of carbon nanofibers in an open ethanol flame we fabricated arrays of carbon nanofibers with different degrees of orientation. Inspired by the dry adhesive system of geckos we investigated the adhesive properties of such carbon nanofiber arrays with ordered and random orientation. AFM-based force spectroscopy revealed that adhesion force and energy rise linear with preload force. Carbon nanofibers oriented by a magnetic field show a 68% higher adhesion (0.66 N/cm2) than the randomly oriented fibers. Endurance tests revealed that the carbon nanofiber arrays withstand 50.000 attachment/detachment cycles without observable wear.

Sensitive electrochemical detection of microRNA-21 based on propylamine-functionalized mesoporous silica with glucometer readout.

A new homogeneous electrochemical sensing system was developed for sensitive detection of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) based on target-induced glucose release from propylamine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) with glucometer readout. Glucose molecules (as the signal tracers) were initially gated into the pores through the interaction of the negatively charged anchor DNA with the aminated MSN. Upon addition of target miRNA, the analyte competitively hybridized with anchor DNA to form the RNA-DNA duplex, thus resulting in detachment of anchor DNA from the MSN accompanying the pore opening. The loaded glucose molecules released out from the pores because of concentration gradients, which could be detected by using a portable personal glucometer (PGM). Experimental results indicated that the PGM signal increased with the increasing miRNA level, and exhibited a good linear dependence on the miRNA-21 concentration from 50 pM to 5.0 nM with a detection limit of 19 pM under optimum conditions. Additionally, multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles also showed good stability and favorable selectivity, and satisfactory accuracy for the miRNA detection in cell lysates with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Such good analytical performance endows it as a promising scheme for the efficient and convenient detection of miRNA in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Graphical abstract An electrochemical sensing system is designed for detection of microRNA-21 based on target-induced glucose release from propylamine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle with glucometer readout.

Gold cleaning methods for preparation of cell culture surfaces for self-assembled monolayers of zwitterionic oligopeptides.

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used to elucidate interactions between cells and material surface chemistry. Gold surfaces modified with oligopeptide SAMs exhibit several unique characteristics, such as cell-repulsive surfaces, micropatterns of cell adhesion and non-adhesion regions for control over cell microenvironments, and dynamic release of cells upon external stimuli under culture conditions. However, basic procedures for the preparation of oligopeptide SAMs, including appropriate cleaning methods of the gold surface before modification, have not been fully established. Because gold surfaces are readily contaminated with organic compounds in the air, cleaning methods may be critical for SAM formation. In this study, we examined the effects of four gold cleaning methods: dilute aqua regia, an ozone water, atmospheric plasma, and UV irradiation. Among the methods, UV irradiation most significantly improved the formation of oligopeptide SAMs in terms of repulsion of cells on the surfaces. We fabricated an apparatus with a UV light source, a rotation table, and HEPA filter, to treat a number of gold substrates simultaneously. Furthermore, UV-cleaned gold substrates were capable of detaching cell sheets without serious cell injury. This may potentially provide a stable and robust approach to oligopeptide SAM-based experiments for biomedical studies.

Ipragliflozin improves mitochondrial abnormalities in renal tubules induced by a high-fat diet.

Complete mechanisms of reno-protective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors have not been elucidated yet. Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by membrane GTPases, such as Opa1 and Mfn2. Here, we investigated whether SGLT2 inhibition in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) improved mitochondrial morphology and restored mitochondrial biogenesis-related molecules.

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment : Epidemiology and risk factors.

The incidence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the European population is approximately 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year and reaches a peak in the 6th and 7th decades of life, mostly in atemporal association with posterior vitreous body detachment. Known risk factors include myopia and higher axial length of the eye, male gender, previous trauma and vitreoretinal degeneration or dystrophy. In recent years, an increase in the risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment following cataract surgery was also found, especially after capsule rupture and vitreous body loss. In contrast to clear lens extraction (CLE), the refractive intervention of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) does not seem to increase the risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Retinal detachment stabilizes during physical protection and posturing but progresses through bodily activity and during interruptions in patients with macula-on retinal detachment.

Intraocular currents, Bernoulli's principle and non-drainage scleral buckling for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

For many years, it is not fully understood how non-drainage scleral buckling surgery brings about spontaneous reattachment of the detached retina when retinal breaks remain open at the end of surgery. Various explanations have been put forward, but none more interesting than the effect of fluid currents associated with eye movements. One such explanation involved the physics of the Bernoulli's principle. Daniel Bernoulli was an eighteenth century Swiss mathematician and he described an equation based on the conservation of energy. The sum of pressure energy, potential energy and kinetic energy remains constant. Bernoulli's equation usually applies to closed system such as the flow of fluid through pipes. When fluid flows through a constriction, the speed of fluid increases, the kinetic energy increases. If there was no change in elevation (potential energy), then the increase in kinetic energy must be accompanied by a decrease in pressure energy. In ophthalmic surgery, the Bernoulli's effect is the basis for venturi pumps that drive vitrectomy and phacoemulsification machines. This essay expounds on how Bernoulli's effect might be relevant to scleral buckling for retinal detachment repair. In the era when vitrectomy is increasing the primary surgical operation for retinal detachment, the pervasive advice is to emphasise the importance of patient adopting head posture and remaining still postoperatively. The exception is non-drainage scleral buckling surgery. Early postoperative mobilisation may be vital to achieve reattachment.Eye advance online publication, 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.312.

Efficacy of One-Year Treatment with Aflibercept for Diabetic Macular Edema with Practical Protocol.

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of one-year treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) with intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) injections on a practical protocol. The medical records of 51 eyes of 43 patients who were diagnosed with DME and had received IVA treatments were reviewed. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central macular thickness (CMT) were measured at the baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the IVA. The mean number of IVA injections was 3.8 ± 2.4. The mean BCVA was significantly better and the CMT was thinner after the IVA at all follow-up times (P < 0.05). The BCVA was better in eyes with a serous retinal detachment (SRD) than without a SRD (P < 0.01). There was a significant correlation between the photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length and BCVA at the baseline and at 12 months after the IVA (P < 0.05). A fewer number of IVA injections significantly improved the BCVA and the CMT in eyes with DME after one-year treatment. IVA was more effective in the SRD+ group than in the SRD- group. The PROS length may be a predictive marker for visual outcomes after one-year treatment with IVA for DME (IRB#2272).

Arthroscopic Management of Posterior Instability due to "Floating" Posterior Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament Lesions.

The "floating" posterior inferior glenohumeral ligament (floating PIGHL) is an uncommon cause of posterior shoulder instability. This pathologic lesion, defined as detachment of both the origin of the PIGHL (posterior Bankart lesion) and insertion of the of the PIGHL from its humeral head insertion site, often results in significant and persistent shoulder instability symptoms. An effective surgical technique for arthroscopic repair of a floating PIGHL lesion is described and demonstrated.

A five-year retrospective study of the epidemiological characteristics and visual outcomes of pediatric ocular trauma.

Pediatric trauma can lead to serious visual impairment as a result of the trauma itself or secondary to amblyopia. Precise data on epidemiological characteristics and visual outcomes of pediatric ocular injuries are valuable for the prevention of monocular blindness.

Kinetics of lipid-nanoparticle-mediated intracellular mRNA delivery and function.

mRNA delivery into cells forms the basis for one of the new and promising ways to treat various diseases. Among suitable carriers, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) with a size of about 100 nm are now often employed. Despite high current interest in this area, the understanding of the basic details of LNP-mediated mRNA delivery and function is limited. To clarify the kinetics of mRNA release from LNPs, the author uses three generic models implying (i) exponential, (ii) diffusion-controlled, and (iii) detachment-controlled kinetic regimes, respectively. Despite the distinct differences in these kinetics, the associated transient kinetics of mRNA translation to the corresponding protein and its degradation are shown to be not too sensitive to the details of the mRNA delivery by LNPs (or other nanocarriers). In addition, the author illustrates how this protein may temporarily influence the expression of one gene or a few equivalent genes. The analysis includes positive or negative regulation of the gene transcription via the attachment of the protein without or with positive or negative feedback in the gene expression. Stable, bistable, and oscillatory schemes have been scrutinized in this context.

A Subretinal Cell Delivery Method via Suprachoroidal Access in Minipigs: Safety and Surgical Outcomes.

This study evaluated a new subretinal method for delivery of human or pig umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC or pUTC, respectively) using a novel subretinal injection cannula and suprachoroidal approach in Göttingen minipig eyes. hUTC (palucorcel) are currently under development for treating geographic atrophy in humans.

CHRONIC CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY: Early and Late Morphological and Functional Changes After Verteporfin Photodynamic Therapy.

To describe early and late morphological and functional changes in subjects receiving photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

Reply: Management of Descemet Membrane Detachment After Forceps Birth Injury.

Cell death under epithelial-mesenchymal transition control in prostate cancer therapeutic response.

Prostate cancer is a widespread problem among men, with >160 000 new cases in 2017 alone. Androgen deprivation therapy is commonly used in prostate cancer treatment to block androgens required for cancer growth, but disease relapse after androgen deprivation therapy is both common and severe. Changes in androgen receptor signaling from androgen deprivation therapy have been linked to therapeutic resistance and tumor progression. Resistant cells can become reprogrammed to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a phenotypic switch from benign, epithelial cells to a mobile cell with mesenchymal traits. In these cells, attachment to their epithelial cell layer is no longer required for survival. Anoikis is a form of cell death that occurs when detachment from other cells and the basement membrane occurs. Epithelial cells have been shown to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, avoid anoikis induction and progress to a metastatic phenotype. In prostate cancer progression to advanced disease, epithelial-mesenchymal transition induction (characterized by loss of epithelial cellular attachment protein E-cadherin) correlates with a higher Gleason score, tumor progression, increased metastasis and higher biochemical recurrence. The concept of interfacing epithelial-mesenchymal transition with anoikis in the tumor microenvironment landscape will be discussed here, with focus on the significance of the functional exchange between the two processes in therapeutic targeting of advanced disease. The current evidence on the impact of loss of cell-cell contact, acquisition of chemoresistance, immune escape and metastatic spread in advanced tumors in response to transforming growth factor-β on prostate cancer metastasis will be also discussed. The signaling cross-talk between transforming growth factor-β and androgen receptor signaling will be interrogated as a new therapeutic platform for the development of combination strategies to impair prostate cancer metastasis.

Sub-inner limiting membrane hemorrhage in a patient with Terson syndrome.

To report a case of bilateral Terson Syndrome with sub inner limiting membrane hemorrhage associated with a rare finding: perimacular fold.

Choroidal Melanoma Mimicker: A Case of Metastatic Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, yet metastatic disease remains the most common malignancy of the eye. Differentiating these entities is essential as treatment, systemic associations, and prognosis vary dramatically between the two. Established diagnostic criteria are accurate for the diagnosis of uveal melanoma. Yet, metastatic disease may be misdiagnosed as a uveal melanoma in rare cases. We report a case of metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma masquerading as uveal melanoma. A 73-year-old Caucasian man with a history of renal cell carcinoma presented with a 15 × 12 × 7 mm homogenous, pigmented, and acoustically hollow mass without hemorrhage or exudation. The patient was initially treated with plaque radiotherapy with good tumor regression. However, the patient developed pain and vision loss due to total exudative retinal detachment. Subsequent enucleation allowed histopathologic confirmation of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. Nine years following enucleation, the patient remains in complete remission without evidence of other systemic metastases. Renal cell carcinoma should be considered when evaluating patients with probable uveal melanoma. Delayed-onset ocular metastasis from renal cell carcinoma exhibits an atypical clinical course with the possibility of durable remission following enucleation.

Mechanisms of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.

Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent metastatic pattern of gastric cancer, but the mechanisms underlying peritoneal dissemination are yet to be elucidated. Paget's 'seed and soil' hypothesis is recognized as the fundamental theory of metastasis. The 'seeding' theory proposes that the formation of peritoneal dissemination is a multistep process, including detachment from the primary tumour, transmigration and attachment to the distant peritoneum, invasion into subperitoneal tissue and proliferation with blood vascular neogenesis. In the present review, the progress of each step is discussed. Milky spots, as a lymphatic apparatus, are indicative of lymphatic orifices on the surface of the peritoneum. These stomata are open gates for peritoneal-free cancer cells to migrate into the submesothelial space. Therefore, milky spots provide suitable 'soil' for cancer cells to implant. Other theories have also been proposed to clarify the peritoneal dissemination process, including the transvessel metastasis theory, which suggests that the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer develops via a vascular network mediated by hypoxia inducible factor-1α.

Vitreoretinal Complications and Outcomes in 92 Eyes Undergoing Surgery for Modified Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis: A 10-Year Review.

To analyze vitreoretinal (VR) complications and treatment outcomes in eyes undergoing modified osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery.

Reduction in Musca domestica fecundity by dsRNA-mediated gene knockdown.

House flies (Musca domestica) are worldwide agricultural pests with estimated control costs at $375 million annually in the U.S. Non-target effects and widespread resistance challenge the efficacy of traditional chemical control. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been suggested as a biopesticide for M. domestica but a phenotypic response due to the induction of the RNAi pathway has not been demonstrated in adults. In this study female house flies were injected with dsRNA targeting actin-5C or ribosomal protein (RP) transcripts RPL26 and RPS6. Ovaries showed highly reduced provisioning and clutch reductions of 94-99% in RP dsRNA treated flies but not in actin-5C or GFP treated flies. Gene expression levels were significantly and specifically reduced in dsRNA injected groups but remained unchanged in the control dsGFP treated group. Furthermore, injections with an Aedes aegypti conspecific dsRNA designed against RPS6 did not impact fecundity, demonstrating species specificity of the RNAi response. Analysis of M. domestica tissues following RPS6 dsRNA injection showed significant reduction of transcript levels in the head, thorax, and abdomen but increased expression in ovarian tissues. This study demonstrates that exogenous dsRNA is specifically effective and has potential efficacy as a highly specific biocontrol intervention in adult house flies. Further work is required to develop effective methods for delivery of dsRNA to adult flies.


To analyze an unusual case of widespread chorioretinopathy after cardiac transplantation for its potential etiology and clinical significance.

The regulation of pre-metastatic niche formation by neutrophils.

Metastasis is a multistep process requiring tumor cell detachment from the primary tumor and migration to target organs through the lymphatic or blood circulatory systems. Specific organs are predisposed to metastases in certain cancers and the formation of supportive metastatic microenvironment determines tumor cell homing. Such an environment is provided by a pre-metastatic niche that is formed through the recruitment of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells, however the mechanisms of its formation are not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that the primary tumor itself modulates the environment of secondary organs prior to tumor cell dissemination. The contribution of neutrophils to the formation of the pre-metastatic niche is getting growing attention. Obviously, neutrophils can affect the development of metastasis in two contradicting ways, by either stimulation or inhibition of this process, depending on the activation status. Pro-tumor neutrophils actively support metastasis formation by different mechanisms, including the formation of pre-metastatic niche, tumor cell attraction, and the direct support of tumor cell proliferation. Moreover, suppressive neutrophils, which are the granulocytic arm of MDSC, promote tumor progression by dampening anti-tumor T cell immunity. On the other hand, anti-tumor neutrophils can inhibit metastasis formation by the cytotoxicity towards tumor cells in the circulation or at the pre-metastatic site, and even via stimulation of T cell proliferation. Apparently, the regulation of the pro- or anti-tumor neutrophil properties has significant implications on metastatic spread in the host. Here we provide an up to date overview of the different roles neutrophils play in regulating the metastatic processes.

Changes in Central Macular Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Eyes with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

To investigate the central macular thickness (CMT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in eyes with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease associated with optic disc swelling and serous retinal detachment through a 24-month follow-up period.

Simultaneous organic matter removal and nitrification of an inert self-supporting immersed media to upgrade aerated lagoons.

A pilot study was performed to evaluate the potential of an inert self-supported immersed fixed film media to upgrade aerated lagoons. Simultaneous organic matter removal and nitrification was assessed under different loading rates and temperatures (near 0 °C) using 12 laboratory-scale reactors operated in parallel. Test results showed that both the temperature and the load have an influence on organic matter effluent concentrations. Effluent quality seemed related to the observed biofilm thickness. Thicker biofilm is believed to have contributed to biomass detachment and increased particulate organic matter concentrations in the effluent. Simultaneous organic removal and nitrification was obtained at loads above 5 g CBOD5/m2·d. The highest nitrification rate at 0.4 °C was obtained for the smallest load, which showed a nitrification limitation close to freezing point.

Mechanisms of redox metabolism and cancer cell survival during extracellular matrix detachment.

Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells. Here, we review how ECM-detached cancer cells balance redox metabolism for survival.

AMPK-AKT double negative feedback loop in breast cancer cells regulates their adaptation to matrix deprivation.

Cell detachment from the extracellular matrix triggers anoikis. Disseminated tumor cells must adapt to survive matrix deprivation, while still retaining the ability to attach at secondary sites and re-initiate cell division. In this study, we illuminate mechanisms that enable reversible matrix attachment by breast cancer cells. Matrix deprival triggered AMPK activity and concomitantly inhibited AKT activity by upregulating the AKT phosphatase PHLPP2. The resultant pAMPKhigh/pAKTlow state was critical for cell survival in suspension, as PHLPP2 silencing also increased anoikis while impairing autophagy and metastasis. In contrast, matrix re-attachment led to AKT-mediated AMPK inactivation via PP2C-α-mediated restoration of the pAKThigh/pAMPKlow state. Clinical specimens of primary and metastatic breast cancer displayed an AKT-associated gene expression signature, whereas circulating breast tumor cells displayed an elevated AMPK-dependent gene expression signature. Our work establishes a double-negative feedback loop between AKT and AMPK to control the switch between matrix-attached and matrix-detached states needed to coordinate cell growth and survival during metastasis.

Microspheres as intraocular therapeutic tools in chronic diseases of the optic nerve and retina.

Pathologies affecting the optic nerve and the retina are one of the major causes of blindness. These diseases include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma, among others. Also, there are genetic disorders that affect the retina causing visual impairment. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases of the posterior segment are increased as most of them are related with the elderly. Even with the access to different treatments, there are some challenges in managing patients suffering retinal diseases. One of them is the need for frequent interventions. Also, an unpredictable response to therapy has suggested that different pathways may be playing a role in the development of these diseases. The management of these pathologies requires the development of controlled drug delivery systems able to slow the progression of the disease without the need of frequent invasive interventions, typically related with endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, ocular hypertension, cataract, inflammation, and floaters, among other. Biodegradable microspheres are able to encapsulate low molecular weight substances and large molecules such as biotechnological products. Over the last years, a large variety of active substances has been encapsulated in microspheres with the intention of providing neuroprotection of the optic nerve and the retina. The purpose of the present review is to describe the use of microspheres in chronic neurodegenerative diseases affecting the retina and the optic nerve. The advantage of microencapsulation of low molecular weight drugs as well as therapeutic peptides and proteins to be used as neuroprotective strategy is discussed. Also, a new use of the microspheres in the development of animal models of neurodegeneration of the posterior segment is described.