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Diabetes mellitus - Top 30 Publications

Spontaneous cervical artery dissection is accompanied by a hypercoagulable state and simultaneous inflammatory condition.

Spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) are often preceded by infections. However, existing data about inflammatory parameters remained inconsistent. Remarkably, concurrent information about the coagulation system, whose affection seems also reasonable to cause ischaemic events, are still lacking in sCAD patients. Thus, this study explores the association between the inflammatory and coagulation system in patients with sCAD.

Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism).

Since the early 1990s, it has been recognized that testosterone (T) levels are lower in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with nondiabetic men (controls). Hypogonadism has been reported in approximately 50% of men with T2DM with robust correlations with measures of obesity, such as waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). In longitudinal studies, hypogonadism has been identified as a predictor of incident T2DM. Experimental withdrawal of T led to acute decreased insulin sensitivity, which can be reversed by normalization of T concentrations. Androgen deprivation therapy, commonly used in men with advanced prostate cancer, increases the risk of incident T2DM significantly.While short-term studies of T therapy in hypogonadal men with T2DM show only minor effects, long-term administration of T leads to meaningful and sustained improvements of glycemic control with parallel reductions in body weight and waist circumference. The more insulin-resistant and obese a patient is at the time of initiation of T therapy, the more improvements are noted. The observed effects are likely mediated by the increase in lean body mass invariably achieved by T therapy, as well as the improvement in energy and motivation, referred to as the psychotropic effects of T. As recommended by various guidelines, measuring T levels and, if indicated, restoring men's T levels into the normal physiological range can have a substantial impact on ameliorating T2DM in hypogonadal men.

Sex Differences and Role of Estradiol in Hypoglycemia-Associated Counter-Regulation.

Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses. Multiple components of the body's far-reaching energy balance regulatory network, including the hindbrain dorsal vagal complex, provide dynamic readout of cellular energetic disequilibrium, signals that are utilized by the hypothalamus to shape counterregulatory autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral outflow toward restoration of glucostasis. The ovarian steroid hormone 17β-estradiol acts on central substrates to preserve nerve cell energy stability brain-wide, thereby providing neuroprotection against bio-energetic insults such as neurodegenerative diseases and acute brain ischemia. The current review highlights recent evidence implicating estrogen in gluco-regulation in females by control of hindbrain metabolic sensor screening and signaling of hypoglycemia-associated neuro-energetic instability. It is anticipated that new understanding of the mechanistic basis of how estradiol influences metabolic sensory input from this critical brain locus to discrete downstream regulatory network substrates will likely reveal viable new molecular targets for therapeutic simulation of hormone actions that promote positive neuronal metabolic state during acute and recurring hypoglycemia.

Effect of PCSK9 Inhibitors on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia: A Meta-Analysis of 35 Randomized Controlled Trials.

We sought to examine the efficacy and safety of 2 PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors: alirocumab and evolocumab.

Hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin therapy. Results of the global HAT study in Argentina.

We describe the results of the HAT study in 433 Argentinean patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 823 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). HAT was an international non-interventional study assessing severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia in patients with T1D and T2D under insulin treatment through a two-part self-assessment questionnaire (retrospective and prospective). The annual incidence of at least one hypoglycaemic episode was 46 episode/patient/year in T1D and 14.2 in T2D (retrospective), 96.5 and 24.6 episode/patient/year in T1D and T2D, respectively (prospective). Hypoglycaemia affected quality of life (on a scale of 0-10 for fear of hypoglycaemia: 60% in T1D and 37.6% in T2D scored 5 to 10), daily life, occupational or academic performance (2.1% with T1D and 3.2% with T2D did not attend to their work after hypoglycaemia), and induced an increased use of health resources (T1D: 66.1% increased glucose monitoring, 60.5% food intake, 51% consultations, 3.5% hospital admissions; 60.5% reduced insulin and 20.9% exercises; T2D increased 46.2% glucose monitoring, 43.8% consultations, 38.6% food intake, 24.1% reduced and 13.9% skipped the insulin dose and 14.3% suspended exercises). Greater numbers of episodes were recorded in the prospective period. An instrument to assess hypoglycaemia in clinical practice and strategies to reduce their risk are required. It is also important to ask about the episodes and reinforce the education of patients and close relatives on hypoglycaemia prevention and treatment.

Is cancer incidence different between type 2 diabetes patients compared to non-diabetics in hemodialysis? A study from the REIN registry.

In France, diabetes mellitus is now the second cause of end stage renal disease. In a large previous French national study, we observed that dialyzed diabetics have a significant lower risk of death by cancer. This first study was focused on cancer death but did not investigate cancer incidence. In this context, the aim of this second study was to compare the incidence of cancer in diabetic dialyzed patients compared to non-diabetic dialyzed patients in a French region.

Exploring the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on the kidney from the bench to clinical trials.

Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a relatively new class of non-insulin glucose-lowering agents, belonging to the incretin family, which are able to improve glycemic control with a favorable safety profile, since they are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia, no weight gain, and good tolerability in patients with chronic renal failure. Some experimental and clinical studies suggest that these drugs may exert significant pleiotropic effects, in particular on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but data from clinical trials are still controversial. In an effort to clarify the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is) on diabetes-related renal damage, we performed a narrative review of available clinical trials and other experimental studies focusing on renal effects of DPP-4is. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence proving the usefulness of this drug class for improving diabetes-related renal damage. However, our literature review suggests that DPP-4is are safe and well tolerated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with CKD. More importantly, results from the reviewed studies indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor therapy may improve two major risk factors for diabetic nephropathy, such as hyperglycemia and albuminuria, resulting in potential renal benefits beyond glycemic control. Despite several limitations, the conclusions of our review corroborate previous evidence on the potential renal benefits of DPP-4is, highlighting the urgent need of future trials adequately powered and designed on hard renal outcomes to ascertain (or contradict) the therapeutic benefit of DPP-4is in T2DM and CKD patients.

Prognostic Significance of Shockable and non-Shockable Cardiac Arrest in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Angioplasty.

To determine, in patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), the prognostic weight of cardiac arrest (CA) according to the type of rhythm (shockable vs. non-shockable).

Low-grade systemic inflammation: a partial mediator of the relationship between diabetes and lung function.

An association has been consistently found between diabetes mellitus and decreased lung function. We evaluated to what extent low-grade inflammation (as measured by the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) could explain this relationship.

Impact of chronic kidney disease on mortality in adults undergoing balloon aortic valvuloplasty.

Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) is often utilized as a bridge prior to surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly present in patients with aortic stenosis, however, its association with outcomes following BAV has not been well studied. Accordingly, we sought to assess the impact of CKD on mortality in adults undergoing BAV.

Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: the burden and national response.

This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015.

Homocysteine as a non-classical risk factor for atherosclerosis in relation to pharmacotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The aim of our study was to evaluate which of the pharmacotherapeutic methods that are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes is associated with the most beneficial profile in relation to pro-atherogenic homocysteine levels.

Rat Pancreatic Beta-Cell Culture.

In this chapter, we describe the methods used to culture mainly rat pancreatic beta cells. We consider necessary to use this approach to get more information about physiological, biophysical, and molecular biology characteristics of primary beta cells. Most of the literature published has been developed in murine and human beta-cell lines. However, there are many differences between tumoral cell lines and native cells because, in contrast to cell lines, primary cells do not divide. Moreover, cell lines can be in various stages of the cell cycle and thus have a different sensitivity to glucose, compared to primary cells. Finally, for these reasons, cell lines can be heterogeneous, as the primary cells are. The main problem in using primary beta cells is that despite that they are a majority within a culture they appear mixed with other kinds of pancreatic islet cells. If one needs to identify single cells or has an only beta-cell composition, it is necessary to process the sample further. For example, one may obtain an enriched population of beta cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting or identify single cells with the reverse hemolytic plaque assay. The other problem is that cells change with time in culture, becoming old and losing some characteristics, and so must be used preferentially during the first week. The development of human beta-cell cultures is of importance in medicine because we hope one day to be able to transplant viable beta cells to patients with diabetes mellitus type 1.

A Case of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY3) in a Family with a Novel HNF1A Gene Mutation in Five Generations.

Diabetes mellitus with autosomal dominant inheritance, i.e., maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), is a genetic form of diabetes mellitus. The MODY phenotype is associated with gene mutations leading to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Here, we present the clinical case of a 50-year-old proband with familial diabetes mellitus in five generations (proband, her mother, grandmother, great-grandfather, and son). This disease is most likely associated with the novel Ser6Arg mutation in the HNF1A gene, which was identified in four family members. The mutation was not detected in MODY patients (126 subjects), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (188 subjects), and in a general population sample (564 subjects).

The preoperative HbA1c level is an independent prognostic factor for the postoperative survival after resection of non-small cell lung cancer in elderly patients.

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level on the survival in patients who underwent complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Genetic Variants of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Hypertensive Patients.

Diabetes mellitus is frequently comorbid with hypertension, which is approximately twice as common as diabetes mellitus in China. We designed a case-control association study to inspect the susceptibility of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) gene 6 variants to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2199 patients with primary hypertension (1252 diabetic cases and 947 nondiabetic controls). The genotypes/alleles of -429T > C and 82Gly > Ser variants differed significantly between the two groups, and their associations with T2DM were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two variants, -374T > A and I/D, showed only marginal associations with T2DM. Haplotype analysis of above 4 significant variants indicated that a low-penetrance haplotype simultaneously bearing -429C and 82Ser alleles was overrepresented in cases relative to controls (4.75% vs. 1.72%, P < 0.001). Moreover, the predictive capability of 6 variants was significantly superior to available risk factors, with better goodness-of-fit. A predictive nomogram of 4 baseline risk factors and 2 variants of statistical significance was structured, with a good predictive accuracy (C-index = 0.761, P < 0.001). Taken together, our findings highlighted a contributory role of the RAGE gene, especially its two functional variants -429T > C and 82Gly > Ser, in susceptibility to T2DM in primary hypertensive patients, which may aid early detection and risk assessment for high-risk individuals.

Diabetes as risk factor for pancreatic cancer: Hyperglycemia promotes epithelial-mesenchymal-transition and stem cell properties in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with hyperglycemia and a risk to develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most fatal malignancies. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are essential for initiation and maintenance of tumors, and acquisition of CSC-features is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). The present study investigated whether hyperglycemia promotes EMT and CSC-features in premalignant and malignant pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDEC). Under normoglycemia (5 mM d-glucose), Panc1 PDAC cells but not premalignant H6c7-kras cells exhibited a mesenchymal phenotype along with pronounced colony formation. While hyperglycemia (25 mM d-glucose) did not impact the mesenchymal phenotype of Panc1 cells, CSC-properties were aggravated exemplified by increased Nanog expression and Nanog-dependent formation of holo- and meroclones. In H6c7-kras cells, high glucose increased secretion of Transforming-Growth-Factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) as well as TGF-β1 signaling, and in a TGF-β1-dependent manner reduced E-cadherin expression, increased Nestin expression and number of meroclones. Finally, reduced E-cadherin was detected in pancreatic ducts of hyperglycemic but not normoglycemic mice. These data suggest that hyperglycemia promotes the acquisition of mesenchymal and CSC-properties in PDEC by activating TGF-β signaling and might explain how T2DM facilitates pancreatic tumorigenesis.

Prevalence of high on-treatment (aspirin and clopidogrel) platelet reactivity in patients with critical limb ischemia.

The goal of this study is to establish the prevalence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity to aspirin (HPRA) and clopidogrel (HPRC) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI).

Pioglitazone attenuates aging-related disorders in aged apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

Pioglitazone (Piog) activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and is widely used in clinic for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PPARγ in various tissues has the essential regulatory role of multiple metabolic function, suggest that PPARγ signaling may contribute to aging processes. However, little is known about the consequences of Piog on aging in aged animal models. We used apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice model to evaluate the effects of Piog on aging-related disorders. Our results showed that long-term and low-dose Piog treatment significantly reduced aortic atherosclerosis, aging-related renal glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, and hepatic steatosis, while improved the dermis in skin atrophy, compared to the control group. These morphological alterations were linked to the role of Piog, including regulation of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) levels, increased antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, accompanied with up-regulation of PPARγ expression, Piog had obviously increased the mRNA levels of anti-aging genes Sirtuin1 and Klotho, decreased the p53 protein level, and altered the expression of several genes involving cholesterol excretion, TG biosynthesis and inflammation in the liver. In conclusion, Piog treatment is effective to modulate the oxidative and inflammatory status, cell senescence, and lipid metabolism, contributing to attenuate several aging-related disorders in the aged apoE-/- mice, thereby maybe a promising protective therapy of aging and age-related diseases.

Corneal confocal microscopy as a non-invasive test to assess diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

To evaluate the efficacy of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM)as a non-invasive test to assess diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

Effect of metformin combined with lifestyle modification versus lifestyle modification alone on proinflammatory-oxidative status in drug-naïve pre-diabetic and diabetic patients: A randomized controlled study.

Targeting biomarkers of oxidative-proinflammatory stress may result in improvement of modifiable metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes and diabetes risk factors and subsequent risk reduction.

Community Health Workers in Diabetes Prevention and Management in Developing Countries.

There is limited evidence regarding the effect of community health worker (CHW) interventions for prevention and management of the burgeoning epidemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The objective of this review was to critically appraise evidence regarding the effectiveness of CHW interventions for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in LMICs.

D-4F increases microRNA-124a and reduces neuroinflammation in diabetic stroke rats.

D-4F is an apolipoprotein-A1 mimetic peptide that promotes anti-inflammatory effects. MicroRNA-124 is the most abundant brain-specific microRNA and has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of D-4F treatment of stroke in type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Male Wistar rats were induced with T1DM, subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with PBS or D-4F (1 mg/kg i.p.) at 2, 24 and 48 hours after stroke (n=8/group). A battery of function tests, brain blood barrier (BBB) integrity, white matter changes and microRNA expression were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. D-4F treatment in T1DM-stroke rats significantly improves functional outcome, decreases BBB leakage, increases tight junction protein expression, decreases white matter damage and inflammatory factor expression, while increasing anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage polarization in the ischemic brain. D-4F significantly increases microRNA-124a expression, and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-9, tumor necrosis factor-α and toll-like receptor-4 gene expression in the ischemic brain, and in primary cortical neuronal and microglial cultures. Inhibition of microRNA-124 in cultured primary cortical neurons and microglia attenuates D-4F induced anti-inflammatory effects and M2 macrophage polarization. D-4F treatment of T1DM-stroke increases microRNA-124 expression, promotes anti-inflammatory effects and M2 macrophage polarization, which may contribute to D-4F-induced improvement in neurological function, and BBB and white matter integrity.

Incidence and prevalence of hepatitis B in patients with diabetes mellitus in the UK: a population-based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

We assessed the incidence and prevalence of hepatitis B (Hep B) in patients with or without diabetes mellitus using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. This was a retrospective, observational study of diabetic and non-diabetic cohorts aged 0-80 years using Clinical Practice Research Datalink (NCT02324218). Incidence rates (IR) for each cohort were calculated. Crude and adjusted (Poisson Regression) IR ratios (IRR) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the cohorts. Hep B prevalence stratified by age, and hospitalisation related to Hep B were also calculated. Of 7,712,043 subjects identified, 4,839,770 were included (diabetes mellitus: 160,760; non-diabetes mellitus: 4,679,010). Mean ages were 54.4 and 32.0 years, and 57.20% and 50.14% were male in the diabetes and non-diabetic cohorts, respectively. Hep B was identified in 29 diabetic and 845 non-diabetic subjects; IR was 4.03 per 100,000 person-years and 2.88 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The adjusted IRR was 1.00 (95% CI 0.70- 1.50) between diabetic and non-diabetic cohorts. Hep B prevalence was higher in the diabetic cohort (0.01-0.26%) than in the non-diabetic cohort (0.00-0.03%) across the different age groups. Hep B-associated hospitalisation IR was higher in the diabetic cohort (4.98-10.91) than the non-diabetic cohort (0.26-2.44). The Hep B IR, hospitalisation and prevalence were higher in males in both cohorts. In conclusion the risk of incident Hep B diagnosis in the diabetic cohort was not different from that in the non-diabetic cohort. However, prevalence of Hep B and Hep B-associated hospitalisation rate was higher in the diabetic than the non-diabetic cohort. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Drug treatment of hypertension in Sweden in relation to sex, age, and comorbidity.

The authors investigated antihypertensive drug treatment in Sweden using the Stockholm Regional Healthcare Data Warehouse, providing information on all healthcare consultations, diagnoses, hospitalizations, dispensed prescription drugs, sex, and age in 2.1 million persons. This cross-sectional analysis identified 292 428 individuals 20 years or older with hypertension (mean age 68 ± 13 years, 53% women). About half had no diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular comorbidity. The number of dispensed drugs was lower in women than in men (1.9 ± 1.3 vs 2.1 ± 1.5, P < .001). Women more often used diuretics, angiotensin receptor blockers, and β-blockers, while men used more angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium channel blockers (all P < .01). In women, 66% with diabetes mellitus and 72% with heart failure used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers vs 76% and 79% in men (all P < .001, adjusted for age and comorbidity). Thus, sex differences in treatment prevail. There is room for improvement, which could reduce cardiovascular complications.

Impaired Lipolysis, Diminished Fat Oxidation and Metabolic Inflexibility in Obese Girls with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility.

Metabolic Characteristics of Recently Diagnosed Adult-onset Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus.

Among patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diabetes often remains undetected. Metabolic features of these patients are insufficiently characterized at present.

Comparison of Goto-Kakizaki rats and high fat diet-induced obese rats: Are they reliable models to study Type 2 Diabetes mellitus?

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an evident growing disease that affects different cultures throughout the world. T2DM occurs under the influence of three main factors: the genetic background, environmental and behavioral components. Obesity is strongly associated to the development of T2DM in the occident, while in the orient most of the diabetic patients are considered lean. Genetics may be a key factor in the development of T2DM in societies where obesity is not a recurrent public health problem. Herein, two different models of rats were used to understand their differences and reliability as experimental models to study the pathophysiology of T2DM, in two different approaches: the genetic (GK rats) and the environmental (HFD-induced obese rats) influences. GK rats were resistant to weight gain even though food/energy consumption (relative to body weight) was higher in this group. HFD, on the other hand, induced obesity in Wistar rats. White adipose tissue (WAT) expansion in this group was accompanied by immune cells infiltration, inflammation and insulin resistance. GK rats also presented WAT inflammation and insulin resistance; however, no immune cells infiltration was observed in the WAT of this group. Liver of HFD group presented fat accumulation without differences in inflammatory cytokines content, while liver of GK rats didn't present fat accumulation, but showed an increase of IL-6 and IL-10 content and glycogen. Also, GK rats showed increased plasma GOT and GPT. Soleus muscle of HFD presented normal insulin signaling, contrary to GK rats, which presented higher content of basal phosphorylation of GSK-3β. Our results demonstrated that HFD developed a mild insulin resistance in Wistar rats, but was not sufficient to develop T2DM. In contrast, GK rats presented all the typical hallmarks of T2DM, such as insulin resistance, defective insulin production, fasting hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia and lipid plasma alteration. Thus, on the given time point of this study, we may conclude that only GK rats shown to be a reliable model to study T2DM.

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of anthocyanins extract from black soybean seed coat in high fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

Black soybean seed coat extract (BSSCE) is a rich source of anthocyanins with multiple health effects. This study was aimed at investigating the composition and hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of BSSCE in vitro and in a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The anthocyanins of BSSCE were identified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and peonidin-3-O-glucoside by HPLC-MS. Results demonstrated that BSSCE exhibited strong inhibitory activities for α-amylase, potent inhibition activity against lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and protection effect on H2O2-induced oxidative stress-damaged HepG2 cells. The food and water intake, body weight loss, blood glucose and insulin level of BSSCE treatment group were found to be significantly reduced when compared with those of diabetic mice group (p < 0.05). The fasting blood glucose level and insulin level of the BSSCE 400 mg kg-1 group mice significantly decreased by 47.97% and 46.49%, respectively. The oral glucose tolerance and activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) notably improved (p < 0.05). BSSCE could also ameliorate the atherogenic dyslipidaemia of diabetic mice by remarkably decreasing the content of total cholesterol (T-CHO), total triglyceride (TG), and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and increasing the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (p < 0.05). BSSCE could protect against liver, kidney and pancreas damages in diabetic mice. This study suggested that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside contributed to BSSCE-induced hypoglycemia and hypolipidemia effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and BSSCE might be a promising functional food or medicine for T2DM treatment.

The Value of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio for Detecting Early-onset Neonatal Sepsis.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neonate early-onset sepsis (EOS) and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) of term neonates.