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Dry eyes - Top 30 Publications

Comparison of Short-Term Effects of Diquafosol and Rebamipide on Mucin 5AC Level on the Rabbit Ocular Surface.

To investigate the short-term effects of 2 new secretagogue eye drops for dry eye, 3% diquafosol tetrasodium ophthalmic solution (diquafosol) and 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension (rebamipide), on the concentration of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) in rabbit tear fluid and conjunctival goblet cells.


To investigate alterations of superficial and deep retinal vascular densities, as well as of choroidal thickness, in patients affected by adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD).

Health and Wellbeing of Occupants in Highly Energy Efficient Buildings: A Field Study.

Passive houses and other highly energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, ventilation systems in such houses are regarded with a certain degree of skepticism by parts of the public due to alleged negative health effects. Within a quasi-experimental field study, we investigated if occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) experience different health, wellbeing and housing satisfaction outcomes and if associations with indoor air quality exist. We investigated 123 modern homes (test group: with mechanical ventilation; control group: naturally ventilated) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in the same geographic area and price range. Interviews of occupants based on standardized questionnaires and measurements of indoor air quality parameters were conducted twice (three months after moving in and one year later). In total, 575 interviews were performed (respondents' mean age 37.9 ± 9 years in the test group, 37.7 ± 9 years in the control group). Occupants of the test group rated their overall health status and that of their children not significantly higher than occupants of the control group at both time points. Adult occupants of the test group reported dry eyes statistically significantly more frequently compared to the control group (19.4% vs. 12.5%). Inhabitants of energy-efficient, mechanically ventilated homes rated the quality of indoor air and climate significantly higher. Self-reported health improved more frequently in the mechanically ventilated new homes (p = 0.005). Almost no other significant differences between housing types and measuring time points were observed concerning health and wellbeing or housing satisfaction. Associations between vegetative symptoms (dizziness, nausea, headaches) and formaldehyde concentrations as well as between CO₂ levels and perceived stale air were observed. However, both associations were independent of the type of ventilation. In summary, occupants of the mechanically ventilated homes rated their health status slightly higher and their health improved significantly more frequently than in occupants of the control group. As humidity in homes with mechanical ventilation was lower, it seems plausible that the inhabitants reported dry eyes more frequently.

The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome, Its Components, and Dry Eye: A Cross-Sectional Study.

The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film function and ocular surface changes in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Gastrointestinal and liver lesions in primary childhood Sjögren syndrome.

Sjögren syndrome (SS) is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands, mainly the lacrimal and salivary glands, leading to keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. SS is one of the most common autoimmune rheumatic diseases in adults; however, few cases of primary childhood SS with gastrointestinal and liver lesions have been reported in the literature. We report five cases of primary childhood SS with gastrointestinal and liver lesions. Multiple gastric biopsies in four cases revealed atrophic gastritis in the antrum of the stomach or chronic gastritis. Liver biopsies in two cases revealed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Careful clinical approach and follow-up for gastrointestinal and liver lesions are required.

Combination of Navigated Macular Laser Photocoagulation and Anti-VEGF Therapy: Precise Treatment for Macular Edema under Dry Retinal Conditions.

Purpose. To compare the controllability of navigated macular laser photocoagulation (MLP) in dry versus edematous retina and validate that pretreatment diagnostic images can be used as basis for navigated MLP after the macular edema (ME) has been resolved. Materials and Methods. Group 1 was divided into subgroup 1 (dry retina MLP) and subgroup 2 (MLP in ME) for comparisons of laser-burn diameters. In group 2, the areas and locations of ME before an intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF (IVAV) were compared with those of recurrent ME. Results. The average actual diameter as percentage of planned diameter of laser burn in subgroup 1 (11 DME eyes, 6 BRVO eyes) versus subgroup 2 (5 DME eyes, 8 BRVO eyes) was 115.1 ± 9.1% versus 167.2 ± 13.8% (based on retro-mode scanning laser ophthalmoscopy), and 118.1 ± 14.8% versus 176.1 ± 11.6% (based on OCT) (p < 0.001). In group 2 (6 DME eyes, 6 BRVO eyes), difference in mean ME area before IVAV and that in recurrent edema was insignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusion. The controllability of navigated MLP in dry retina is improved compared to edematous retina. This study validates that pretreatment diagnostic images can be used as basis for navigated MLP after the edema has been resolved.

In vivo confocal microscopic observation of corneal changes in patients with chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Objective: To describe corneal alterations visible on in vivo confocal microscopy in patients with debilitating ocular sequelae caused by Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 11 consecutive patients suffering from chronic SJS or TEN were studied using slit lamp and in vivo confocal microscopy in the Ophthalmology Outpatient Department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from March 2014 to April 2015. Results: Dry eye with meibomian gland dysfunction (19 eyes of 10 patients, 86.4%) was the most frequent clinical sequelae. Two patients (3 eyes, 13.6%) had severe vison loss with corneal neovascularization and conjunctivization. One patient had asymmetric binocular disease. Corneal epithelial cells were observed at an active state in 10 patients (19 eyes, 86.4%) and corneal stromal cells at an active state in all patients (22 eyes, 100%). Twenty eyes (10 patients, 91%) were noted with abnormal nerve layout and 10 eyes (5 patients, 45.5%) with dendritic cell infiltration around pathological nerve damages. Numerous inflammory cells were observed in 6 eyes (3 patients, 27.3%). Conclusions: The corneas of patients with chronic ocular sequelae associated with SJS or TEN present a number of abnormalities. In vivo confocal microscopy is a potetial useful tool for therapeutic indications and for follow-up of the debilitating chronic ocular problems linked to SJS and TEN. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53:177-181).

Comparing the Effects of Particulate Matter on the Ocular Surfaces of Normal Eyes and a Dry Eye Rat Model.

To compare the effect of exposure to particulate matter on the ocular surface of normal and experimental dry eye (EDE) rat models.

Vitamin B12 deficiency evaluation and treatment in severe dry eye disease with neuropathic ocular pain.

This study aims to understand the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease (DED).

Determination of Schirmer tear test-1 values in clinically normal alpacas (Vicugña pacos) in North America.

To determine the normal reference range for Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values in eyes of healthy alpacas (Vicugña pacos).

Mechanical meibomian gland squeezing combined with eyelid scrubs and warm compresses for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction.

The aim was to investigate the efficacy of mechanical meibomian gland squeezing combined with eyelid scrubs and warm compresses in participants with moderate and severe meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).

Effect of lipid-based dry eye supplements on the tear film in wearers of eye cosmetics.

To compare the effects on tear film parameters and contamination in cosmetic eyeliner wearers, after single application of two lipid-based dry eye treatments: a lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and a phospholipid liposomal spray.

Long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning: retinal electrophysiological assessment in 40 severely intoxicated Iranian veterans.

The eye is one of the most sensitive organs to sulfur mustard (SM) [C4H8Cl2S], and preliminary symptoms of exposure usually become evident in the eyes. In this study we aim to evaluate the possible long-term retinal electrophysiologic complications of SM poisoning in Iranian veterans during Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988).

Gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial disorders: a systematic review.

Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) due to respiratory-chain defects or nonrespiratory chain defects are usually multisystem conditions [mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS)] affecting the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system, eyes, ears, endocrine organs, heart, kidneys, bone marrow, lungs, arteries, and also the intestinal tract. Frequent gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of MIDs include poor appetite, gastroesophageal sphincter dysfunction, constipation, dysphagia, vomiting, gastroparesis, GI pseudo-obstruction, diarrhea, or pancreatitis and hepatopathy. Rare GI manifestations of MIDs include dry mouth, paradontosis, tracheoesophageal fistula, stenosis of the duodeno-jejunal junction, atresia or imperforate anus, liver cysts, pancreas lipomatosis, pancreatic cysts, congenital stenosis or obstruction of the GI tract, recurrent bowel perforations with intra-abdominal abscesses, postprandial abdominal pain, diverticulosis, or pneumatosis coli. Diagnosing GI involvement in MIDs is not at variance from diagnosing GI disorders due to other causes. Treatment of mitochondrial GI disease includes noninvasive or invasive measures. Therapy is usually symptomatic. Only for myo-neuro-gastro-intestinal encephalopathy is a causal therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation available. It is concluded that GI manifestations of MIDs are more widespread than so far anticipated and that they must be recognized as early as possible to initiate appropriate diagnostic work-up and avoid any mitochondrion-toxic treatment.

Ocular and visual disorders in Parkinson's disease: Common but frequently overlooked.

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often compensate for their motor deficits by guiding their movements visually. A wide range of ocular and visual disorders threatens the patients' ability to benefit optimally from visual feedback. These disorders are common in patients with PD, yet they have received little attention in both research and clinical practice, leading to unnecessary - but possibly treatable - disability. Based on a literature search covering 50 years, we review the range of ocular and visual disorders in patients with PD, and classify these according to anatomical structures of the visual pathway. We discuss six common disorders in more detail: dry eyes; diplopia; glaucoma and glaucoma-like visual problems; impaired contrast and colour vision; visuospatial and visuoperceptual impairments; and visual hallucinations. In addition, we review the effects of PD-related pharmacological and surgical treatments on visual function, and we offer practical recommendations for clinical management. Greater awareness and early recognition of ocular and visual problems in PD might enable timely instalment of tailored treatments, leading to improved patient safety, greater independence, and better quality of life.

The Potential Role for Early Biomarker Testing as Part of a Modern, Multidisciplinary Approach to Sjögren's Syndrome Diagnosis.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic and progressive multisystem autoimmune disease typically managed by rheumatologists. Diagnostic delays are common, due in large part to the non-specific and variable nature of SS symptoms and the slow progression of disease. The hallmark characteristics of SS are dry eye and dry mouth, but there are a broad range of other possible symptoms such as joint and muscle pain, skin rashes, chronic dry cough, vaginal dryness, extremity numbness or tingling, and disabling fatigue. Given that dry eye and dry mouth are typically the earliest presenting complaints, eye care clinicians and dental professionals are often the first point of medical contact and can provide critical collaboration with rheumatologists to facilitate both timely diagnosis and ongoing care of patients with SS. Current diagnostic criteria advocated by the American College of Rheumatology are predicated on the presence of signs/symptoms suggestive of SS along with at least two objective factors such as traditional biomarker positivity, salivary gland biopsy findings, and/or presence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Traditional biomarkers for SS include the autoantibodies anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SS-A/Ro), anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen B (SS-B/La), antinuclear antibody (ANA) titers, and rheumatoid factor (RF). While diagnostically useful, these biomarkers have low specificity for SS and are not always positive, especially in early cases of SS. Several newly-identified biomarkers for SS include autoantibodies to proteins specific to the salivary and lacrimal glands [SP-1 (salivary gland protein-1), PSP (parotid secretory protein), CA-6 (carbonic anhydrase VI)]. Data suggest that these novel biomarkers may appear earlier in the course of disease and are often identified in cases that test negative to traditional biomarkers. The Sjö(®) test is a commercially available diagnostic panel that incorporates testing for traditional SS biomarkers (anti-SS-A/Ro, anti-SS-B/La, ANA, and RF), as well as three novel, proprietary early biomarkers (antibodies to SP-1, PSP, and CA-6) which provide greater sensitivity and specificity than traditional biomarker testing alone. Timely diagnosis of SS requires appropriate clinical vigilance for potential SS symptoms, referral and collaborative communication among rheumatology, ophthalmology, and oral care professions, and proactive differential work-up that includes both physical and laboratory evaluations.

Ocular involvement in atopic dermatitis : Clinical aspects and therapy.

Patients with atopic dermatitis frequently complain of ocular symptoms. The general dermatitis can directly affect the periocular skin and patients often present with chronic atopic blepharokeratoconjunctivitis. Early diagnosis of the characteristic ophthalmological alterations, such as blepharitis, allergic conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, conjunctival scarring with formation of symblepharon and lid malpositioning, filiform keratitis, corneal plaques, (persistent) epithelial defects, corneal ulcers and keratoconus as well as appropriate stage-adapted treatment, including lid hygiene with preservative-free lubricants, topical and sometimes systemic anti-inflammatory therapy and surgical treatment are important for patients to prevent long-term damage of the ocular surface leading to severe visual impairment.

Evaluation of dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction with meibography in vitiligo.

PurposeTo evaluate the dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) of vitiligo patients with meibography.MethodsTwenty eyes of 20 vitiligo patients (Group 1) and 20 eyes of 20 healthy individuals (Group 2) were enrolled. All subjects had undergone a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining (Oxford scale scoring), tear film break-up time (T-BUT), Schirmer 1 test, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score assessment, and upper and lower eyelid meibography using infrared captures of a biomicroscope (Topcon, SL-D701, IJssel, The Netherlands). Partial or complete loss of the meibomian glands was scored for each eyelid from grade 0 (no loss) through grade 3 (lost area was >2/3 of the total meibomian gland area).ResultsThe mean ages of Group 1 and Group 2 were 35.5±13.4 (range, 8-54) and 35.2±12.4 years (range, 8-52), respectively (P=0.942). Mean Schirmer 1 values were lower, and Oxford score, OSDI score, and meiboscores of lower eyelids were higher in Group 1, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.139, P=0.057, P=0.071, P=0.300, respectively). T-BUT values were significantly lower, and meiboscores of upper eyelids and total (upper+lower) eyelids were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P=0.047, P=0.001, P=0.003, respectively).ConclusionVitiligo can be associated with dry eye and there are significant differences in meibomian gland morphology in patients with vitiligo when compared with healthy subjects. For this reason, patients with vitiligo should be monitored for dry eye and MGD, and promptly start treatment when needed.Eye advance online publication, 10 March 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.38.

Immune-related ocular toxicities in solid tumor patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: a systematic review.

Immune-related ocular toxicities are uncommon but serious adverse events that may be associated with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The objective of this review is to assess the incidence and risk of ocular toxicities which are potentially immune-related and occur with immune checkpoint treatment of solid tumors. Areas covered: PubMed database has been searched till June 2016. Prospective clinical trials reporting the occurrence of immune-related ocular toxicities in solid tumor patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors were included. Eleven trials with 4965 participants were included. These studies included one study for ipilimumab and tremelimumab, three studies for nivolumab, five studies for pembrolizumab and one study comparing pembrolizumab to ipilimumab. No atezolizumab studies were included. The most common ocular toxicities reported with these agents included uveitis and dry eyes. Pooled analysis for odds ratio of all-grade immune-related ocular toxicities is 3.40 [95% CI: 1.32-8.71; P = 0.01]. Expert commentary: Despite being uncommon, immune-related ocular toxicities (particularly uveitis and dry eyes) occur with a higher frequency in cancer patients treated immune checkpoint inhibitors compared to those treated with control regimens.

Optic Neuropathy Associated with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Case Series.

To determine the diverse clinical features of optic neuropathy associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome in Korean patients.

Can We Improve the Tolerance of an Ocular Prosthesis by Enhancing Its Surface Finish?

Patients who wear an ocular prosthesis frequently suffer with dry eye symptoms and socket discharge, often on a daily basis. The aim of the study was to determine whether a smoother, optical quality polish of the prosthesis' surface could improve symptoms and wear tolerance. The study was designed as single-center, single-masked, prospective randomized controlled trial. Eighty-eight consecutive patients undergoing annual ocular prosthesis maintenance review were approached from the prosthesis clinic. Forty-one out of 49 eligible patients were recruited.

Analysis of novel Sjogren's syndrome autoantibodies in patients with dry eyes.

Dry eye is a common problem in Ophthalmology and may occur for many reasons including Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Recent studies have identified autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), which occur early in the course of SS. The current studies were designed to evaluate how many patients with idiopathic dry eye and no evidence of systemic diseases from a dry eye practice have these autoantibodies.

Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 and Eye Diseases.

Human T cell leukemia virus type 1, also known as human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is a retrovirus that encodes a reverse transcriptase, which translates viral RNA into a DNA provirus that is integrated into the host genome. The virus was found to be a causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) in the early 1980s, and was also found to cause the neurological disorder tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP)/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) and the inflammatory disorder HTLV-1 uveitis in the mid 1980s and early 1990s, respectively. This article reviews eye diseases caused by or related to HTLV-1: HTLV-1 uveitis, ocular and systemic complications of HTLV-1, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, interstitial keratitis, and ATL.

Psychosis as a late manifestation of Sheehan's syndrome.

Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage. It is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism in underdeveloped or developing countries. Characteristic manifestations include failure to lactate or to resume menses, genital and axillary hair loss, asthenia and weakness, fine wrinkles around the eyes and lips, signs of premature aging, dry skin, hypopigmentation and other evidence of hypopituitarism. Uncommonly it can present with psychosis. There are only few case reports of psychoses in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Our case report illustrates the relationship between psychosis and Sheehan's syndrome. The treatment challenges in managing Sheehan's syndrome and psychosis are discussed.

Corneal thickness in dry eyes in an Iraqi population.

Dry eye disorder is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in discomfort and visual disturbance. Corneal pachymetry becomes increasingly important in refractive surgery, for the accurate assessment of intraocular pressure, and in the preoperative assessment of other ocular surgeries.

One-Year Outcomes of a Treat-and-Extend Regimen of Aflibercept for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

The aim of this study was to investigate the 1-year outcomes of treat-and-extend aflibercept for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan.

Effect of pulsed laser light in patients with dry eye syndrome.

The objective of this study was to determine the clinical benefits of pulsed light therapy for the treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) due to the decrease in aqueous tear production (aqueous deficient DES) and/or excessive tear evaporation (evaporative DES) due to Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD).

The correlation between plasma osmolarity and tear osmolarity.

To the correlation between plasma osmolarity (Posm) and tear osmolarity (Tosm) in patients (54 patients, 88 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery was evaluated.

The impact of dysfunctional tear films and optical aberrations on chronic migraine.

Migraine is a multifactorial disorder with complex neuronal and vascular mechanisms that encompasses a wide clinical spectrum of symptoms, including ocular manifestations. Dry eye disease and dysfunction of ocular somatosensory pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The current study investigates the association between a dysfunctional tear film and ocular aberrations with migraine.

The vitreomacular interface in different types of age-related macular degeneration.

To evaluate the vitreomacular interface in cases with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to compare them to eyes with dry AMD and normal eyes.