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Dry eyes - Top 30 Publications

TFOS DEWS II iatrogenic report.

Dry eye can be caused by a variety of iatrogenic interventions. The increasing number of patients looking for eye care or cosmetic procedures involving the eyes, together with a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of dry eye disease (DED), have led to the need for a specific report about iatrogenic dry eye within the TFOS DEWS II. Topical medications can cause DED due to their allergic, toxic and immuno-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. Preservatives, such as benzalkonium chloride, may further aggravate DED. A variety of systemic drugs can also induce DED secondary to multiple mechanisms. Moreover, the use of contact lens induces or is associated with DED. However, one of the most emblematic situations is DED caused by surgical procedures such as corneal refractive surgery as in laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and keratoplasty due to mechanisms intrinsic to the procedure (i.e. corneal nerve cutting) or even by the use of postoperative topical drugs. Cataract surgery, lid surgeries, botulinum toxin application and cosmetic procedures are also considered risk factors to iatrogenic DED, which can cause patient dissatisfaction, visual disturbance and poor surgical outcomes. This report also presents future directions to address iatrogenic DED, including the need for more in-depth epidemiological studies about the risk factors, development of less toxic medications and preservatives, as well as new techniques for less invasive eye surgeries. Novel research into detection of early dry eye prior to surgeries, efforts to establish appropriate therapeutics and a greater attempt to regulate and oversee medications, preservatives and procedures should be considered.

Hyperhomocysteinemia and Age-related Macular Degeneration: Role of Inflammatory Mediators and Pyroptosis; A Proposal.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pyroptosis cause irreversible vascular changes in the eyes leading to central vision loss in patients. It is the most common eye disease affecting millions of people aged 50years or older, and is slowly becoming a major health problem worldwide. The disease mainly affects macula lutea, an oval-shaped pigmented area surrounding fovea near the center of retina, a region responsible for visual acuity. It is fairly a complex disease as genetics of patients, environmental triggers as well as risk factors such as age, family history of CVDs, diabetes, gender, obesity, race, hyperopia, iris color, smoking, diabetes, exposure to sun light and pyroptosis have all been clubbed together as probable causes of macular degeneration. Among genes that are known to play a role include variant polymorphisms in the complement cascade components such as CFH, C2, C3, and CFB as potential genetic risk factors. So far, AMD disease hypothesized theories have not resulted into the anticipated impact towards the development of effective or preventive therapies in order to help alleviate patients' suffering because, as of today, it is still unclear what actually initiates or leads to this dreaded eye condition. Based upon our extensive work on the metabolism of homocysteine (Hcy) in various disease conditions we, therefore, are proposing a novel hypothesis for AMD pathogenesis as we strongly believe that Hcy and events such as pyroptosis make a greater contribution to the overall etiology of AMD disease in a target population of susceptible hosts by inciting and accelerating the inherent inflammatory changes in the retina of these patients (Fig. 2). In this context, we further state that Hcy and pyroptosis should be considered as legitimate and valuable markers of retinal dysfunction as they not only aid and abet in the development but also in the progression of AMD in older people as discussed in this paper. This discussion should open up new avenues in tackling inflammatory and pyroptosis centered pathways that are up-regulated or solely promoted by Hcy interaction within the ocular compartment of AMD susceptible hosts.

Ocular surface evaluation in eyes with chronic glaucoma on long term topical antiglaucoma therapy.

To evaluate ocular surface changes and its correlation with the central corneal subbasal nerve fibre layer in chronic glaucoma patients.

A Non-invasive Way to Isolate and Phenotype Cells from the Conjunctiva.

Traditionally, ocular surface cytology is studied with techniques such as spatula technology and brush technology. The problem with these techniques is that they may induce traumatic lesions on the surface of the eye, which can progress to scarring, eyelid deformity, limbal stem cell deficiency and in some cases, cause great discomfort to the subject. To avoid these clinical problems, impression cytology (IC) was developed to diagnose dry eye disease and later neoplasia, atopic disease, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Typically, clinicians manually cut filter papers into required shapes and apply these to the ocular surface. Here, we describe how to perform IC using a commercially available medical device. This technique is explained here followed by immunophenotyping by flow cytometry. This technique requires less manual handling and causes less injury to the ocular surface.

Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 2% for dry eye prevention during phacoemulsification in senile and diabetic patients.

To assess the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 2% to prevent dry eye during phacoemulsification in senile and diabetic patients.

Refractive Eye Surgery: Helping Patients Make Informed Decisions About LASIK.

A variety of refractive surgery techniques, which reshape the corneal stroma using laser energy, have been marketed as simple and safe alternatives to glasses or contact lenses. Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common of these procedures. Although there are few high-quality prospective studies of long-term outcomes, complications, or stability for refractive surgery procedures, there is at least general agreement that more than 90% of appropriately selected patients achieve excellent uncorrected distance vision. In addition to well-recognized contraindications (e.g., unstable refraction, pregnancy and lactation, chronic eye disease, systemic illness, corneal abnormalities), there are other conditions that warrant caution (e.g., excessively dry eyes, contact lens intolerance, chronic pain syndromes). Postoperative dry eye, which may in part represent a corneal neuropathy, usually resolves after six to 12 months but persists in up to 20% of patients. Up to 20% of patients may have new visual disturbances, particularly with night driving. Vision-threatening complications are rare. Intraocular lenses, implanted following cataract extraction, may be an alternative to LASIK in older patients. Although the overall dependence on corrective lenses is markedly reduced, many patients still require glasses or contact lenses after LASIK, particularly in low-light conditions and as they age. Most patients report satisfaction with the results. Family physicians can help patients make informed decisions by exploring their values, preferences, expectations, and tolerance of uncertainty and risk.

Conjunctival Goblet Cell Density Following Cataract Surgery with Diclofenac Versus Diclofenac and Rebamipide: A Randomized Trial.

To determine the effects of topical diclofenac or betamethasone with concomitant application of topical rebamipide on the conjunctival goblet cell density in eyes after cataract surgery.

Association of Vascular vs. Avascular Subretinal Hyperreflective Material with Aflibercept Response in Age-related Macular Degeneration.

To investigate flow signal within subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and its association with aflibercept treatment responses in treatment-naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).

Risk Factors for Secondary Glaucoma in Herpetic Anterior Uveitis.

To determine the incidence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and secondary glaucoma in herpetic anterior uveitis (AU), due to either herpes simplex or varicella zoster virus, by using the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria, and to identify risk factors for the development of glaucoma.

Clinical and serological characteristics of Ecuadorian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, wherein late diagnosis and treatment leads to deformities and disability.

A novel TRPM8 agonist relieves dry eye discomfort.

Physical cooling of the eye surface relieves ocular discomfort, but translating this event to drug treatment of dry eye discomfort not been studied. Here, we synthesized a water-soluble TRPM8 receptor agonist called cryosim-3 (C3, 1-diisopropylphosphorylnonane) which selectively activates TRPM8 (linked to cooling) but not TRPV1 or TRPA1 (linked to nociception) and tested C3 in subjects with mild forms of dry eye disease.

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INNER RETINAL LAYER THICKNESSES IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION USING CORRECTED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SEGMENTATION.

To characterize inner retinal damage in patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography images.

Tolerability of Topical Tocilizumab Eyedrops in Dogs: A Pilot Study.

The aim of this study was to examine the tolerability of topical tocilizumab eyedrops in normal dogs and to assess whether this preparation alters tear film cytokine levels or conjunctival cytokine mRNA expression.

Punctal occlusion for dry eye syndrome.

Dry eye syndrome is a disorder of the tear film that is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. Punctal occlusion is a mechanical treatment that blocks the tear drainage system in order to aid in the preservation of natural tears on the ocular surface.

Identification of transcription factors that promote the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells.

Dry eye disease is the most prevalent pathological condition in aging eyes. One potential therapeutic strategy is the transplantation of lacrimal glands, generated in vitro from pluripotent stem cells such as human embryonic stem cells, into patients. One of the preceding requirements is a method to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium cells. As the first step for this approach, this study aims to identify a set of transcription factors whose overexpression can promote the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells. We performed microarray analyses of lacrimal glands and lacrimal glands-related organs obtained from mouse embryos and adults, and identified transcription factors enriched in lacrimal gland epithelium cells. We then transfected synthetic messenger RNAs encoding human orthologues of these transcription factors into human embryonic stem cells and examined whether the human embryonic stem cells differentiate into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells by assessing cell morphology and marker gene expression. The microarray analysis of lacrimal glands tissues identified 16 transcription factors that were enriched in lacrimal gland epithelium cells. We focused on three of the transcription factors, because they are expressed in other glands such as salivary glands and are also known to be involved in the development of lacrimal glands. We tested the overexpression of various combinations of the three transcription factors and PAX6, which is an indispensable gene for lacrimal glands development, in human embryonic stem cells. Combining PAX6, SIX1, and FOXC1 caused significant changes in morphology, i.e., elongated cell shape and increased expression (both RNAs and proteins) of epithelial markers such as cytokeratin15, branching morphogenesis markers such as BARX2, and lacrimal glands markers such as aquaporin5 and lactoferrin. We identified a set of transcription factors enriched in lacrimal gland epithelium cells and demonstrated that the simultaneous overexpression of these transcription factors can differentiate human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells. This study suggests the possibility of lacrimal glands regeneration from human pluripotent stem cells.

A clinical utility assessment of the automatic measurement method of the quality of Meibomian glands.

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common diseases observed in clinics and is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye. Today, diagnostics of MGD is not fully automatic yet and is based on a qualitative assessment made by an ophthalmologist. Therefore, an automatic analysis method was developed to assess MGD quantiatively.

Dry eye and Meibomian gland dysfunction with meibography in patients with lamellar ichthyosis.

To evaluate the dry eye findings and Meibomian gland dysfunction as demonstrated with meibography in patients with lamellar ichthyosis.

Topical administration of Esculetin as a potential therapy for experimental dry eye syndrome.

PurposeIn this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of topical Esculetin for dry eye rabbits through the ocular tests, inflammatory factor levels and specific phosphorylated protein expressions of ERK1/2 singnal pathway.Patients and methodsThirty-two healthy adult male New Zealand white rabbits were chosen for the study. DES models were established after removing of the main lacrimal gland, Harderian gland and nictitating membrane in the left eyes and randomly divided into group DES control, group CsA, group Esculetin and group Esculetin combined with CsA (C&E), meanwhile the right eyes served as group Normal control. Schirmer's I tests, fluorescein scores, goblet cell densities, inflammatory cytokines IL-1α,IL-1β,TNF-αlevels were observed by slit-lamp microscope, conjunctival impression cytology and ELISA essay at week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8. Phosphorylated-ERK1/2 expressions were detected in Western blot analysis at week 8.ResultsAfter induction of DES, aqueous tear production and goblet cell density were decreased, FL score was much higher in group DES control throughout the study (P<0.05). Both topical Esculetin and Esculetin combing CsA increased the SIT values (10±1 mm, 14±3 mm, P<0.05) and goblet cell densities (77±12/HP, 92±12/HP, P<0.05), decreased FL scores (7.48±0.33, 5.09±0.24, P<0.05) at week 8. Alternations of IL-1α,IL-1β,TNF-αlevels had similar trend. In Western blot analysis, downregulations of p-ERK1/2 were observed in therapy groups when compared with group DES control and the most decreasing was found in group C&E (P<0.05).ConclusionTopical Esculetin improved DES symptoms, downregulated the inflammatory cytokine expressions, suppressed the ERK1/2 pathway and enhanced the therapeutic effect of CsA.Eye advance online publication, 23 June 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.117.

Identification of a Sjögren's syndrome susceptibility locus at OAS1 that influences isoform switching, protein expression, and responsiveness to type I interferons.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common, autoimmune exocrinopathy distinguished by keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Patients frequently develop serious complications including lymphoma, pulmonary dysfunction, neuropathy, vasculitis, and debilitating fatigue. Dysregulation of type I interferon (IFN) pathway is a prominent feature of SS and is correlated with increased autoantibody titers and disease severity. To identify genetic determinants of IFN pathway dysregulation in SS, we performed cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses focusing on differentially expressed type I IFN-inducible transcripts identified through a transcriptome profiling study. Multiple cis-eQTLs were associated with transcript levels of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) peaking at rs10774671 (PeQTL = 6.05 × 10-14). Association of rs10774671 with SS susceptibility was identified and confirmed through meta-analysis of two independent cohorts (Pmeta = 2.59 × 10-9; odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.86). The risk allele of rs10774671 shifts splicing of OAS1 from production of the p46 isoform to multiple alternative transcripts, including p42, p48, and p44. We found that the isoforms were differentially expressed within each genotype in controls and patients with and without autoantibodies. Furthermore, our results showed that the three alternatively spliced isoforms lacked translational response to type I IFN stimulation. The p48 and p44 isoforms also had impaired protein expression governed by the 3' end of the transcripts. The SS risk allele of rs10774671 has been shown by others to be associated with reduced OAS1 enzymatic activity and ability to clear viral infections, as well as reduced responsiveness to IFN treatment. Our results establish OAS1 as a risk locus for SS and support a potential role for defective viral clearance due to altered IFN response as a genetic pathophysiological basis of this complex autoimmune disease.

Evaluating the effects of Botulinum Toxin A on tear metrics in patients with hemifacial spasm.

Hemifacial spasm has been previously shown to result in dry eye and ocular surface diseases. This study was performed to assess the impact of chemodenervation with botulinum toxin on clinically-relevant metrics of tears. Tear osmolarity and lipid layer thickness were measured in patients with hemifacial spasm after they achieved relief from hemifacial spasm via botulinum toxin injections. Twelve eyes of 6 patients with hemifacial spasm (2 men and 4 women; mean age 55.5 years) were assessed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and IRB approval. The mean tear osmolarities were 300.8 mOsm (standard deviation = 7.44 mOsm) and 293.0 mOsm (standard deviation = 7.01 mOsm) for treated and untreated eyes, respectively, and this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.097). The mean lipid layer thicknesses of the tear film were 78.7 nm (standard deviation = 18.0 nm) and 71.5 nm (standard deviation = 25.2 nm) for treated and untreated eyes, respectively, and these values were not statistically significantly different (p = 0.671). Although previous investigations have demonstrated significant dry eye disease in patients with hemifacial spasm, successful chemodenervation with botulinum toxin appears to result in tear osmolarities and lipid layer thicknesses that were comparable in treated and untreated eyes. This finding may represent an additional benefit to treatment of hemifacial spasm.

Fingerprick autologous blood: a novel treatment for dry eye syndrome.

PurposeDry eye syndrome (DES) causes significant morbidity. Trials of blood-derived products in treatment of the condition show promising results. However, their production is expensive and time-consuming. We investigate fingerprick autologous blood (FAB) as an alternative low-cost, readily accessible treatment for DES.Patients and methodsProspective, non-comparative, interventional case series. In total, 29 eyes of 16 DES patients (2 males and 14 females) from two NHS sites in the United Kingdom. Patients instructed to clean a finger, prick with a blood lancet, and apply a drop of blood to the lower fornix of the affected eye(s), 4 times daily for 8 weeks then stop and review 4 weeks later. Follow-up visits occurred ~3 days, 2, 4, 8 weeks into therapy, and 4 weeks post-cessation. At each visit, visual acuity, corneal staining, Schirmer's test, tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular comfort index (OCI) were measured, and photographs taken. Results were analysed using Student's paired t-test.ResultsAt 8 weeks, there was improvement in mean Oxford corneal staining grade (3.31 to 2.07 (P<0.0001)), TBUT (5.00 to 7.80 s (P<0.05)), visual acuity (0.08 to 0.01 LogMAR equivalent (P<0.05)), and OCI score (56.03 to 39.72 (P<0.0001)). There was no statistically significant change in Schirmer's test results. Four weeks post-cessation versus immediately after completion of FAB therapy, mean staining grade worsened from 2.07 to 2.86 (P<0.0001). OCI score worsened from 39.72 to 44.67 (P<0.05).ConclusionsIn our limited case series FAB appears to be a safe and effective treatment for DES.Eye advance online publication, 16 June 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.118.

Tear production and intraocular pressure in canine eyes with corneal ulceration.

This study aimed to evaluate changes in lacrimation and intraocular pressure (IOP) in dogs with unilateral corneal ulceration using the Schirmer tear test (STT) and rebound (TonoVet®) tonometry. IOP and STT values were recorded in both ulcerated and non-ulcerated (control) eyes of 100 dogs diagnosed with unilateral corneal ulceration. Dogs presented with other ocular conditions as their primary complaint were excluded from this study. The mean ± standard deviation for STT values in the ulcerated and control eyes were 20.2±4.6 mm/min and 16.7±3.5 mm/min respectively. The mean ± standard deviation for IOP in the ulcerated and control eyes were 11.9±3.1 mmHg and 16.7±2.6 mmHg respectively. STT values were significantly higher (p<0.000001) in the ulcerated eye compared to the control eye while IOP was significantly lower (p<0.0001). There is an increase in lacrimation and a decrease in IOP in canine eyes with corneal ulceration. The higher tear production in ulcerated eyes shows the importance of measuring STT in both eyes in cases of corneal ulceration, since this increased lacrimation may mask an underlying keratoconjunctivitis sicca only evident in the contralateral eye. The lower IOP in ulcerated eyes is likely to relate to mild uveitic change in the ulcerated eye with a concomitant increase in uveoscleral aqueous drainage. While these changes in tear production and IOP in ulcerated eyes are widely recognised in both human and veterinary ophthalmology, it appears that this is the first controlled documented report of these changes in a large number of individuals.

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Sjögren's Syndrome.

Sjögren's syndrome is one of the more common inflammatory rheumatological diseases, with a prevalence of at least 0.4% in Germany.

Comparison of two kinds of artificial tears on the dry eye after phacoemulsification.

Objective: To compare the curative effect of two different artificial tears on dry eye after phacoemulsification. Methods: Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. From March to June in 2012, 102 patients (102 eyes) with age-related cataract were treated with phacoemulsification at Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, and these eyes were randomly divided into blank group (group A ) 32 cases, treatment group 1 (group B) 35 cases and treatment group 2 (group C) 35 cases. Group A was treated with conventional antibiotics. Group B was sodium hyaluronate eye drop, group C was lipid-containing carbomer gel respectively. All patients finished a dry eye questionnaire called Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and Schimmer's test (SIt), break up time (BUT) and fluorescein staining (FL) tests were performed before surgery and at 7, 30 and 90 days after surgery respectively. Optometry were performed at 90 days after surgery. The χ(2) test was used to analyze the sex of the patients, and the age of the patients was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Partial data in eye tests and in OSDI does not meet the normal distribution. Therefore, they were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis H test. If significant difference existed, these data were then analyzed by independent sample Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Twelve patients were lost to visit within 3 months. A total of 90 patients were followed up for 90 days. The mean age of all patients was (69.5±9.5) years (46.0-89.0 years), 38 males and 64 females. There were 30 patients in Group A, group B and group C respectively. The prevalence of dry eye was 56. 7% (60/102). There was no significant difference among the three groups (P>0.05). OSDI questionnaire showed that OSDI score was significantly different among the three groups at 7, 30 and 90 days after operation (H=9.89, 55.53, 45.43, P<0.05). At 30 and 90 days after operation, the median OSDI scores were 12.50 and 10.42 in group C, respectively, which were better than those of group A scores 27.09 and 20. 8 (Z=- 6.30, -5.94, P<0.05), and were better than those of group B scores 17.71 and 13. 54 (Z=-3.40, -3.52, P<0.05). At 90 days after operation, the median BUT of B and C treatment groups was 9. 00, which was better than that of group A (4.00). The difference was statistically significant (H=21.51, P<0.05), There was no significant difference between group B and group C (Z=-0.34, P>0.05). Conclusion: The treatment of artificial tears with lipid composition in the early stage after phacoemulsification is beneficial to the improvement of postoperative symptoms and signs of dry eye. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 445-450).

HIGH-DOSE HIGH-FREQUENCY AFLIBERCEPT FOR RECALCITRANT NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

To determine the efficacy of monthly (0.1 mL/4 mg) aflibercept for refractory neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet age-related macular degeneration).

Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach.

In recent decades infrared thermography (IRT) has facilitated accurate quantitative measurements of the ocular surface temperature (OST), applying a non-invasive procedure. The objective of this work was to develop a procedure based on IRT, which allows characterizing of the cooling of the ocular surface of patients suffering from dry eye syndrome, and distinguishing among patients suffering from aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eyes (EDE).

RECURRENCE OF CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION LESION ACTIVITY AFTER AFLIBERCEPT TREATMENT FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

To examine the recurrence rate of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion activity in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated factors after 1-year aflibercept treatment.

Surgical and medical treatment of ocular disease in a dog with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Correctional surgery was performed on a 3-year-old intact male shih tzu presenting with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, ocular disease, and skin fold dermatitis. A one-year follow-up showed that no further clinical corrections were needed. Therefore, surgery could be considered in some canine patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Pathological Analysis of Ocular Lesions in a Murine Model of Sjögren's Syndrome.

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by severe inflammation of exocrine glands such as the salivary and lacrimal glands. When it affects the lacrimal glands, many patients experience keratoconjunctivitis due to severely dry eyes. This study investigated the pathological and immunological characteristics of ocular lesions in a mouse model of SS. Corneal epithelial injury and hyperplasia were confirmed pathologically. The number of conjunctival mucin-producing goblet cells was significantly decreased in the SS model mice compared with control mice. Expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL) 12 were significantly higher in the corneal epithelium of the SS model mice than in control mice. Inflammatory lesions were observed in the Harderian, intraorbital, and extraorbital lacrimal glands in the SS model mice, suggesting that the ocular glands were targeted by an autoimmune response. The lacrimal glands of the SS model mice were infiltrated by cluster of differentiation (CD)4⁺ T cells. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed significantly increased mRNA expression of TNF-α, TGF-β, CXCL9, and lysozyme in the extraorbital lacrimal glands of the SS model mice compared with control mice. These results add to the understanding of the complex pathogenesis of SS and may facilitate development of new therapeutic strategies.

Keratoprosthesis with Biological Haptic - The Düsseldorf-Offenburg-Experience with Osteo-Odonto- and Tibia-Keratoprosthesis.

In severe ocular surface disease with limbal stem cell deficiency associated with severe dry eye, penetrating keratoplasty is likely to fail. In these cases, and provided the posterior segment is normal, keratoprosthesis surgery (KPro) can achieve visual rehabilitation. In KPros with an autologous biological haptic, a bone-tooth-complex (osteo-odonto-keratoprothesis, OOKPro) or a piece of tibial cortex (tibia-keratoprosthesis, TKPro) is used to carry a PMMA cylinder. This construct can successfully be implanted even in severely dry eyes and in those with autoimmune disease, in which other KPro designs frequently fail. Herein we review the published anatomic long-term results of OOKPro and TKPro on our own patients. With a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (max. 20.6) for OOKPro and 4.5 years (max. 13.3) for TKPro patients, the retention rate was 91 and 86%, respectively. We are unaware of any other technique for artificial replacement of the cornea with equally positive long-term results as KPros with a biological haptic.