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Endometrial cancer - Top 30 Publications

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Endometrial Cancer: An Overview of Recent Laboratory Evidence and Epidemiological Studies.

Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women's health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed and relevant articles published in the last 23 years (from 1992 to 2016) were selected. Results: Human studies and animal experiments are confirming a carcinogenic effect due to the EDC exposure and its carcinogenesis process result to be complex, multifactorial and long standing, thus, it is extremely difficult to obtain the epidemiological proof of a carcinogenic effect of EDCs for the high number of confusing factors. Conclusions: The carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors are plausible, although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and responsible entities. Neverthless, to reduce endocrine disruptors (ED) exposure is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as embryonic period and puberty.

Optimizing endometrial cancer follow-up and survivorship care for rural and other underserved women: Patient and provider perspectives.

This study describes patient and provider attitudes on transitioning cancer surveillance visits and treatment of comorbid conditions to the primary care setting in a rural patient population as a strategy for minimizing financial and travel related barriers for patients while simultaneously enhancing quality and availability of health care options.

Liquid-Based Endometrial Cytology Using SurePath™ Is Not Inferior to Suction Endometrial Tissue Biopsy in Clinical Performance for Detecting Endometrial Cancer Including Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia.

We evaluated the clinical performance of liquid-based endometrial cytology (SurePath™) for detecting endometrial malignancies by comparison with the performance of suction endometrial tissue biopsy.

MELF Pattern for Predicting Lymph Node Involvement and Survival in Grade I-II Endometrioid-type Endometrium Cancer.

The aim of this study was to examine the associations between microcystic, elongated, and fragmented (MELF) pattern and other prognostic factors and lymph node involvement, disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) using a case-control group consisting of grade I-II endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) patients with/without lymph node involvement. The files of the patients were searched electronically for all hysterectomy specimens with a diagnosis of grade I-II EEC of the uterine body from January 1, 2008 to July 31, 2014. Lymph node involvement was detected in 27 patients who were histologically diagnosed with grade I-II EEC, and these patients made up the case group. Using a dependent random sampling method, 28 grade I-II EEC patients without lymph node involvement were selected. According to multivariate regression analysis, lymphovascular space invasion [odds ratio, 23.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4-223.5] and MELF pattern (odds ratio, 13.3; 95% CI, 1.4-121.8) were significant predictors of lymph node involvement. There was recurrence in 15.8% of cases who showed an MELF pattern and in 19.4% of those who did not (P=0.738). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, the MELF pattern revealed no significant differences in disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.1-36.5), whereas the effect on OS was significant (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2). The presence of MELF pattern was a substantial risk factor for detecting lymph node involvement in patients with grade I-II EEC. The MELF pattern may be important for identifying which patients need staging surgery, in addition to its effect on the OS.

CTCF genetic alterations in endometrial carcinoma are pro-tumorigenic.

CTCF is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene with diverse normal functions in genome structure and gene regulation. However the mechanism by which CTCF haploinsufficiency contributes to cancer development is not well understood. CTCF is frequently mutated in endometrial cancer. Here we show that most CTCF mutations effectively result in CTCF haploinsufficiency through nonsense-mediated decay of mutant transcripts, or loss-of-function missense mutation. Conversely, we identified a recurrent CTCF mutation K365T, which alters a DNA binding residue, and acts as a gain-of-function mutation enhancing cell survival. CTCF genetic deletion occurs predominantly in poor prognosis serous subtype tumours, and this genetic deletion is associated with poor overall survival. In addition, we have shown that CTCF haploinsufficiency also occurs in poor prognosis endometrial clear cell carcinomas and has some association with endometrial cancer relapse and metastasis. Using shRNA targeting CTCF to recapitulate CTCF haploinsufficiency, we have identified a novel role for CTCF in the regulation of cellular polarity of endometrial glandular epithelium. Overall, we have identified two novel pro-tumorigenic roles (promoting cell survival and altering cell polarity) for genetic alterations of CTCF in endometrial cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 20 March 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.25.

Genetic association between the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene p27/Kip1 polymorphism (rs34330) and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

The p27 rs34330 (-79C/T) polymorphism has been widely studied for human cancer susceptibility. The current findings, however, still remained controversial. Therefore, we performed the meta-analysis to provide a more accurate result. Eligible studies were identified from PubMed database up to June 2015. The association of p27 rs34330 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility was estimated with odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. The meta-analysis was performed with Stata 12. A total of ten studies with 11,214 cases and more than 8,776 controls were included in the meta-analysis (including breast, lung, thyroid, endometrial, and hepatocellular cancer). In pooled analysis, p27 gene rs34330 polymorphism significantly increased the cancer susceptibility. Subgroup analysis indicated that the elevated risk was observed under all the genetic models for Asians and under three genetic models for Caucasians. Results of sensitivity analysis were similar to the overall results. The results suggested that the p27 rs34330 polymorphism increased the cancer susceptibility, especially in Asians. Further well-designed and large sample size studies are warranted to verify the conclusion.

Honing the classification of high-risk endometrial cancer with inclusion of lymphovascular space invasion.

The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical impact of LVSI status in a large French multicentre cohort of women with high-risk ECs according to the ESMO classification.

FGFR2 mutations are associated with poor outcomes in endometrioid endometrial cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

Activating FGFR2 mutations have been identified in ~10% of endometrioid endometrial cancers (ECs). We have previously reported that mutations in FGFR2 are associated with shorter disease free survival (DFS) in stage I/II EC patients. Here we sought to validate the prognostic importance of FGFR2 mutations in a large, multi-institutional patient cohort.

Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer in Young Women: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Young women with endometrial cancer (EC) have an increased risk of synchronous ovarian cancer. The prognosis of women with synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer (SEOC) is good. A high proportion of affected women have hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer syndrome (HNPCC).

Characterization of a novel POLD1 missense founder mutation in a Spanish population.

We identified a new and a recurrent POLD1 mutation associated with predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). We characterized the molecular and clinical nature of the potential POLD1 founder mutation in families from Valencia (Spain).

Case report of nivolumab-related pneumonitis.

We report a case with suggestive antiprogrammed death-1 inhibitor-related pneumonitis in an endometrial cancer patient. This case presented with fever and cough after three dosages of nivolumab. Computed tomography initially showed centrilobular nodularities in a unilateral lung, which was compatible with aspiration pneumonia. However, diffuse ground-glass opacities (GGO) rapidly developed in the unilateral lung over 4 days despite the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Development of GGO was considered to be related to a nivolumab-mediated immune reaction. Corticosteroid was administered and the GGO subsequently disappeared. The present report focuses on the computed tomography diagnostic features of nivolumab-related pneumonitis. The accumulation of knowledge regarding various types of antiprogrammed death-1-related pneumonitis will lead to appropriate treatment for this newly emerging adverse event.

Contributions of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) in Improving the Quality of Life in Women With Gynecological Malignancies.

The Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) is leading Japan in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. The JGOG consists of three treatment committees focusing on uterine cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer. Each committee makes efforts to improve treatment and diagnosis. In addition, the Supportive and Palliative Care Committee was established in 2015. Novel studies of supportive care and palliative care have been initiated by this committee. Furthermore, surveys about not only treatment results such as overall survival rates but also quality of life (QOL) and cost-effectiveness assessments are performed by the ovarian cancer committee. Improvements of patients' QOL in the treatment of gynecological malignancies were divided into three concepts as follows: QOL associated with cancer treatment, health care after cancer therapy, and progression of cancer. In this review, we report the contributions and future plans for the improvement of QOL in patients with gynecological malignancies.

The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) Level and PAI-1 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with the Formation and the Grade of Endometrial Cancer.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (Serpine 1), and it inhibits both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator which are important in fibrinolysis. We aimed to find whether there is a possible association between PAI-1 level, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels in peripheral blood were determined in 82 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 76 female healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Then, the genomic DNA was extracted and screened by reverse hybridization procedure (Strip assay) to detect PAI 1 4G/5G polymorphism. The levels of PAI-1 in the patients were higher statistically in comparison to controls (P < 0.001). The distribution of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was quite different between patients and controls (P = 0.008), and 4G allelic frequency was significantly higher in the patients of endometrial cancer than in controls (P = 0.026). We found significant difference between Grade 1 and Grade 2+3 patients in terms of the PAI-1 levels (P = 0.047). There was no association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and the grades of endometrial cancer (P = 0.993). Our data suggest that the level of PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism are effective in the formation of endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels are also associated with the grades of endometrial cancer.

Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer: Overtreatment Is the Main Issue.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of histological grade, depth of myometrial invasion, and tumor size to identify lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC).

Uterine Sarcomas: The Latest Approaches for These Rare but Potentially Deadly Tumors.

Uterine sarcomas are rare malignant uterine neoplasms that are responsible for a large majority of uterine cancer-associated deaths. The subtypes include leiomyosarcomas, endometrial stromal tumors, and adenosarcomas. Standard treatment includes complete surgical resection. Adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or radiation may be considered in patients with high-risk disease. However, because the ability of adjuvant treatment to improve overall survival in patients with uterine sarcomas is unclear, there is no standard recommendation regarding adjuvant therapy. The risk in forgoing chemotherapy is that uterine sarcomas have a tendency to develop distant recurrences. Many cytotoxic agents have been investigated in clinical trials in an attempt to identify an effective treatment that can improve the course of this disease. Adjuvant radiation appears to improve local control but has no significant impact on survival. In this review we discuss preoperative diagnosis and the role of pathology, and we summarize the current literature regarding the management of uterine sarcomas.

Endometriosis and risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers in a large prospective cohort of U.S. nurses.

Endometriosis is associated with ovarian cancer, but the relation with endometrial cancer is unclear. Prior studies generally were retrospective and had potential limitations, including use of self-reported endometriosis, failure to account for delays between symptom onset and endometriosis diagnosis, and changes in risk factors post-endometriosis diagnosis. We evaluated whether these limitations obscured a weak association with endometrial cancer and the extent to which these limitations impacted associations with ovarian cancer.

Benzyl butyl phthalate decreases myogenic differentiation of endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells through miR-137-mediated regulation of PITX2.

Phthalate, an environmental toxin, has been considered as an endocrine-disrupting chemical. Growing evidence has demonstrated links between endocrine-disrupting chemicals, tissue development, and reproductive physiology, but the mechanisms of gene expression regulation by environmental factors that affect cell differentiation are unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) on human endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (EN-MSC) differentiation and identified a novel signaling pathway. Differentiation of endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells decreased after administration of BBP. We analyzed BBP regulation of gene expression in EN-MSC using cDNA microarrays and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software to identify affected target genes and their biological functions. PITX2 emerged as a common gene hit from separate screens targeting skeletal and muscular disorders, cell morphology, and tissue development. BBP decreased transcription of PITX2 and elevated expression of the microRNA miR-137, the predicted upstream negative regulator of PITX2. These data indicated that BBP affects PITX2 expression through miR-137 targeting of the 3' untranslated region of PITX2 mRNA. PITX2 down-regulation also decreased MyoD transcript levels in EN-MSC. Our results demonstrate that BBP decreases EN-MSC myogenic differentiation through up-regulation of miR-137, contribute to our understanding of EN-MSC differentiation, and underline the hazardous potential of environmental hormones.

Silencing nc886, a Non-Coding RNA, Induces Apoptosis of Human Endometrial Cancer Cells-1A In Vitro.

BACKGROUND The role that nc886, a non-coding microRNA, plays in human endometrial cancer is unknown. The present study aimed to describe the functional role of nc886 in human endometrial cancer-1A (HEC-1A) cell line, which may provide another target for human endometrial cancer treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression levels of nv886 in normal human endometrial tissue and the early phase and late phase of human endometrial cancer tissues were determined and compared by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit nc886, and cell proliferation was evaluated with the MTT test. mRNA levels of PKR, NF-κB, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and caspase-3 were determined against glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH between the HEC-1A control group and the silenced group (nc886 silenced with siRNA) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein levels of PKR (total and phosphorylated form), NF-κB, VEGF, and caspase-3 were determined against GAPDH by Western blotting, and cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS Our results indicated that a higher level of nc886 was expressed in the late phase of human endometrial cancer tissue, less than in the early phase but still higher than in normal human endometrial tissue. After nc886 was silenced, protein levels of p-PKR (phosphorylated PKR) and caspase-3 were increased, whereas NF-κB and VEGF were decreased. CONCLUSIONS The rate of apoptosis in the silenced group was increased and the rate of cell proliferation was slower in comparison to the control.

Dosimetric impact of cylinder size in high-dose rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) for primary endometrial cancer.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of cylinder size in high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT). Sample plans of HDR VCBT in a list of cylinders ranging from 2.5 to 4 cm in diameter at 0.5 cm increment were created and analyzed. The doses were prescribed either at the 0.5 cm depth with 5.5 Gy for 4 fractions or at the cylinder surface with 8.8 Gy for 4 fractions, in various treatment lengths. A 0.5 cm shell volume called PTV_Eval was contoured for each plan and served as the target volume for dosimetric evaluation. The cumulative and differential dose volume histograms (c-DVH and d-DVH), mean doses (D-mean) and the doses covering 90% (D90), 10% (D10), and 5% (D5) of PTV_Eval were calculated. In the 0.5 cm depth regimen, the DVH curves were found to have shifted toward the lower dose zone when a larger cylinder was used, but in the surface regimen the DVH curves shifted toward the higher dose zone as the cylinder size increased. The D-means of the both regimens were between 6.9 and 7.8 Gy and dependent on the cylinder size but independent of the treatment length. A 0.5 cm variation of diameter could result in a 4% change of D-mean. Average D90s were 5.7 (ranging from 5.6 to 5.8 Gy) and 6.1 Gy (from 5.7 to 6.4 Gy), respectively, for the 0.5 cm and surface regimens. Average D10 and D5 were 9.2 and 11 Gy, respectively, for the 0.5 cm depth regimen, and 8.9 and 9.7 Gy, respectively, for the surface regimen. D-mean, D90, D10, and D5 for other prescription doses could be calculated from the lookup tables of this study. Results indicated that the cylinder size has moderate dosimetric impact, and that both regimens are comparable in dosimetric quality. PACS number(s): 87.61.-c, 87.53.Jw, 87.19.xj.

Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Female Genital Tract: A Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Study of 19 Cases.

Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the female genital tract is rare, and its proper classification remains unclear. The clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features as well as EWSR1 rearrangement status of 19 gynecologic PNETs, including 10 ovarian, 8 uterine, and 1 vulvar tumors, are herein reported. Patient age ranged from 12 to 68 years, with a median age of 20 and 51 years among those with ovarian and uterine PNETs, respectively. Morphologic features of central nervous system (CNS) tumors were seen in 15 PNETs, including 9 medulloblastomas, 3 ependymomas, 2 medulloepitheliomas, and 1 glioblastoma, consistent with central PNET. The remaining 4 PNETs were composed entirely of undifferentiated small round blue cells and were classified as Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNET. Eight PNETs were associated with another tumor type, including 5 ovarian mature cystic teratomas, 2 endometrial low-grade endometrioid carcinomas, and a uterine carcinosarcoma. By immunohistochemistry, 17 PNETs expressed at least 1 marker of neuronal differentiation, including synaptophysin, NSE, CD56, S100, and chromogranin in 10, 8, 14, 8, and 1 tumors, respectively. GFAP was positive in 4 PNETs, all of which were of central type. Membranous CD99 and nuclear Fli-1 staining was seen in 10 and 16 tumors, respectively, and concurrent expression of both markers was seen in both central and Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNETs. All tumors expressed vimentin, whereas keratin cocktail (CAM5.2, AE1/AE3) staining was only focally present in 4 PNETs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was successful in all cases and confirmed EWSR1 rearrangement in 2 of 4 tumors demonstrating morphologic features of Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNET and concurrent CD99 and Fli-1 expression. In conclusion, central and Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNETs may be encountered in the female genital tract with central PNETs being more common. Central PNETs show a spectrum of morphologic features that overlaps with CNS tumors but lack EWSR1 rearrangements. GFAP expression supports a morphologic impression of central PNET and is absent in Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNET. Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNETs lack morphologic features of CNS tumors.

Toward a 3D transrectal ultrasound system for verification of needle placement during high-dose-rate interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy.

Treatment for gynecologic cancers, such as cervical, recurrent endometrial, and vaginal malignancies, commonly includes external-beam radiation and brachytherapy. In high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy, radiation treatment is delivered via hollow needles that are typically inserted through a template on the perineum with a cylinder placed in the vagina for stability. Despite the need for precise needle placement to minimize complications and provide optimal treatment, there is no standard intra-operative image-guidance for this procedure. While some image-guidance techniques have been proposed, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and two-dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), these techniques have not been widely adopted. In order to provide intra-operative needle visualization and localization during interstitial brachytherapy, we have developed a three dimensional (3D) TRUS system. This study describes the 3D TRUS system and reports on the system validation and results from a proof-of-concept patient study.

Glucocorticoid receptor expression in 20 solid tumor types using immunohistochemistry assay.

Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity plays a role in many aspects of human physiology and may play a crucial role in chemotherapy resistance in a wide variety of solid tumors. A novel immunohistochemistry (IHC) based assay has been previously developed and validated in order to assess GR immunoreactivity in triple-negative breast cancer. The current study investigates the standardized use of this validated assay to assess GR expression in a broad range of solid tumor malignancies.

Integrated Molecular Characterization of Uterine Carcinosarcoma.

We performed genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic characterizations of uterine carcinosarcomas (UCSs). Cohort samples had extensive copy-number alterations and highly recurrent somatic mutations. Frequent mutations were found in TP53, PTEN, PIK3CA, PPP2R1A, FBXW7, and KRAS, similar to endometrioid and serous uterine carcinomas. Transcriptome sequencing identified a strong epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene signature in a subset of cases that was attributable to epigenetic alterations at microRNA promoters. The range of EMT scores in UCS was the largest among all tumor types studied via The Cancer Genome Atlas. UCSs shared proteomic features with gynecologic carcinomas and sarcomas with intermediate EMT features. Multiple somatic mutations and copy-number alterations in genes that are therapeutic targets were identified.

The race to find endometrial cancer biomarkers.

Correlation of Minimum Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Maximum Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor with Clinicopathologic Characteristics in Endometrial Cancer.

To explore the correlation of the primary tumor's maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) with clinicopathologic features, and to determine their predictive power in endometrial cancer (EC).

Uterine epithelioid leiomyosarcoma with c-kit expression and YWHAE gene rearrangement: a case report of a diagnostic pitfall of uterine sarcoma.

Uterine sarcoma is a rare tumor that is often difficult to classify based on morphological and immunohistochemical analysis alone. Limited access to molecular biological analysis in routine practice would hinder making a definitive diagnosis.

Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.

We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.

A Review of mTOR Pathway Inhibitors in Gynecologic Cancer.

The treatment of advanced gynecologic cancers remains palliative in most of cases. Although systemic treatment has entered into the era of targeted drugs the antitumor efficacies of current therapies are still limited. In this context there is a great need for more active treatment and rationally designed targeted therapies. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR is a signaling pathway in mammal cells that coordinates important cell activities. It has a critical function in the survival, growth, and proliferation of malignant cells and was object of important research in the last two decades. The mTOR pathway emerges as an attractive therapeutic target in cancer because it serves as a convergence point for many growth stimuli and, through its downstream substrates, controls cellular processes that contribute to the initiation and maintenance of cancer. Aberrant PI3K-dependent signaling occurs frequently in a wide range of tumor types, including endometrial, cervical, and ovarian cancers. The present study reviewed the available evidence regarding the potential impact of some mTOR pathway inhibitors in the treatment of gynecological cancer. Few advances in medical management have occurred in recent years in the treatment of advanced or recurrent gynecological malignancies, and a poor prognosis remains. Rationally designed molecularly targeted therapy is an emerging and important option in this setting; then more investigation in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-targeted therapies is warranted.

Secondary malignancies after rectal cancer resection with and without radiation therapy: A propensity-adjusted, population-based SEER analysis.

The relationship between radiation therapy for rectal cancer and secondary malignancies is debated. The present study is the first population-based analysis using conventional multivariable analyses as well as propensity score matching to assess this relationship.

Cigarette Smoking Affects Uterine Receptivity Markers.

Smoking negatively affects fertility and the rate of other endometrial diseases. To determine the effect of smoking on endometrial physiology, we evaluated 2 endometrial regulatory cytokines and receptivity markers, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), both in vitro and in vivo.