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Endometrial cancer - Top 30 Publications

Race-specific molecular alterations correlate with differential outcomes for black and white endometrioid endometrial cancer patients.

The objective of this study was to identify molecular alterations associated with disease outcomes for white and black patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC).

PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway promotes progestin resistance in endometrial cancer cells by inhibition of autophagy.

Endometrial cancer (EC) is now one of the most common malignant tumors in young women. In all, 90% of young patients with EC have a high expression of progesterone recep tor, can be treated with progestin, and have very good prognosis. However, some of the young EC patients are resistant to progestin, the mechanism of which is unclear. To illuminate the mechanism by which endometrial cells acquire progestin resistance, we treated Ishikawa cells by slowly increasing dosage of progestin and established a progestin-resistant cell subline. We show here that progesterone resistant cells acquire increased proliferation rate and interestingly decreased autophagy. To uncover the mechanism by which cells increase proliferation and bypass autophagy, we found higher activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was necessary to this malignant acquirement by RNAi technique. Further, we elucidated that activation of mTOR was sufficient and necessary for progestin resistance. RAD001, an inhibitor of mTOR, decreased phosphorylation of mTOR and inhibited proliferation of progestin-resistant cancer cells by promoting autophagy. Thus, our results indicated that mTOR can be a target to treat the progestin-resistant EC.

Debulking Surgery for High-grade Serous Endometrial Cancer with Disseminated Peritoneal Lesions.

Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies in postmenopausal women with good results in terms of survival, especially when diagnosed in early stages. However, prognosis significantly worseness when disseminated lesions are found. We present the case of a 60-year-old patient who presented with diffuse abdominal pain and weight loss. The patient was diagnosed with endometrial cancer with disseminated lesions and successfully submitted to debulking surgery. At two-year follow-up, the patient presents no recurrent disease.

In vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy during laparoscopy for gynecological surgery: a promising tool.

to investigate the technical feasibility of optical biopsy (probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy or pCLE) during laparoscopy and by the vaginal route in the exploration of pelvic gynecological cancers.

A successful live birth with in vitro fertilization and thawed embryo transfer after conservative treatment of recurrent endometrial cancer.

Estrogen-dependent early stage endometrial cancer is relatively common in young women of reproductive age. The standard treatment is hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), even in early stage well-differentiated endometrial cancer patients. This surgical option results in permanent loss of fertility. There have been some reports of live births using in vitro fertilization after conservative management of endometrial cancer with high-dose progestin for the purpose of fertility preservation. However, most were not recurrent cases and pregnancy was achieved through conventional in vitro fertilization, which usually raises serum estradiol levels and may lead to the recurrence of endometrial cancer. To date, it is hard to find a case that can be referred for any possible different approach needed for the patients who experience recurrence. Here we report a successful live birth with in vitro fertilization using letrozole to maintain physiological levels of estradiol, and subsequent thawed embryo transfer after elective cryopreservation of embryos in a patient with recurrent endometrial cancer. There has been no evidence of disease recurrence at one year after delivery.

The risk factors analysis and optimal timing for drainage of lymphocele infection after pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with endometrial cancer.

Objcetive: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of Lymphocele infection and the optimal timing for drainage after pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 397 patients who received a pelvic lymphadenectomy with or without a para-aortic lymphadenectomy between January 2009 and April 2016, due to endometrial cancer in General hospital of Tianjin medical university.A total of 76 patients developed lymphocele and 20 patients developed lymphocele infection. Results: (1)The incidence of lymphocele infection was 5.04% (20/397). Single factor analysis indicated diameter of lymphocele ≥5 cm and postoperative anemia were associated with lymphocele formation (P<0.001, P=0.023). Multiple factors Logistic analysis through the adjustment of the factors showed diameter of lymphocele ≥5 cm was the independent risk factors for lymphocyst infection (P<0.001). (2)The total treatment period of cases treated only with antibiotics tended to be shorter than that of cases treated with combined antibiotics and drainage (P=0.008). However, for severe cases which needed drainage, initiating the drainage by day 3 significantly shortened the total treatment period compared with cases started on or after day 4 (P=0.048). Conclusion: To identify the risk factors of the lymphocele infection is useful to help reduce the incidence of them with effective measurement.When drainage is required in addition to antibiotics, the earlier the drainage is performed, the shorter the treatment period is.

Colorectal and Endometrial Cancer Risk and Age at Diagnosis in BLMAsh Mutation Carriers.

Biallelic BLM gene mutation carriers are at an increased risk for cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether heterozygous BLM gene mutations confer an increased cancer risk remains controversial.

MiR-200a and miR-200b target PTEN to regulate the endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro.

To study whether miR-200a and miR-200b target PTEN gene expression to regulate the endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro.

Assessment of DNA Ploidy in the ProMisE molecular subgroups of endometrial cancer.

We sought to determine whether DNA ploidy correlates with the four molecular subgroups of endometrial carcinoma (EC) as determined using ProMisE (Proactive Molecular Risk Classifier for Endometrial Cancer).

Insulin and the polycystic ovary syndrome.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among women during reproductive age. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and deranged adipokines secretion from the adipose tissue. In addition to the reduced insulin sensitivity, PCOS women exhibit β-cell dysfunction as well. Low birth weight and foetal exposure to androgens may contribute to the development of the PCOS phenotype during life. Further metabolic complications lead to dyslipidaemia, worsening obesity and glucose tolerance, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and greater susceptibility to diabetes. PCOS women show age-related existence of hypertension, and subtle endothelial and vascular changes. Adverse reproductive outcomes include anovulatory infertility, and unrecognised potentiation of the hormone-dependent endometrial cancer. The main therapeutic approach is lifestyle modification. Metformin is the primary insulin-sensitising drug to be used as an adjuvant therapy to lifestyle modification in patients with insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as in those referred to infertility treatment. Thiazolidinediones should be reserved for women intolerant of or refractory to metformin, while glucagon-like peptide 1 analogues has a potential therapeutic use in obese PCOS women. Randomised clinical trials and repetitive studies on different PCOS phenotypes for the preventive actions and therapeutic options are still lacking, though.

Functionally null RAD51D missense mutation associates strongly with ovarian carcinoma.

RAD51D is a key player in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and RAD51D truncating mutation carriers have an increased risk for ovarian cancer (OC). However, the contribution of non-truncating RAD51D variants to cancer predisposition remains uncertain. Using deep sequencing and case-control genotyping studies, we show that in French Canadians, the missense RAD51D variant c.620C>T;p.S207L is highly prevalent and is associated with a high risk for ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) (3.8% cases vs 0.2% controls). The frequency of the p.S207L variant did not significantly differ from that of controls in breast, endometrial, pancreas or colorectal adenocarcinomas. Functionally, we show for the first time that this mutation impairs HR by disrupting the RAD51D-XRCC2 interaction and confers PARP-inhibitor sensitivity. These results highlight the importance of a functional RAD51D-XRCC2 interaction to promote HR and prevent the development of HGSC. This study identifies c.620C>T;p.S207L as the first bona fide pathogenic RAD51D missense cancer susceptibility allele and supports the use of targeted PARP-inhibitor therapies in OC patients carrying deleterious missense RAD51D mutations.

Immunotherapy holds the key to cancer treatment and prevention in constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome.

Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in MMR genes. This syndrome is characterized by the development of childhood cancer. Patients with CMMRD are at extremely high risk of developing multiple cancers including hematological, brain and intestinal tumors. Mutations in MMR genes impair DNA repair and therefore most tumors of patients with CMMRD are hypermutated. These mutations lead to changes in the translational reading frame, which consequently result in neoantigen formation. Neoantigens are recognized as foreign by the immune system and can induce specific immune responses. The growing evidence on the clinical efficacy of immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, offers the prospect for treatment of patients with CMMRD. Combining neoantigen-based vaccination strategies and immune checkpoint inhibitors could be an effective way to conquer CMMRD-related tumors. Neoantigen-based vaccines might also be a preventive treatment option in healthy biallelic MMR mutation carriers. Future studies need to reveal the safety and efficacy of immunotherapies for patients with CMMRD.

Antidiabetic medication, statins and the risk of endometrioid endometrial cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes.

To gain further evidence of an association between the incidence of endometrial cancer (EC) and the use of metformin, other antidiabetic medication (ADM) and statins in women with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Thrombocytosis in gynecological cancers.

Thrombocytosis has been suggested to be a poor prognostic indicator in malignancies. Studies have shown that thrombocytosis is associated with a poor prognosis in various gynecological malignancies such as carcinoma ovary, cervical cancer, and endometrial cancer. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of thrombocytosis on the prognosis of gynecological cancer. All the relevant data were retrieved by PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science, and then studies were chosen in this analysis of association between thrombocytosis and gynecological malignancy. Thrombocytosis is common in advanced disease in patients with ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and cervical cancer. Therefore, it may be a marker of tumor burden or biologically more aggressive disease. Thrombocytosis is bad prognostic factor and associated with poorer outcomes.

Potential therapeutic applications of human anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) analogues in reproductive medicine.

Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are key regulators of various physiological processes. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) which is also commonly known as Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and an important regulator of reproductive organ differentiation and ovarian follicular development. While AMH has been used for diagnostic purposes as a biomarker for over 15 years, new potential therapeutic applications of recombinant human AMH analogues are now emerging as pharmacologic agents in reproductive medicine. Therapeutic uses of AMH in gonadal tissue may provide a unique opportunity to address a broad range of reproductive themes, like contraception, ovulation induction, onset of menopause, and fertility preservation, as well as specific disease conditions, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and cancers of the reproductive tract. This review explores the most promising therapeutic applications for a novel class of drugs known as AMH analogues with agonist and antagonist functions.

Predictive model of urinary tract infection after surgical treatment for women with endometrial cancer.

The aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs) following hysterectomy-based surgical staging in women with endometrial cancer.

Screening for Lynch syndrome in young Saudi colorectal cancer patients using microsatellite instability testing and next generation sequencing.

Individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS) have germline variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes that confer a greatly increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), often at a young age. Identification of these individuals has been shown to increase their survival through improved surveillance. We previously identified 33 high risk cases for LS in the Saudi population by screening for microsatellite instability (MSI) in the tumor DNA of 284 young CRC patients. The aim of the present study was to identify MMR gene variants in this cohort of patients. Peripheral blood DNA was obtained from 13 individuals who were at high risk of LS due to positive MSI status and young age (<60 years at diagnosis). Next generation sequencing, Sanger sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification were used to screen for germline variants in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 MMR genes. These were cross-referenced against several variant databases, including the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors Incorporated database. Variants with pathogenic or likely pathogenic significance were identified in 8 of the 13 high risk cases (62%), comprising 4 in MLH1 and 4 in MSH2. All carriers had a positive family history for CRC or endometrial cancer. Next generation sequencing is an effective strategy for identifying young CRC patients who are at high risk of LS because of positive MSI status. We estimate that 7% of CRC patients aged <60 years in Saudi Arabia are due to LS, potentially involving around 50 new cases per year.

Neuron navigator-2 and cyclin D2 are new candidate prognostic markers in uterine sarcoma.

The objective of this study was to validate the diagnostic and clinical role of four protein products of genes previously found to be differentially expressed in uterine low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) compared to uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS). Protein expression by immunohistochemistry of transgelin (TGLN), neuron navigator-2 (NAV2), fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP3), and cyclin D2 (CCND2) was analyzed in 305 uterine sarcomas (231 LMS, 74 LG-ESS). Expression was analyzed for association with clinicopathologic parameters and survival. TGLN (p < 0.001), NAV2 (p < 0.001), and FABP3 (p = 0.005) were overexpressed in LMS compared to LG-ESS, whereas nuclear CCND2 (p < 0.001) was overexpressed in LG-ESS. NAV2 expression was associated with shorter overall survival in patients with LMS (p = 0.037), whereas nuclear CCND2 expression in LG-ESS was significantly related to longer survival (p = 0.012) in univariate analysis. Nuclear CCND2 expression was an independent prognosticator in Cox multivariate analysis (p = 0.023). In conclusion, TGLN, FABP3, NAV2, and nuclear CCND2 aid in differentiating LG-ESS from LMS. NAV2 and CCND2 are novel candidate prognostic markers in LMS and LG-ESS, respectively.

Nomegestrol Acetate Suppresses Human Endometrial Cancer RL95-2 Cells Proliferation In Vitro and In Vivo Possibly Related to Upregulating Expression of SUFU and Wnt7a.

Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) has been successfully used for the treatment of some gynecological disorders, and as a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of NOMAC on human endometrial cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells (RL95-2 and KLE) were assessed using CCK-8 and EdU incorporation assays. Whole-genome cDNA microarray analysis was used to identify the effects of NOMAC on gene expression profiles in RL95-2 cells. RL95-2 xenograft nude mice were treated with NOMAC (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days. The results showed that NOMAC significantly inhibited the growth of RL95-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but not in KLE cells. Further investigation demonstrated that NOMAC produced a stronger inhibition of tumor growth (inhibition rates for 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg NOMAC were 24.74%, 47.04%, and 58.06%, respectively) than did MPA (inhibition rates for 100 and 200 mg/kg MPA were 41.06% and 27.01%, respectively) in the nude mice bearing the cell line of RL95-2. NOMAC altered the expression of several genes related to cancer cell proliferation, including SUFU and Wnt7a. The upregulation of SUFU and Wnt7a was confirmed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in RL95-2 cells and RL95-2 xenograft tumor tissues, but not in KLE cells. These data indicate that NOMAC can inhibit the proliferation of RL95-2 cell in vitro and suppress the growth of xenografts in the nude mice bearing the cell line of RL95-2 in vivo. This effect could be related to the upregulating expression of SUFU and Wnt7a.

Hormonal contraception and breast cancer, what more do we need to know?

Most women use hormonal contraception for more than 30 years and for many, this may involve exposure in their older reproductive years when baseline breast cancer risk rises steeply. Overall, the risk of breast cancer diagnosis with exposure to hormonal contraception is very small and outweighed by its contraceptive benefits but despite this, there are still outstanding questions for all methods used in clinical practice due to paucity of available evidence, lack of which should not be taken to imply safety. This is exemplified by the following assumptions: the progestogen-only pill and long-acting reversible contraceptives are 'breast-safe' options in peri-menopausal women, use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system for the management of endometrial pathology in breast cancer survivors is less likely to promote disease recurrence and the benefit all hormonal contraceptive methods confer in reducing unplanned pregnancy in women at high familial risk outweigh the risk of breast cancer diagnosis. There is no data on risk with the concurrent prescription of hormone replacement therapy in women exhibiting climacteric symptoms who are still menstruating. Advice of GPs and Community Sexual & Reproductive Health specialists will inevitably be sought about some or all these issues and in the absence of conclusive evidence from clinical studies, caution should be applied and women counselled appropriately.

Tamoxifen activates Nrf2-dependent SQSTM1 transcription to promote endometrial hyperplasia.

Long-term application of Tamoxifen (TAM) is usually recommended for hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, TAM will inevitably increase the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia even endometrial cancer. Despite of substantial investigations, no effective approaches to prevent TAM-induced endometrial carcinogenesis have been acknowledged. In this study, we found that inhibition of Nrf2 could be valuable to prevent TAM-induced endometrial hyperplasia. Upon TAM treatment, the mRNA and protein expression of autophagy adaptor SQSTM1 was specifically increased in endometrial cells but not breast cancer cells. Knocking-down of SQSTM1 expression retarded TAM-promoted growth of endometrial cancer cells. TAM stimulated SQSTM1 transcription specifically in endometrial cells by enhancing phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. Indeed, the expression of Nrf2 and SQSTM1 were positively correlated in primary endometrial tissues. In rats with TAM-induced endometrial hyperplasia, both Nrf2 and SQSTM1 expression were increased. Nrf2 inhibitor brusatol effectively attenuated TAM-induced SQSTM1 upregulation and endometrial hyperplasia. The kinase of Nrf2, PRKCD, was activated by TAM. Once PRKCD was depleted, TAM failed to promote Nrf2 phosphorylation and SQSTM1 expression. In summary, TAM stimulated Nrf2-dependent SQSTM1 transcription to promote endometrial hyperplasia by activating PRKCD. Therefore, blocking PRKCD-Nrf2-SQSTM1 signaling could be useful to prevent TAM-induced endometrial hyperplasia.

ProEx C as Diagnostic Marker for Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma in Urinary Samples: A Review.

The gold standard for the detection of urothelial carcinoma is represented by urethro-cystoscopy and biopsy. Both procedures are invasive and expensive and therefore cytology is often used as first approach to investigate on a possible neoplasia, being a safe and cost-effective diagnostic modality of evaluation. Because cytology alone is not highly sensitive for detection of low grade urothelial carcinoma and recurrence of the disease, several adjunct markers and urine based tests for urothelial carcinoma have been developed, which can help in the final diagnosis. In particular, ProEx C is an immunohistochemical cocktail containing antibodies direct against topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) and minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2) proteins. It proved to be a valid biomarker especially in detecting squamous intraepithelial lesions in cervical liquid-based samples and in discerning these lesions from their mimickers, as well as in ovarian, endometrial, vulvar, primary and metastatic melanomas, breast, pancreatic and renal cell carcinomas. This brief review covers the effective utility of ProEx C as adjunct tool in assessing the urothelial lesions in urine cytology, also providing prognostic and therapeutic information to help in clinical decisions.

Dysregulated expression of long noncoding RNAs in gynecologic cancers.

Cancers of the female reproductive system include ovarian, uterine, vaginal, cervical and vulvar cancers, which are termed gynecologic cancer. The emergence of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are believed to play a crucial role in several different biological processes, has made the regulation of gene expression more complex. Although the function of lncRNAs is still rather elusive, their broad involvement in the initiation and progression of various cancers is clear. They are also involved in the pathogenesis of cancers of the female reproductive system. LncRNAs play a critical physiological role in apoptosis, metastasis, invasion, migration and cell proliferation in these cancers. Different expression profiles of lncRNAs have been observed in various types of tumors compared with normal tissues and between malignant and benign tumors. These differential expression patterns may lead to the promotion or suppression of cancer development and tumorigenesis. In the current review, we present the lncRNAs that show a differential expression between cancerous and normal tissues in ovarian, cervical and endometrial cancers, and highlight the associations between lncRNAs and some of the molecular pathways involved in these cancers.

The positivity of G-protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR 30), an alternative estrogen receptor is not different between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer.

It is well-known that the clinical outcomes are different between type 1 (estrogen dependent) and type 2 (estrogen independent) endometrial cancer. Studies have suggested that the estrogen receptor (ER) is positively correlated with endometrial cancer survival, however we previously reported that there is no difference in the positivity of ER as well as sex hormone levels between subtypes of cancer. G-protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR 30), an alternative estrogen receptor has been suggested to be negatively correlated with clinical outcomes of endometrial cancer. In this study we investigated whether the positivity of GPR30 is different between subtypes of cancer. The immunostaining of GPR30 and ER was examined and analysed in 128 cases taking into account menopausal status. Overall, 105 (82%) cases were GPR30 positive and 118 (92%) cases were ER positive. The positivity of GPR30 in type 1 endometrial cancer (83%) was not statistically different to type 2 endometrial cancer (78%). In addition, intensity of immunostaining of GPR30 in type 1 endometrial cancer was also not different to type 2 endometrial cancer quantified by semi-quantitative analysis (p = 0.268). Menopausal status was not associated with the positivity of GPR30 in both type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer. Furthermore, the positivity and intensity of immunostaining of GPR30 were not correlated with the positivity and intensity of immunostaining of ER in endometrial cancer (p = 0.689). Our data further confirm that type 2 endometrial cancer may not be completely estrogen independent, and suggest that type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer may have similar pathogenesis.

Comparison of paired box genes 8 and 2 expression in epithelium tissues and the related tumors.

Objective: To explore the expressional differences between paired box genes 2(Pax2) and 8 (Pax8) protein in different kinds of epitheliums and tumors, and to investigate the clinicopathologic significance. Methods: Expression levels of Pax2 and Pax8 protein were detected in 75 cases of different human epithelium tissues and 255 cases of different tumors on tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pax2 and Pax8 selectively expressed in different tissues. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in the normal epithelium of the thyroid, urinary system and female reproductive system were 100% (2/2), 60.0% (3/5) and 76.9% (10/13), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 expressed in the epithelium tissues of urinary system and the female reproductive system were 40.0% (2/5) and 38.5% (5/13) respectively. However, the expression of Pax2 protein was not detected in the normal thyroid epithelium. The positive rate of Pax8 protein expressing in the epithelium of reproductive system was significantly higher than that of Pax2 protein (P<0.05). The tumors derived from different tissues also expressed different levels of protein Pax2 and Pax8. The positive rates of Pax8 in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were 65.2% (15/23), 66.7% (10/15) and 80.0% (4/5), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were 34.8% (8/23), 13.3% (2/15) and 20.0% (1/5), respectively. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those of Pax2 protein (P<0.05). The positive rates of Pax8 in ovarian serous carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma were 92.9% (26/28), 81.8% (9/11) and 82.4% (14/17), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 in ovarian serous carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma were 28.6% (8/28), 9.1% (1/11) and 17.6% (3/17), respectively. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in ovarian serous carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and clear cell carcinomawere significantly higher than those of Pax2 protein (P<0.05). Conclusions: Pax2 and Pax8 are specifically expressed in female reproductive system and uritany system. However, the positive expression of Pax8 is superior to that of Pax2. The combined expression of Pax8 and Pax2 can be used in the differential diagnosis of epithelial tumors derived from different origins.

Value of endometrial thickness assessed by transvaginal ultrasound for the prediction of endometrial cancer in patients with postmenopausal bleeding.

Histological confirmation of endometrial cancer by dilatation/curettage (D/C) in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) can be challenging due to anesthesiological and/or surgical risks. Thus, less invasive methods for diagnostics are required to identify patients with minimal risk for endometrial cancer (EC) to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention. The objective of this single-center cohort study was to assess the diagnostic validity of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) measurements of endometrial thickness (ET) in patients with PMB for the detection of EC.

Safety and efficacy of chemosaturation in patients with primary and secondary liver tumors.

Chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion (CS-PHP; hepatic CHEMOSAT(®) delivery system; Delcath Systems Inc, USA) is a novel medical device, which delivers high doses of melphalan directly to the liver in patients with primary and secondary liver tumors while limiting systemic toxicity through hemofiltration of the hepatic venous blood. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and efficacy of the second-generation CS-PHP after 54 treatments at Hannover Medical School, Germany.

Current prerequisites for a molecular genetic classification of endometrial cancer.

The review analyzes current investigators' data on the introduction of an additional endometrial cancer classification based on the results of molecular and genetic studies. This necessity is dictated by clinical observations, according to which the genetic profile of the tumors may not correspond to their morphological structure, which considerably changes patient management tactics. The existing dualistic model of carcinogenesis makes it possible to identify and describe the characteristic molecular features of the tumors in terms of their histological structure. The review also analyzes the concept of 4 new endometrial cancer subgroups: ultramutated, hypermutated, copy-number low, and copy-number high (serous-like). It gives the results of investigations of the molecular and genetic characteristics of each subgroup. Particular attention is paid to the role of POLE gene mutations in the ultramutated subgroup. Different theories justifying a good prognosis in these patients are considered. The molecular characteristics of endometrial cancer versus tumors of other organs are compared. The potential benefits of introducing the new classification, which allow one to change approaches to stratifying the risk for this disease, are presented.

Sentinel lymph node mapping in minimally invasive surgery: Role of imaging with color-segmented fluorescence (CSF).

Sentinel lymph node mapping, alone or in combination with pelvic lymphadenectomy, is considered a standard approach in staging of patients with cervical or endometrial cancer [1-3]. The goal of this video is to demonstrate the use of indocyanine green (ICG) and color-segmented fluorescence when performing lymphatic mapping in patients with gynecologic malignancies.

Hypoxia- and acidosis-driven aberrations of secreted microRNAs in endometrial cancer in vitro.

Due to their post-transcriptional regulatory impact on gene expression, microRNAs (miRNA, miRs) influence decisively cellular processes of differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In oncogenic pathways various miRNAs exert either oncogenic or tumor suppressor activities in a stage-specific manner. Dysregulation of miRNA expression pattern has been associated with several human cancers including endometrial cancer (EC). In the present study, expression profile alterations of EC associated secreted miRNAs were determined under the microenvironmental stress situations hypoxia and acidosis occurring in tumor progression and metastasis. The potential influence of hypoxia and acidosis vs. control conditions on the expression levels of 24 EC-relevant miRNA types was quantitatively accessed via real-time PCR in three established EC in vitro models. Expression data were analyzed statistically. In vitro application of hypoxia resulted in downregulation of miR-15a, miR-20a, miR-20b and miR-128-1 in Ishikawa cells (type I EC) and upregulation of miR-21 in EFE-184 cells (type I EC). Acidosis triggered upregulation of tumor promoting miR-125b in AN3-CA cell (type II EC), whereas in Ishikawa cells (type I EC) miRNAs with tumor suppressive function were found altered in divergent directions, both up- (let-7a) and down- (miR-22) regulated. Our current findings emphasize the functional importance of secreted miRNAs in the immediate response of EC cells to exogenic stress situations such as the typical tumor epiphenomena hypoxia and acidosis. Focusing on the specific potential of secreted, thus circulating miRNA molecules, alterations in expression levels not only influence intracellular gene expression and signaling cascades, but also transfer the induction of (tumor)biological cellular changes to adjacent cells.