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Endometrial cancer - Top 30 Publications

Possible Risk Factors of Pulmonary Metastases in Patients With International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage I Endometrioid-Type Endometrial Cancer.

Limited data have been obtained in regard to pulmonary metastasis (PM) in patients with stage I endometrial cancer. The aims of the study were (1) to present the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with PM in the setting of stage I endometrioid-type endometrial cancer (EEC) and (2) to define possible factors that may be used to predict PM.

The prognostic value of D-dimer levels in endometrial cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

Explain the important role of plasma D-dimer in cancers. Plasma D-dimer is increased in various tumors. However, the predictive value of plasma D-dimer is unclear. This study is aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the D-dimer level in patients managed with intensity-modulated radiation for endometrial cancer. The D-dimer levels of forty patients with endometrial cancer were assessed before (D1) and after (D2) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), respectively. The D-dimer level changes (ΔD) were defined as D2 minus D1. Cox regression and log-rank tests were used to evaluate the D-dimer levels in relation to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The OS and PFS of patients with a low D1 were significantly longer than those with a high D1 (P< 0.001, P< 0.001). We saw the similar correlation between D2, PFS and OS (P< 0.001, P< 0.001). Multivariate survival analyses showed that D-dimer was independently associated with OS and PFS in patients with endometrial cancer. The ΔD level was not related to the OS and PFS in endometrial cancer patients. The levels of D-dimer may be considered as an important predictor of PFS and OS in endometrial cancer patients treated with IMRT.

Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) for uterine fibroids.

Uterine fibroids are smooth muscle tumours arising from the uterus. These tumours, although benign, are commonly associated with abnormal uterine bleeding, bulk symptoms and reproductive dysfunction. The importance of progesterone in fibroid pathogenesis supports selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) as effective treatment. Both biochemical and clinical evidence suggests that SPRMs may reduce fibroid growth and ameliorate symptoms. SPRMs can cause unique histological changes to the endometrium that are not related to cancer, are not precancerous and have been found to be benign and reversible. This review summarises randomised trials conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of SPRMs as a class of medication for treatment of individuals with fibroids.

Endometrial cancer arising in adenomyosis versus endometrial cancer coexisting with adenomyosis: are these two different entities?

While adenomyosis is one of the most common benign histologic findings in hysterectomy specimens of endometrial cancer, demographics of endometrial cancer arising in adenomyosis (EC-AIA) has not been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate histopathological findings and disease-free survival (DFS) of EC-AIA in comparison to endometrial cancer coexisting with adenomyosis (EC-A).

Radiotherapy-Associated Long-term Modification of Expression of the Inflammatory Biomarker Genes ARG1, BCL2L1, and MYC.

Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure of cells in vitro and in vivo triggers a complex cellular response among which modifications of gene expression have been consistently reported. Nevertheless, little is currently known about the transcriptionally responsive genes which play a role in the inflammation response. In order to improve our understanding of such transcriptional response to radiation in vivo, we simultaneously monitored the expression of 249 genes associated with the inflammation response over the course of the radiotherapy treatment in blood of patients treated for endometrial or head and neck cancer. We have identified genes whose transcriptional expression is either upregulated (ARG1, BCL2L1) or downregulated (MYC) several fold in vivo. These modifications were consistently detected across patients and further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR); they were specifically significant toward the end of the radiotherapy treatment, 5 weeks following the first radiation fraction and more pronounced in endometrial patients (respectively, 2.9, 4.1, and 1.8 times). Importantly, in an attempt to correlate expression levels with normal tissue reaction to IR, we also identified three other genes CD40, OAS2, and CXCR1 whose expression level fluctuations during radiotherapy were more pronounced in patients developing late normal tissue responses to curative radiotherapy after the end of the radiotherapy treatment. Overall, we identified inflammation-associated genes which are promising biomarkers of IR exposure and susceptibility to radiation-induced toxicity.

Development of organoids from mouse and human endometrium showing endometrial epithelium physiology and long-term expandability.

The endometrium, which is of crucial importance for reproduction, undergoes dynamic cyclic tissue remodeling. Knowledge of its molecular and cellular regulation is poor, primarily owing to a lack of study models. Here, we have established a novel and promising organoid model from both mouse and human endometrium. Dissociated endometrial tissue, embedded in Matrigel under WNT-activating conditions, swiftly formed organoid structures that showed long-term expansion capacity, and reproduced the molecular and histological phenotype of the tissue's epithelium. The supplemented WNT level determined the type of mouse endometrial organoids obtained: high WNT yielded cystic organoids displaying a more differentiated phenotype than the dense organoids obtained in low WNT. The organoids phenocopied physiological responses of endometrial epithelium to hormones, including increased cell proliferation under estrogen and maturation upon progesterone. Moreover, the human endometrial organoids replicated the menstrual cycle under hormonal treatment at both the morpho-histological and molecular levels. Together, we established an organoid culture system for endometrium, reproducing tissue epithelium physiology and allowing long-term expansion. This novel model provides a powerful tool for studying mechanisms underlying the biology as well as the pathology of this key reproductive organ.

Atypical polypoid adenomyoma of the uterus: a clinicopathological review of 27 cases.

Objective: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) for improvement of the diagnosis, different diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Methods: The clinical data, pathological characteristics, and the follow-up information were retrospectively analyzed in 27 cases of APA admitted in Peking Univeristy People's Hospital from 2007 to 2016. Results: The median age was 42.6 years old (range 25-60 years old). Fifteen patients were nullipara, 2 patients were postmenopausal. The most common presenting symptom was abnormal uterine bleeding (81%, 22/27) . Leisions were obtained by using hysteroscopy in 23 cases, hysterectomy 3 cases and dilatation and curettage 1 case. Fertility preserving treatments were performed in 10 patients who had strong desire for fertility, among which 1 case progressed into endometrial carcinoma. Among 15 patients underwent hysterectomy and (or) bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 9 cases of them had endometrial atypical hyperplasia. Endometrial carcinoma along with APA were found in three patients, 2 cases of them underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, the other one received medication for fertility preservation. Follow up information were available in 24 cases (89%, 24/27) with a median follow up of 46 months (range 4-108 months), 1 case recurred and 1 case progressed into endometrial carcinoma. One case died of other malignancy, while the other patients were alive. Conclusions: APA is a rare uterine neoplasm mixed with epithelial and mesenchymal component. It occurs mostly in childbearing-age women and its diagnosis is dependent on pathology. Although it's clinical course is benign, there is risk of co-existance of endometrial carcinoma and endometrial atypical hyperplasia. For those who has desire of fertility, the treatment strategy is completely removed the lesion and closely followed up. For those who do not desire to preserve fertility, hysterectomy may be an option.

Gynecologic Oncologist Perspective About ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO Consensus Conference on Endometrial Cancer.

ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO Consensus Conference on Endometrial Cancer was simultaneously published in 3 prestigious journals and is sure to have a huge impact on the clinical practice of gynecologic oncology community and other gynecologic cancer care providers.It is a tremendous report representative of great effort. Hovewer, as practicing gynecologic oncologists, endometrial carcinoma is the most common clinical entity encountered in our routine daily practice; as such, we find some of the report confusing and object to some of its findings, as detailed in this brief report.We also attempted to summarize the differences between the well-known NCCN guidelines and the ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO Consensus Conference guidelines and try to give the point of view of gynecologic oncologic perspective. It is obvious that differences in the management of endometrial carcinomas will continue to be debated by the scientific community.

Aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs in recurrent implantation failure: A microarray related study.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides. They were long regarded as transcription noise for their low expression and non-protein coding features. Recent published reports indicate that lncRNAs are involved in virtually every aspect of human biology. We aimed to profile the endometrial lncRNA expression pattern in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and predict the function of the genes of the dysregulated lncRNA transcripts. Endometrial samples (24) were collected during window of implantation (14 RIF women and 10 women who conceived after embryo transfer). For the microarray study, 7 RIF endometrium and 5 control endometrium were selected, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed on the rest of the endometrial samples to validate the microarray results. After that, lncRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis, GO analysis, KEGG analysis, and lncRNA-transcript factor (TF) analysis were carried out to analyze the gene functions of the dysregulated lncRNA transcripts. We detected a total of 197 lncRNA transcripts that were dysregulated in RIF endometrium compared with the control group. The relative expression levels of eight selected lncRNA transcripts were validated by RT-qPCR and were in accordance with the microarray outcomes. GO and KEGG analyses revealed that the coexpressed mRNA transcripts were involved in pathways that may affect endometrial receptivity such as cell adhesion. The lncRNA target predictions provided potential TF targets of the dysregulated lncRNA transcripts. Our results indicate that lncRNA expression profiles of RIF endometrium were different from that of normal receptive endometrial, suggesting that lncRNAs may regulate endometrial receptivity.

Genome-wide DNA methylation sequencing reveals miR-663a is a novel epimutation candidate in CIMP-high endometrial cancer.

Aberrant DNA methylation is widely observed in many cancers. Concurrent DNA methylation of multiple genes occurs in endometrial cancer and is referred to as the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). However, the features and causes of CIMP-positive endometrial cancer are not well understood. To investigate DNA methylation features characteristic to CIMP-positive endometrial cancer, we first classified samples from 25 patients with endometrial cancer based on the methylation status of three genes, i.e. MLH1, CDH1 (E-cadherin) and APC: CIMP-high (CIMP-H, 2/25, 8.0%), CIMP-low (CIMP-L, 7/25, 28.0%) and CIMP-negative (CIMP(-), 16/25, 64.0%). We then selected two samples each from CIMP-H and CIMP(-) classes, and analyzed DNA methylation status of both normal (peripheral blood cells: PBCs) and cancer tissues by genome-wide, targeted bisulfite sequencing. Genomes of the CIMP-H cancer tissues were significantly hypermethylated compared to those of the CIMP(-). Surprisingly, in normal tissues of the CIMP-H patients, promoter region of the miR-663a locus is hypermethylated relative to CIMP(-) samples. Consistent with this finding, miR-663a expression was lower in the CIMP-H PBCs than in the CIMP(-) PBCs. The same region of the miR663a locus is found to be highly methylated in cancer tissues of both CIMP-H and CIMP(-) cases. This is the first report showing that aberrant DNA methylation of the miR-663a promoter can occur in normal tissue of the cancer patients, suggesting a possible link between this epigenetic abnormality and endometrial cancer. This raises the possibility that the hypermethylation of the miR-663a promoter represents an epimutation associated with the CIMP-H endometrial cancers. Based on these findings, relationship of the aberrant DNA methylation and CIMP-H phenotype is discussed.

Exploration of miR-1202 and miR-196a in human endometrial cancer based on high throughout gene screening analysis.

Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression has been reported to participate in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, and particularly cancer. The present study examined the involvement of various miRNAs in the pathophysiology of endometrial cancer (EC) and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH). We performed a high-throughput analysis of the miRNAs (miRNA microarray) found in samples of endometrial tissue obtained from 45 patients; among whom, 15 patients were diagnosed with EC, 15 patients were diagnosed with AEH, and the remainder were healthy donors. Next, we selected several miRNAs which exhibited at least a 2-fold difference in expression with a P<0.05 to validate these changes in 3 independent in vitro experiments that used real-time PCR analysis. Finally, miR-1202 and miR-196a were selected as target molecules whose effects on cell apoptosis, cell cycle changes, cell migratory and invasive abilities were investigated using flow cytometric and Transwell assays, respectively, after pre-treatment in vitro. After analyzing 125 miRNAs in a microarray assay, 6 miRNAs (3-high and 3-low expression) were further evaluated via paired comparison in all 3 groups. The validation test revealed a positive correlation between the microarray results and a high level of miR-1202 and a low level of miR-196a in the EC group, when compared with the AEH group. All of the data were normalized with data obtained from normal control donors. We found that either miR-1202 silencing or miR-196a overexpression affected AN3CA and HEC-1-A cells by increasing their apoptosis level and inducing G1 phase arrest while decreasing their migratory and invasive abilities. Inhibitors of miR-1202 and mimics of miR‑196a may exert a protective effect, suggesting that miR-1202 and miR‑196a may serve as biomarkers for evaluating the effectiveness of EC treatment.

Cell-Free Urinary MicroRNAs Expression in Small-Scale Experiments.

Cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) have become one of the novel promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for various diseases recently. Blood serum and plasma along with urine are the most common sources of clinically well, almost noninvasively available samples containing various types of miRNAs. Here, we present a protocol for a small-scale study investigating expression of several candidate miRNAs. Small-scale experiments may be worth investigating in cases where no information is available on miRNAs expression in particular diseases, for validation of previously published miRNAs with promising diagnostic potential, particularly in situations where follow-up study is aimed at validating miRNAs coming from array or NGS experiments, or where funding for these large-scale experiments is not available.Using urine miRNAs expression as the novel diagnostic tools is challenging and currently this approach is still in its infancy. Therefore, various methods may result in different conclusions depending on clinical sample sets and differences among methods used for the miRNAs isolation and quantitation. In this protocol, we present the method evaluated in the study focused on cell-free urinary miRNAs in ovarian and endometrial cancers. We recommend using stabilization tubes for the urine collection, as this step may be necessary to stop activity of RNases. Further, routine real-time PCR methods are described. We demonstrate that assessment of urinary miRNAs expression may reveal as a feasible method to explore the potential for finding novel diagnostic and prognostic markers.

Change in cost after 5 years of experience with robotic-assisted hysterectomy for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

Health care costs are an important consideration in the decision of hysterectomy routes and robotic surgery is often critiqued for its high cost. We sought to compare the cost of robotic-assisted hysterectomies performed after initial acquisition of the robotic surgical system to cases performed after 5 years of experience. The first 20 patients at a community teaching hospital who underwent robotic-assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer by a single gynecologic oncology surgeon were designated Group 1 and 20 patients undergoing robotic hysterectomies 5 years later for the same indication were designated Group 2. Direct hospital costs were divided into operative and non-operative costs. Mean operating room cost and cost of anesthesia per minute for Group 1 were adjusted to Group 2 mean costs. Supply costs were adjusted using the 2015 Consumer Price Index. Baseline characteristics of the groups were comparable. After 5 years of experience, there was a 15.5% [95% CI (-$2865, -$407), p = 0.01] reduction in mean total costs (Group 1 = $10,543, Group 2 = $8907) and a 14.3% [95% CI (-$2378, -$390), p ≤ 0.01] reduction in mean operative costs (Group 1 = $9688, Group 2 = $8304). Significant reductions in procedure time, operating room time, operating room cost, and cost of anesthesia were seen from Group 1 to Group 2. There were no differences in mean non-operative costs, estimated blood loss, cost of supplies or surgeon cost. Experience with robotic-assisted hysterectomies is associated with reduction in costs, which is primarily a result of reduced operative times. This is an important factor when considering costs related to robotic surgery.

Late metastatic endometrial carcinoma at the repair site of an abdominal wall incisional hernia.

The abdominal wall is a very rare site for endometrial cancer metastases. Its appearance generally indicates advanced cancer with poor prognosis. We report a case of a 55-year-old female who presented with an incisional hernia 4 years after abdominal panhysterectomy for endometrioid adenocarcinoma in 2009. Open hernia mesh repair was performed but on follow-up, she complained of pain and a swelling at the repair site. This was radiologically diagnosed as fibromatosis, but tru-cut biopsy confirmed presence of fibromatosis as well as a metastatic endometrial carcinoma. She was started on neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but had poor response, and therefore, radical excision was performed. She remained well with no metastatic recurrence at 12-month follow-up. This case illustrates late appearance of abdominal wall metastasis from abdomino-pelvic malignancies and highlights the need to exclude the presence of recurrence or metastases prior to surgical repair of incisional hernia occurring after the resection of abdominal or pelvic malignancy.

Agreement of histopathological findings of uterine curettage and hysterectomy specimens in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

To examined the diagnostic value of  dilatation and curettage (D and C) in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) by conducting a histopathological examination of endometrial tissues by D and C and hysterectomy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of 163 women who had been hospitalized  in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward, Amir-al-Momenin Hospital, Semnan, Iran between 2010 and 2015 for diagnostic curettage due to  AUB and who had undergone hysterectomy were investigated. The patients' characteristics and histopathologic results of curettage and hysterectomy were extracted, and sensitivity and specificity and positive and negative predictive values of curettage were calculated. Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of the patients was 49.8±7.8 years. The sensitivity values of D and C in the diagnosis of endometrial pathologies was 49.1%, specificity 84.5%, positive 60.5%, and negative predictive 77.5%. The sensitivities of D and C in the diagnosis of various endometrial hyperplasia was 62.5%, disordered proliferative endometrium 36.8%, and endometrial cancer 83.3%. Of 6 patients with endometrial polyps on performing hysterectomy, no patient was diagnosed by curettage. Conclusions: Dilatation and curettage has acceptable sensitivity in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer, low sensitivity in the diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia, and very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of disordered proliferative endometrium and endometrial polyps.

Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Treatment for the malignant tumors in women and bone calcium metabolism.

In the malignant tumors in women, uterine cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer are representative diseases. The cancer treatment is classified roughly into an operation, medical treatment, and radiation therapy and has an extremely big influence on ovarian function. With the improvement in survival of cancer patients, the importance of the health care for the cancer survivors increases. It is necessary to prevent the onset of the osteoporotic fractures to maintain QOL. This paper describes the action that the malignant tumors of the women affect bone metabolism mainly from the viewpoint of ovarian function.

Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Bone metabolism and estrogen/androgen balance in women.

Androgen as well as estrogen has physical, psychological and sexual roles in women. The action of androgen on bone health in women is important. The androgen receptor is expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes but the mechanism has not been clarified in women. It has been reported that endogenous testosterone level was positively correlated with bone mineral density and higher testosterone level might be associated with decrease in bone fractures. Also, it has been reported that bone mineral density in women who received testosterone with estrogen was higher than that in women who received estrogen alone. However, it is important to pay attention to occur adverse effects such as hirsutism, acne, disorder of liver function and dyslipidemia. In addition, occurrence of breast cancer and endometrial cancer should be considered. In postmenopausal women, appropriate range of circulating testosterone level may play favor roles in various tissues.

BGCS uterine cancer guidelines: Recommendations for practice.

The British Gynaecological Cancer Society has issued the first Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer guidelines as recommendation for practice for the UK.

Dilator Use After Vaginal Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer: A Randomized Feasibility and Adherence Study.

Vaginal brachytherapy, a common treatment of endometrial cancer, is associated with high rates of vaginal stenosis. Recommendations for vaginal dilator use to minimize stenosis generally include 3 times per week for approximately 10 minutes per use. However, adherence rates range widely and are generally well less than 50%.

Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk.

The timing of puberty is a highly polygenic childhood trait that is epidemiologically associated with various adult diseases. Using 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genotype data in up to ∼370,000 women, we identify 389 independent signals (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for age at menarche, a milestone in female pubertal development. In Icelandic data, these signals explain ∼7.4% of the population variance in age at menarche, corresponding to ∼25% of the estimated heritability. We implicate ∼250 genes via coding variation or associated expression, demonstrating significant enrichment in neural tissues. Rare variants near the imprinted genes MKRN3 and DLK1 were identified, exhibiting large effects when paternally inherited. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest causal inverse associations, independent of body mass index (BMI), between puberty timing and risks for breast and endometrial cancers in women and prostate cancer in men. In aggregate, our findings highlight the complexity of the genetic regulation of puberty timing and support causal links with cancer susceptibility.

Incidence of urinary tract injury and utility of routine cystoscopy during total laparoscopic hysterectomy for endometrial cancer.

Regular recreational physical activity and risk of head and neck cancer.

Although substantial evidence supports a 20-30% risk reduction of colon cancer, breast cancer, and endometrial cancer by physical activity (PA), the evidence for head and neck cancer (HNC) is limited. Three published studies on the association between PA and HNC have generated inconsistent results. The current study examined the association between recreational PA (RPA) and HNC risk with a more detailed assessment on the intensity, frequency, duration, and total years of RPA.

Geraniol Inhibits Endometrial Carcinoma via Downregulating Oncogenes and Upregulating Tumour Suppressor Genes.

Endometrial carcinoma is the fourth most abundant cancer worldwide in women. Female Wistar rats were segregated into five groups: group I-control, group II-MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-150 mg/kg) administered through intravaginal detention of cotton absorbent, group III-geraniol (GOH) only, group IV-GOH-pretreated (7 days before the start of MNNG administration); and group V-Co-administration of geraniol with MNNG. In this study, reverse transcriptase- PCR of K-ras, MAPK, PI3K, Wnt/β-catenin genes, TGF-β and expressions of PCNA, PTEN, progesterone receptor and E-cadherin by Western blotting were performed from endometrial cancer tissue and control tissues. The mRNA expressions of K-ras, MAPK, PI3K, Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β were amplified in MNNG induced group. Oral administration of GOH (both pre and co-administration) reversed the mRNA expression towards normal. The reversibility is more predominant in pretreatment groups (p < 0.05). The expression of PCNA was upregulated and downregulation of PTEN, progesterone receptor and E-cadherin was noticed in MNNG induced rats. Pre and co-administration of GOH significantly reversed the expression pattern of proteins. GOH treatment is more effective in pretreatment groups (p < 0.05). These results provide powerful evidences that GOH could influence modulation of MAPK pathways and Wnt signalling pathways in the prevention of endometrial carcinoma in rats.

Nonoperative management of atypical endometrial hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrial cancer with the levonorgestrel intrauterine device in medically ill post-menopausal women.

To assess the endometrial response rates to treatment with the levonorgestrel intrauterine device in post-menopausal women with atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia and grade 1 endometrioid (AH/EC) endometrial carcinoma who are not surgical candidates.

miR-205 inhibits cell growth by targeting AKT-mTOR signaling in progesterone-resistant endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells.

miR-205 is significantly up-regulated in endometrioid adenocarcinoma. In this study, the significant anticancer effect of a miR-205 inhibitor was investigated in both endometrial carcinoma and progesterone-resistant endometrial carcinoma cells.

HMGB1 is negatively correlated with the development of endometrial carcinoma and prevents cancer cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein that plays a significant role in DNA architecture and transcription, was correlated with the progression of some types of cancer. However, the role of HMGB1 in endometrial cancer cell invasion and metastasis remains unexplored. HMGB1 expression was initially assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in normal endometrial tissue and endometrial carcinoma tissue. High expressions of HMGB1 protein were detected in normal endometrial tissues; however, in endometrial cancer tissues, the expressions of HMGB1 were found to be very weak. Furthermore, HMGB1 expressions were negatively correlated with advanced stage and lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer. Then by RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry, HMGB1 was also detected in primary cultured endometrial cells and four kinds of endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa, HEC-1A, HEC-1B and KLE). We found that the expression of HMGB1 was much higher in normal endometrial cells than in endometrial cancer cells, and reduced expression levels of HMGB1 were observed especially in the highly metastatic cell lines. Using lentivirus transfection, HMGB1 small hairpin RNA was constructed, and this infected the lowly invasive endometrial cancer cell lines, Ishikawa and HEC-1B. HMGB1 knockdown significantly enhanced the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of endometrial cancer cells and induced the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These results can contribute to the development of a new potential therapeutic target for endometrial cancer.

Limited impact of intratumour heterogeneity on molecular risk assignment in endometrial cancer.

Individual prediction of tumour behaviour based on molecular markers may refine adjuvant treatment strategies in endometrial cancer (EC). As these molecular alterations are determined in a small tumour fraction, high intratumour heterogeneity may interfere with correct risk prediction. This study aimed to investigate to which extent intratumour heterogeneity exists for molecular markers and whether it affects the molecular risk assignment in EC.

Pseudolaric acid B induces endometrial cancer Ishikawa cell apoptosis and inhibits metastasis through AKT-GSK-3β and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is the most active constituent extracted from the bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi, which has been used as an antifungal remedy in traditional Chinese medicine. It is reported to have cytotoxicity to many tumor cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of PAB against human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We found that PAB inhibited Ishikawa cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest through a mechanism involving AKT-GSK-3β and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PAB also suppressed the Ishikawa cell adhesion, invasion, migration, and colony formation ability by increasing the expression of E-cadherin, Ezrin, and Kiss-1, and decreasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Taken together, these data indicated that PAB can be expected to be a novel treatment agent for endometrial cancer therapy.

The role of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in stage IIIC endometrial cancer: A single-institute study.

The therapeutic value of para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PAL) in women with endometrial cancer (EC) remains uncertain. We retrospectively analysed 25 patients with stage IIIc EC (17 stage IIIC1; 8 IIIC2) who were treated in our institution. All subjects had undergone pelvic lymphadenectomies in which para-aortic nodes were sampled, or removed only when these nodes were enlarged. Sampling of para-aortic nodes or PAL was performed in all patients with stage IIIC2 disease and one of 17 with stage IIIC1 disease. Para-aortic lymph nodes were the most frequent site of recurrence in stage IIIC1 patients, but no such recurrences occurred in stage IIIC2 patients. Overall survival tended to be shorter in stage IIIC1 patients than stage IIIC2 patients. Our findings indicate that PAL improves the outcomes of patients with EC and high risk of para-aortic lymph node metastasis, such as those with positive pelvic lymph nodes or enlargement of para-aortic lymph nodes. Impact statement Para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastases are important prognostic factors in endometrial cancer. Overall survival of patients with stage IIIC1 disease is generally longer than for those with stage IIIC2 disease. Retrospective studies - but no prospective studies - have suggested that para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PAL) provides a survival benefit. In our institution, we had performed PAL or para-aortic sampling for patients with enlarged PALNs; therefore, as most IIIC1 patients had no enlarged PALNs, they underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy only, whereas all IIIC2 patients had enlarged PALNs and underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy and PAL or PALN sampling in addition to pelvic lymphadenectomy. However, under this policy, survival of stage IIIC1 patients was not better than for stage IIIC2 patients. Our retrospective study indicates a survival benefit for PAL in patients with pelvic node-positive or enlarged PALN. PAL warrants a prospective randomised trial to see whether it should be a standard treatment in these patients.

Effects of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on programmed cell death of Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells through ezrin phosphorylation.

This study investigated the effects of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced cell death and its underlying molecular mechanisms in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cells. The effects of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Ishikawa cells were examined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2.5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was shown to induce programmed cell death in Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cells by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, along with elevation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Cell viability was reduced by 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in a concentration-dependent manner up to 2.5 μM. In addition, ezrin phosphorylation increased with the 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration (0-0.5 μM). The protein level of caspase-9 was increased by 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 up to 0.5 μM. This is the first report regarding the efficacy and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in endometrial cancer cells. Our findings indicate that 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces endometrial cancer cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Impact statement Up to date, there is no report about the efficacy and molecular underlying mechanisms on the effect of vitamin D3 in endometrial cancer cells. Our findings indicate that 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. which is an active metabolite of vitamin D3, induces Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell death in a concentration-dependent manner by activation of caspase-3 and -9, along with elevation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In addition, the same concentration of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 that provoked apoptotic signals caused phosphorylation of ezrin at threonine 567 in a VDR-dependent manner. This study suggests that 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 within the optimal range (0.5 uM) would induce apoptosis through Fas-ezrin-caspase-3, -8, -9 signalling axis which may be a critical cell death regulator in Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell. Further study will be more interesting to address molecular connections or prove this critical optimal concentration range of vitamin D.