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Ethiopia - Top 30 Publications

Correlates of khat use during pregnancy: A cross-sectional study.

Khat is widely used in East African countries including Ethiopia. A growing body of evidence indicates that long-term khat use is associated with various health consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and correlates of khat use in pregnant women.

Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2014.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has targeted the elimination of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) 'as a public health problem' by 2020. The selected indicators of elimination should be monitored every two years, and we provide here a comprehensive update to 2014. The monitoring system is underpinned by the Atlas of HAT.

Delivering Vitamin A Supplements to Children Aged 6 to 59 Months: Comparing Delivery Through Mass Campaign and Through Routine Health Services in Ethiopia.

The delivery of vitamin A supplements in Ethiopia has been shifting from Child Health Days (campaigns) to routine delivery via the community health services.

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015.

The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world.

Patient specific 3-d modeling of blood flow in a multi-stenosed left coronary artery.

The current study investigates the effect of multi stenosis on the hemodynamic parameters such as wall pressure, velocity and wall shear stress in the realistic left coronary artery. Patients CT scan image data of normal and diseased left coronary artery was chosen for the reconstruction of 3D coronary artery models. The diseased 3D model of left coronary artery shows a narrowing of more than 70% and 80% of area stenosis (AS) at the left main stem (LMS) and left circumflex (LCX) respectively. The results show that the decrease in pressure was found downstream to the stenosis as compared to the coronary artery without stenosis. The maximum pressure drop was noted across the 80% AS at the left circumflex branch. The recirculation zone was also observed immediate to the stenosis and highest wall shear stress was found across the 80% area stenosis. Our analysis provides an insight into the distribution of wall shear stress and pressure drop, thus improving our understanding on the hemodynamics in realistic coronary artery.

Drought and child mortality: a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys from Ethiopia.

Despite the intuitive connection between drought and mortality, we still lack a sound quantitative synthesis of evidence drawn from the available data. In this study, we estimate the pooled under-five death rates (U5DR) and assess the effect of drought on child death in Ethiopia. Small-scale mortality surveys were searched from the Complex Emergency Database and then aggregated spatially and temporally with drought exposure data from the Global Drought Monitor and food insecurity data from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network. A Bayesian Poisson meta-analysis was performed on 88 surveys conducted in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2014, consisting of 55,219 under-five children. The pooled U5DR was estimated at 0.323/10,000/day (95% credible interval, CrI: 0.254-0.397), which is below both the emergency and the baseline death rate thresholds of sub-Saharan Africa. We failed to find a plausible association between drought and U5DR. However, minimal food insecure areas showed elevated U5DR compared to stressed food insecure areas. Furthermore, the U5DR increases as the prevalence of acute malnutrition increases. Targeted interventions to improve the underlying causes of child malnutrition are crucial. Further, revising and updating the existing mortality thresholds, both the baseline and the emergency, is recommended.

The efficacy of chlorhexidine gel in the prevention of alveolar osteitis after mandibular third molar extraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Alveolar osteitis is a very painful and distressing condition for a patient who has recently undergone a tooth extraction and has led dental professionals to search for preventive measures. The aim of this meta-analysis to determine the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) gel on the incidence of alveolar osteitis after mandibular third molar extraction.

Meal frequency and dietary diversity feeding practices among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia.

Child feeding practices are multidimensional, and they change rapidly within short age intervals. Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of undernutrition in children in the age of 6-23 months. Information on child feeding practices among urban resident is limited in Ethiopia. The aim was to measure minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity and associated factors among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.

Current status, challenges and the way forward for clinical pharmacy service in Ethiopian public hospitals.

Clinical pharmacy service has evolved steadily over the past few decades and is now contributing to the 'patient care journey' at all stages. It is improving the safety and effectiveness of medicines and has made a significant contribution to the avoidance of medication errors. In Ethiopia, clinical pharmacy service is in its initial phase, being started in July 2013. This study therefore aimed at assessing the status, challenges and way forward of clinical pharmacy service in the country.

Salmonella serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility in apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The close bond between pet animals and family members poses risk of infection with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella. No data is available on occurrence of Salmonella in dogs in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from feces of apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming Species Barriers.

Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus. Circumstantial or observational evidence of risk factors for transmission between animal species was found in 21 papers, including proximity to infected animals, ingestion of infected material and potential association with a species known to carry influenza virus. Only three publications were found which presented a statistical measure of an epidemiological risk factor for the transmission of influenza between animal species. This review has identified a significant gap in knowledge regarding epidemiological risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses between animal species.

The effect of cigarette price increases on cigarette consumption, tax revenue, and smoking-related death in Africa from 1999 to 2013.

This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues, and reduction in smoking-caused mortality in 36 African countries.

Relationship between Exposure to Malaria and Haemoglobin Level of Children 2-9 Years Old in Low Malaria Transmission Settings.

In the context of reduced transmission of malaria, it is essential to examine the association between exposure to malaria and haemoglobin level. This study measured the Haemoglobin level of children 2-9 years of age and examined its association with malariometric indices. A cross sectional study was conducted, during June 2016, on 763 children 2-9 years old, recruited from ten sites representing different malaria transmission settings in Ethiopia. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using HemoCue analyzer. Malariometric indices (splenomegaly rate, parasite rate and serological marker) were measured. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 17.3% (95%CI: 14.6 - 19.9) in the study population. Mild, moderate and severe anaemia accounted for 7.3%, 7.2% and 2.8% respectively. Of the children with anaemia (132), only 7 (5.3%) had malaria parasitaemia. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 3.6% (2/56), 9.1% (5/55) and 0.0% (0/21) among children with mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. Malaria reactive antibody and anaemia co-occurred in 3.13% (21/672) of the samples. Seroprevalence and parasitaemia did not have significant association with anaemia (p >0.05). However, splenomegaly was significantly associated with increased risk of anaemia (AOR=14.93; p=0.001). Anaemia was significantly higher among children 2-4 years old (22.2%), and children living in households without any insecticide treated bed net (34.0%). The prevalence of anaemia was lower by 55.0% among children living in households with at least one net (AOR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.21 - 0.96). Repeated exposure to malaria infections (seropositive) and parasitaemia was less likely to contribute to development of anaemia among children 2-9 years in this study setting. Thus, in low malaria endemic settings, anaemia prevention and control program required to reconsider the historical evidence that suggests malaria is one of the major risk factor for anaemia.

Sustainability of community-led total sanitation outcomes: Evidence from Ethiopia and Ghana.

We conducted a study to evaluate the sustainability of community-led total sanitation (CLTS) outcomes in Ethiopia and Ghana. Plan International, with local actors, implemented four CLTS interventions from 2012 to 2014: health extension worker-facilitated CLTS and teacher-facilitated CLTS in Ethiopia, and NGO-facilitated CLTS with and without training for natural leaders in Ghana. We previously evaluated these interventions using survey data collected immediately after implementation ended, and concluded that in Ethiopia health extension workers were more effective facilitators than teachers, and that in Ghana training natural leaders improved CLTS outcomes. For this study, we resurveyed 3831 households one year after implementation ended, and analyzed latrine use and quality to assess post-intervention changes in sanitation outcomes, to determine if our original conclusions were robust. In one of four interventions evaluated (health extension worker-facilitated CLTS in Ethiopia), there was an 8 percentage point increase in open defecation in the year after implementation ended, challenging our prior conclusion on their effectiveness. For the other three interventions, the initial decreases in open defecation of 8-24 percentage points were sustained, with no significant changes occurring in the year after implementation. On average, latrines in Ethiopia were lower quality than those in Ghana. In the year following implementation, forty-five percent of households in Ethiopia repaired or rebuilt latrines that had become unusable, while only 6% did in Ghana possibly due to higher latrine quality. Across all four interventions and three survey rounds, most latrines remained unimproved. Regardless of the intervention, households in villages higher latrine use were more likely to have sustained latrine use, which together with the high latrine repair rates indicates a potential social norm. There are few studies that revisit villages after an initial evaluation to assess sustainability of sanitation outcomes. This study provides new evidence that CLTS outcomes can be sustained in the presence of training provided to local actors, and strengthens previous recommendations that CLTS is not appropriate in all settings and should be combined with efforts to address barriers households face to building higher quality latrines.

Prevalence and predictors of implanon utilization among women of reproductive age group in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

The Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health introduced provision of the contraceptive Implanon at community level by trained health extension workers in 2009. However, little is known regarding the utilization and factors associated with Implanon use among rural women since the introduction of the community based intervention. Thus, this study assessed the utilization of Implanon and associated factors among reproductive aged women in rural areas of Saesie-Tsaeda Emba and Ofla districts in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

The effect of food insecurity on health status of adolescents in Ethiopia: longitudinal study.

The effect of food insecurity on health and wellbeing of a population has been the subject of much research. Yet, limited research has investigated its effect on adolescents' health and wellbeing in Ethiopia.

Service user involvement in mental health system strengthening in a rural African setting: qualitative study.

It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach.

Determination of the sources and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from the poultry industry in Southern Ethiopia.

Ethiopia set an ambitious masterplan to increase chicken meat and egg production from 2015 to 2020. Poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in the country have received executive order to import, amplify and distribute commercial chickens to end users. The biosecurity and the pathogen fauna of the centers have not been evaluated as to whether the centers could implement the mission effectively without any risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosecurity practices and the pathogen prevalence, risk factors and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using Salmonella as case study.

Developing family medicine in Ethiopia.

Follicular size predicts success in artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm in donkeys.

In asses, semen collection, cryopreservation, and artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen have been scarcely described and success rate, particularly following AI, is reportedly low. In the absence of reliable protocols, assisted reproductive technologies cannot support the conservation efforts aimed at endangered wild ass species and domestic donkey breeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. In experiment 1 we evaluated freezing Abyssinian donkey (N = 5, 4 ejaculates each) spermatozoa using three freezing extenders (Berliner Cryomedium + glycerol, BC+G; BotuCrio, BOTU; INRAFreeze, INRA) and two cryopreservation techniques (liquid nitrogen vapour, LNV; directional freezing, DF). Post-thaw evaluation indicated that BOTU and INRA were similar and both superior to BC+G (P ≤ 0.004 for all motility tests), and that DF was superior to LNV (P < 0.002 for all evaluation parameters). In experiment 2, relying on these results, we used Abyssinian donkey sperm frozen in BOTU and INRA by DF for AI (N = 20). Prior to AI, thawed samples were diluted in corresponding centrifugation media or autologous seminal fluids at 1:1 ratio. No difference was found between BOTU and INRA or between the addition of seminal fluids or media, all resulting in ~50% pregnancy, and no differences were noted between males (N = 4). The size of pre-ovulatory follicle was a significant (P = 0.001) predictor for AI success with 9/10 pregnancies occurring when follicular size ranged between 33.1-37.4 mm, no pregnancy when it was smaller, and only one when larger. A number of ass species face the risk of extinction. Knowledge gained in this study on the Abyssinian donkey can be customised and transferred to its closely related endangered species and breeds.

Sex differences in management and outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation in the Middle East: Gulf survey of atrial fibrillation events (Gulf SAFE).

Differences in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) between men and women were investigated by using Gulf SAFE data in the Middle East. The study included 2,043 patients presenting with AF to emergency room (ER) were prospectively enrolled and followed for one-year. Women were older, have higher body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, and health complications than men. With regard to management of AF, cardioversion was recommended more often for men (16.7% vs. 9.3%), and underwent electrical cardioversion (2.2% vs. 1.1%). Women were prescribed digoxin more frequently than men (25.6% vs. 17.4%) and a significant number women received warfarin alone (31.1% vs. 8.7%). No difference between the sexes was noticed in One-year rates of stroke/transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and all-cause of mortality after one-year follow-up (3.1% men vs. 3.3% women, and 7.5% vs. 7.4%). Older age (≥ 65 years), smoking, alcohol use, CHADS2 scores ≥5 were some of the significant risk factors in men with AF. Suboptimal use of anticoagulants, higher mortality and stroke/TIA events at one year are high but similar between the sexes. ER management revealed high use of rate control strategy and high rate of hospital admission was noticed in women.

Seasonal abundance and habitat use of bird species in and around Wondo Genet Forest, south-central Ethiopia.

The habitat use and seasonal migratory pattern of birds in Ethiopia is less explored as compared to diversity studies. To this end, this study aimed at investigating the patterns of distribution related to seasonality and the effect of habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, and average vegetation height) on habitat use of birds of Wondo Genet Forest Patch. A stratified random sampling design was used to assess the avian fauna across the four dominant habitat types found in the study area: natural forest, wooded grassland, grassland, and agroforestry land. A point transect count was employed to investigate avian species richness and abundance per habitat type per season. Ancillary data, such as elevation above sea level, latitude and longitude, average vegetation height, and percent slope inclination, were recorded with a GPS and clinometers per plot. A total of 33 migratory bird species were recorded from the area, of which 20 species were northern (Palearctic) migrants while 13 were inter-African migrants. There was a significant difference in the mean abundance of migratory bird species between dry and wet seasons (t = 2.13, p = .038, df = 44). The variation in mean abundance per plot between the dry and wet seasons in the grassland habitat was significant (t = 2.35, p = .051, df = 7). In most habitat types during both dry and wet seasons, omnivore birds were the most abundant. While slope was a good predictor for bird species abundance in the dry season, altitude and average vegetation height accounted more in the wet season. The patch of forest and its surrounding is an important bird area for migratory, endemic, and global threatened species. Hence, it is conservation priority area, and the study suggests that conservation coupled with ecotourism development is needed for its sustainability.

Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in hospitals at Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

Like other sub-Saharan Africa, in Ethiopia there is a shortage of adequate and safe blood supplies. Health care providers are potential resource and promoter of voluntary blood donation. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Paper based questionnaire was distributed to 276 health care providers from May 01 to June 30, 2016. Overall, 42.8% had donated blood at least once. Of these, males accounted for 60%. The median age of blood donors was 26 years. Voluntary-unpaid donation was 21.2%. Overall, 75.5% health care providers were knowledgeable. The levels of knowledge were significantly different among different disciplines (One-way ANOVA; F=69.7; P=0.004). Males were more knowledgeable than females (P<0.05). The overall favorable attitude was 78.6%. Previous practice of blood donation determined the odds of favorable attitude to be a future regular voluntary-unpaid blood donor (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 3.2-10.4). Majority of health care providers had adequate knowledge and favorable attitude. However, voluntary-unpaid donation practice (21.1%) was lower compared to 100% target of voluntary-unpaid donation. There should be motivation packages to enhance voluntary-unpaid blood donation among health care professionals.

WELL-CHILD VISITS REGARDING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS: A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON.

1. To examine the rate of WCV among mothers in four ethno-cultural groups: native-born Jewish, Bedouin and immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Ethiopia; 2. to test the relationship between WCV in the first and second year of the infant's life; 3. to assess the effect of sociodemographic variables on WCV.

Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 × 10(-6) to 100 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope) of 0.99925 and 8.37 × 10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79-102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie) and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w%) of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users' highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

Factors Affecting Utilization of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Services among Teachers in Awi Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

HIV/AIDS affects the basic educational sector which is the most productive segment of the population and vital to the creation of human capital. The loss of skilled and experienced teachers due to the problem is increasingly compromising the provision of quality education in most African countries. The study was proposed to determine the magnitude of VCT utilization and assess contributing factors that affect VCT service utilization among secondary school teachers in Awi Zone. A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 588 participants in 2014. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, presented as frequencies and summary statistics, and tested for presence of significant association with odds ratio at 95% CI. More than half (53.6%) of study participants were tested for HIV. Those who had sexual intercourse, had good knowledge about VCT, were divorced/widowed, were in the age group of 20-29 years, and were married utilized VCT services two, three, four, three, and two times better than their counterparts, respectively. Actions targeting unmarried status, increase of educational level, and teachers with age groups above 30 years are necessary to follow their counterparts to utilize VCT service in order to save loss of teachers.

Respectful maternity care in Ethiopian public health facilities.

Disrespect and abuse of women during institutional childbirth services is one of the deterrents to utilization of maternity care services in Ethiopia and other low- and middle-income countries. This paper describes the prevalence of respectful maternity care (RMC) and mistreatment of women in hospitals and health centers, and identifies factors associated with occurrence of RMC and mistreatment of women during institutional labor and childbirth services.

Antiplasmodial activity of Indigofera spicata root extract against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

In addition to pharmacovigilance and pharmaco-economic concerns, resistance to anti-malarial medicines has been documented in all classes of anti-malarials and this is further worsened by resistance to common insecticides by malaria vector, which is a major threat to malaria control. As a means of facing the challenges of searching for new anti-malarial agents, the current study focused on evaluation of anti-malarial activity of root extract of Indigofera spicata.

Skilled delivery inequality in Ethiopia: to what extent are the poorest and uneducated mothers benefiting?

The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targeted at improving maternal health. In this regard, Ethiopia has shown substantial progresses in the past two decades. Nonetheless, these impressive gains are unevenly distributed among Ethiopian women with different socio-economic characteristics. This study aimed at investigating levels and trends of skilled delivery service, and wealth and education related inequalities from 2000 to 16.

Utilization of growth monitoring and promotion services and associated factors among under two years of age children in Southern Ethiopia.

Growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) is a prevention activity comprised of growth monitoring (GM) linked with promotion that serves as the core activity in an integrated child health and nutrition program. However, different methods of institutional studies have shown that utilization of GM services has remained to be inadequate. There is scarcity of studies conducted about GMP in quantitative method. Therefore, this study was conducted to address the proportion of GMP services and associated factors among children under two years of age in rural communities of Mareka district, Southern Ethiopia. Community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2015. Single population proportion formula was used to determine the sample size with multi stage sampling technique. A total of 819 children under two years of age were included. Pretest was done on 10% of the total sample size. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions used to analyze data. The response rate was 95%. Utilization of GMP services was 16.9%. Institutional delivery AOR (95% CI): 3.01(1.65-5.50), index child age 12-17 months AOR (95% CI): 4.03(2.16-7.51) and 18-23 months AOR (95% CI): 3.08(1.70-5.57), family size 4-5 AOR(95% CI): 0.14(0.06-0.33), family size >5 AOR(95% CI): 0.34(0.14-0.82), regular GMP attendance AOR (95% CI): 4.37(2.45-7.80), medium wealth index AOR(95% CI): 3.14(1.51-6.52) and high wealth index AOR(95% CI): 3.24(1.59-6.62) were factors associated with utilization of GMP services. Utilization of GMP services was low. Thus, efforts should be made to improve utilization of GMP services through promotion of institutional delivery, different family planning methods, and regular GMP attendance.