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Ethiopia - Top 30 Publications

Psychiatric care of refugees in Africa and the Middle East : Challenges and solutions.

Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan. Moreover, we provide first insights into a project based in Northern Iraq and Germany aimed at the treatment of people who were severely traumatized by the terror regime of the so-called Islamic State (IS).

The East Asian origin of the giant lobelias.

Rapid radiations are difficult to reconstruct when organismal diversification and biogeographic movement outpace the evolution of genes typically used in phylogenetic analyses. The 125 kb of unique sequence from complete plastid genomes (= plastomes) largely solves the molecular sampling problem, and taxon sampling that triangulates the base of each major subclade largely solves the long-branch attraction problem. This combination of molecular and phylogenetic sampling is used to reconstruct the cosmopolitan radiation of lobeliads, with special focus on the origin of the giant lobelias.

Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Leprosy Admitted Over 16 Years at a Rural Hospital in Ethiopia: A Retrospective Analysis.

To analyse differences in children and adolescents aged ≤18 years admitted to the leprosy ward in a rural Ethiopian hospital >16 years.

Erratum to: Development of a Unifying Target and Consensus Indicators for Global Surgical Systems Strengthening: Proposed by the Global Alliance for Surgery, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care (The G4 Alliance).

Signatures of Selection for Environmental Adaptation and Zebu × Taurine Hybrid Fitness in East African Shorthorn Zebu.

The East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) cattle are ancient hybrid between Asian zebu × African taurine cattle preferred by local farmers due to their adaptability to the African environment. The genetic controls of these adaptabilities are not clearly understood yet. Here, we genotyped 92 EASZ samples from Kenya (KEASZ) with more than 770,000 SNPs and sequenced the genome of a pool of 10 KEASZ. We observe an even admixed autosomal zebu × taurine genomic structure in the population. A total of 101 and 165 candidate regions of positive selection, based on genome-wide SNP analyses (meta-SS, Rsb, iHS, and ΔAF) and pooled heterozygosity (Hp) full genome sequence analysis, are identified, in which 35 regions are shared between them. A total of 142 functional variants, one novel, have been detected within these regions, in which 30 and 26 were classified as of zebu and African taurine origins, respectively. High density genome-wide SNP analysis of zebu × taurine admixed cattle populations from Uganda and Nigeria show that 25 of these regions are shared between KEASZ and Uganda cattle, and seven regions are shared across the KEASZ, Uganda, and Nigeria cattle. The identification of common candidate regions allows us to fine map 18 regions. These regions intersect with genes and QTL associated with reproduction and environmental stress (e.g., immunity and heat stress) suggesting that the genome of the zebu × taurine admixed cattle has been uniquely selected to maximize hybrid fitness both in terms of reproduction and survivability.

Care and not wealth is a predictor of wasting and stunting of 'The Coffee Kids' of Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia.

The generation of cash from agricultural products is the mainstay of the livelihood of many households in developing countries. However, critics of cash cropping have highlighted its influence on dietary diversity and availability of food at the household level, eroding the potential for optimal child caring practices.

Vasomotor symptoms are associated with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older women.

To assess the prevalence of, and factors associated with, moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older Australian women.

HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in two referral hospitals in Ethiopia.

The aim of the study was to determine the magnitude of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (SAD) and its associated factors in healthcare settings. Primary data were collected from June to September 2014 from two referral hospitals located in north-west Ethiopia. The study used pre-test/post-test design with a non-equivalent control group using a quantitative approach. Healthcare professionals were divided into strata and then, using the stratified random sampling technique, the study participants were selected from each stratum. The median age of study respondents in the treatment group was 32.2 years with standard deviation (SD) of 7.74. The regressions of stigma for the pre-tests of the first hospital and second hospital participants' knowledge about SAD-related issues and perceived risk of HIV infection were found to be significantly associated with stigma in the first hospital. In the first hospital, healthcare professionals who felt HIV risk of infection at different contact points with HIV-positive patients were more than 13 times more likely to present stigmatising attitudes towards the patients (OR = 13.46, p = 0.005). In the second hospital, only perceived risk of infection was significantly associated with stigma (p = 0.036). Interventions to lessen HIV and AIDS-related SAD in healthcare settings must focus on improving the knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals as well as overcoming the institutional barriers existing in the healthcare settings through staff training and hospital strategy development.

Efficacy and Tolerability of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Based Regimen as Compared to Zidovudine Based Regimens: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Although tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz (EFV) and zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/efavirenz (EFV) are used as preferred first line regimen, their head-to-head comparison in terms of their efficacy and tolerability was limited. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the comparative efficacy and tolerability of the two regimens.

Vitamin D deficiency among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients and their household contacts: a comparative cross-sectional study.

Recent studies suggest that the incidence and severity of tuberculosis is associated with low levels of vitamin D. Even though individuals living in Ethiopia have a high exposure to sunlight which is a source of vitamin D, tuberculosis is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the country. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin D deficiency in newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients, household contacts and community controls in Gondar, Ethiopia.

Exclusive breastfeeding and mothers' employment status in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study.

Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as feeding an infant breast milk only, for the first six months. In Ethiopia, more than half of infants do not receive exclusive breastfeeding. Workplace barriers contribute to these low rates of exclusive breastfeeding practices. Understanding the sociodemographic, health related, behavioral and economic factors is crucial to promote the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the extent of exclusive breastfeeding practice and associated factors among employed and unemployed mothers with children of age 7-12 months in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia, 2015.

Lifespan and associated factors of peripheral intravenous Cannula among infants admitted in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016.

Peripheral Intravenous cannula (IV) is the most common vascular access device used to administer medications with the exception of medication or fluid with high or low PH or hyperosmolarity which may cause severe damage to small veins. The insertion of a peripheral intravenous cannula in newborn infants can be difficult. Appropriate veins with sufficient capacity to insert a cannula become less available throughout the hospital stay. Once a peripheral intravenous cannula is inserted, it is desirable that its patency can be maintained as long as possible. This study was aimed to assess the lifespan and associated factors of peripheral intravenous cannula among infants admitted in public hospitals of Mekelle city, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016.

Announcing the Genome Atlas of Bamboo and Rattan (GABR) project: promoting research in evolution and in economically and ecologically beneficial plants.

Bamboo and rattan are widely grown for manufacturing, horticulture, and agroforestry. Bamboo and rattan production might help reduce poverty, boost economic growth, mitigate climate change, and protect the natural environment. Despite progress in research, sufficient molecular and genomic resources to study these species are lacking. We launched the Genome Atlas of Bamboo and Rattan (GABR) project, a comprehensive, coordinated international effort to accelerate understanding of BR genetics through genome analysis. GABR includes two core subprojects: Bamboo-T1K (Transcriptomes of 1000 Bamboos) and Rattan-G5 (Genomes of 5 Rattans), and several other subprojects. Here we describe the organization, directions and status of GABR.

Technical efficiency of selected hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia.

This study examines the relative technical efficiency of 12 hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. Using six-year-round panel data for the period between 2007/08 and 2012/13, this study examines the technical efficiency, total factor productivity, and determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and DEA- based Malmquist productivity index used to estimate relative technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and total factor productivity index of hospitals. Tobit model used to examine the determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. The DEA Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) estimate indicated that 6 (50%), 5 (42%), 3 (25%), 3 (25%), 4 (33%), and 3 (25%) of the hospitals were technically inefficient while 9 (75%), 9 (75%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%) and 8 (67%) of hospitals were scale inefficient between 2007/08 and 2012/13, respectively. On average, Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (MTFP) of the hospitals decreased by 3.6% over the panel period. The Tobit model shows that teaching hospital is less efficiency than other hospitals. The Tobit regression model further shows that medical doctor to total staff ratio, the proportion of outpatient visit to inpatient days, and the proportion of inpatients treated per medical doctor were negatively related with technical inefficiency of hospitals. Hence, policy interventions that help utilize excess capacity of hospitals, increase doctor to other staff ratio, and standardize number of inpatients treated per doctor would contribute to the improvement of the technical efficiency of hospitals.

Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.

Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia.

Does timing of antiretroviral treatment influence treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis in Northwest Ethiopia?

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients with HIV co-infection should receive antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, the best timing for initiation of ART is not known. Among such individuals, we assessed the influence of ART timing on VL outcomes.

State of Pelvic and Acetabular Surgery in the Developing World: A Global Survey of Orthopaedic Surgeons at Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) Hospitals.

To document the current state of pelvic and acetabular surgery in the developing world and to identify critical areas for improvement in the treatment of these complex injuries.

The cost of demand creation activities and voluntary medical male circumcision targeting school-going adolescents in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government's response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. However, there remains a limited body of economic analysis on the cost of VMMC programming, and the demand creation activities used to mobilize males, especially among adolescent boys in school. This study addresses this gap by presenting the costs of a VMMC program which adopted two demand creation strategies targeting school-going males in South Africa.

Mental and Reproductive Health Correlates of Academic Performance among Debre Berhan University Female Students, Ethiopia: The Case of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.

Globally 3 to 8% of reproductive age women are suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Several mental and reproductive health-related factors cause low academic achievement during university education. However, limited data exist in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to investigate mental and reproductive health correlates of academic performance.

Patterns of psychiatric admissions and predictors of patient's outcome in Jimma University Teaching and Referral Hospital: a retrospective study.

Psychiatric morbidity burden accounts 12.45% of the disease admission burden in Ethiopia; only two referral hospitals are found to manage all cases. The aim of this study is to assess the predictors of patient outcomes.

Infant and young child feeding practice among mothers with 0-24 months old children in Slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated. This further compromises infant feeding practice. The aim of this study was to assess infant and young child feeding practice among mothers with 0-24 month old children in the study area.

Early experiences from one of the first treatment programs for chronic hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa.

Treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is virtually absent in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we present early experiences from a pilot program for treatment of CHB in Ethiopia.

Conceptualisation of job-related wellbeing, stress and burnout among healthcare workers in rural Ethiopia: a qualitative study.

Wellbeing of healthcare workers is important for the effective functioning of health systems. The aim of this study was to explore the conceptualisations of wellbeing, stress and burnout among healthcare workers in primary healthcare settings in rural Ethiopia in order to inform the development of contextually appropriate interventions.

Inequities in utilization of reproductive and maternal health services in Ethiopia.

Disparities in health services utilization within and between regional states of countries with diverse socio-cultural and economic conditions such as Ethiopia is a frequent encounter. Understanding and taking measures to address unnecessary and avoidable differences in the use of reproductive and maternal health services is a key concern in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to examine degree of equity in reproductive and maternal health services utilization in Ethiopia.

Agaricus blazei extract abrogates rotenone-induced dopamine depletion and motor deficits by its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in Parkinsonic mice.

Neuroinflammation and oxidative damage are the two main malfactors that play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental and clinical Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study was aimed to study the possible anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Agaricus blazei (A. blazei) against rotenone-induced PD in mice. Male Albino mice were randomized and divided into the following groups: control, treated with rotenone (1 mg/kg/day), co-treated with rotenone and A. blazei (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg b.w.), and treated with A. blazei alone (200 mg/kg b.w.). After the end of the experimental period, behavioral studies, biochemical estimations, and protein expression patterns of inflammatory markers were studied. Rotenone treatment exhibited enhanced motor impairments, neurochemical deficits, oxidative stress, and inflammation, whereas oral administration of A. blazei extract attenuated the above-said indices. Even though further research is needed to prove its efficacy in clinical studies, the results of our study concluded that A. blazei extract offers a promising and new therapeutic lead for treatment of PD.

Resilience potential of the Ethiopian coffee sector under climate change.

Coffee farming provides livelihoods for around 15 million farmers in Ethiopia and generates a quarter of the country's export earnings. Against a backdrop of rapidly increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall, there is an urgent need to understand the influence of climate change on coffee production. Using a modelling approach in combination with remote sensing, supported by rigorous ground-truthing, we project changes in suitability for coffee farming under various climate change scenarios, specifically by assessing the exposure of coffee farming to future climatic shifts. We show that 39-59% of the current growing area could experience climatic changes that are large enough to render them unsuitable for coffee farming, in the absence of significant interventions or major influencing factors. Conversely, relocation of coffee areas, in combination with forest conservation or re-establishment, could see at least a fourfold (>400%) increase in suitable coffee farming area. We identify key coffee-growing areas that are susceptible to climate change, as well as those that are climatically resilient.

The ENRICH Study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention package to improve isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, adherence and completion among people living with HIV in Ethiopia: rationale and design of a mixed methods cluster randomized trial.

Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis among HIV-positive individuals, however implementation is suboptimal. Implementation science studies are needed to identify interventions to address this evidence-to-program gap.

LC-MS/MS characterization, anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant activities of polyphenols from different tissues of Korean Petasites japonicus (Meowi).

The Korean Petasites japonicus is a perennial plant used in folk medicine as a remedy for many diseases and popularly consumed as spring greens. Ten polyphenols were characterized from the leaves, stems, and roots of this plant via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Individual polyphenols were quantified for the first time using calibration curves of six structurally related external standards. Validation data indicated that correlation coefficients (R(2) ) were ≥ 0.9702 for all standards. Recoveries measured at 50 and 100 mg/L were 80.0-91.9% and 80.3-105.3%, respectively. Precisions at these two concentration levels were 0.7-6.1% and 1.1-5.5%, respectively. The total number of identified components was largest for the leaves and smallest for the stems. The leaf and root polyphenolic extracts showed anti-inflammatory effects by inducing LPS-activated COX-2 and iNOS protein levels in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The antioxidant capacity of the polyphenols, when evaluated for DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl)(ˑ) , ABTS(+) (2-2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide radical scavenging activities, and in ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays, was highest in the leaf and lowest in the stem. This trend suggests the antioxidant capacities depend primarily on polyphenol concentration in each tissue. The current findings suggest that polyphenols derived from Petasites japonicas tissues could have the potential as functional health foods.

Client and facility level determinants of quality of care in family planning services in Ethiopia: Multilevel modelling.

Over the last two decades, while contraceptive use has improved in Ethiopia, the contraceptive prevalence rate remains low. In addition to socio-demographic and cultural factors, the quality of care in Family Planning (FP) services is an important determining factor of FP utilization. However, little research exists on the determinants of quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia. This study aims to identify the client and facility level determinants of quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia.

Prevalence, trend and risk factors for antiretroviral therapy discontinuation among HIV-infected adults in Ethiopia in 2003-2015.

It is well acknowledged that antiretroviral therapy (ART) discontinuation hampers the progress towards achieving the UNAIDS treatment targets that aim to treat 90% of HIV diagnosed patients and achieve viral suppression for 90% of those on treatment. Nevertheless, the magnitude, trend and risk factors for ART discontinuation have not been explored extensively. We carried out a retrospective data analysis to assess prevalence, trend and risk factors for ART discontinuation among adults in Southwest Ethiopia.