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Ethiopia - Top 30 Publications

Vivax malaria chemoprophylaxis: the role of Atovaquone-proguanil, compared to other options.

Atovaquone-Proguanil is considered causal prophylaxis (inhibition of liver-stage schizonts) for Plasmodium falciparum, however, its causal prophylactic efficacy for P. vivax is not known. Travelers returning to non-endemic areas, provide a unique opportunity to study P. vivax prophylaxis.

Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study.

Anemia is defined as a condition in which there is less than the normal hemoglobin (Hb) level in the body. During pregnancy; iron deficiency is associated with multiple adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Most of the studies conducted in Ethiopia on anemia during pregnancy were conducted at institution level and associated factors are not well studied and documented. Independent factors like, food security status, dietary diversity and intestinal parasites infection were considered by only a few of them. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women in Lemo District, Southern Ethiopia.

Bioactive Peptides Derived from Seaweed Protein and Their Health Benefits: Antihypertensive, Antioxidant, and Antidiabetic Properties.

Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are the biggest causes of death globally. Therefore, prevention of these diseases is a focus of pharmaceuticals and functional food manufacturers. This review summarizes recent research trends and scientific knowledge in seaweed protein-derived peptides with particular emphasis on production, isolation and potential health impacts in prevention of hypertension, diabetes and oxidative stress. The current status and future prospects of bioactive peptides are also discussed. Bioactive peptides have strong potential for use in therapeutic drug and functional food formulation in health management strategy, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Seaweeds can be used as sustainable protein sources in the production of these peptide-based drugs and functional foods for preventing such diseases. Many studies have reported that peptides showing angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, antihypertensive, antioxidative and antidiabetics activities, have been successfully isolated from seaweed. However, further research is needed in large-scale production of these peptides, efficient isolation methods, interactions with functional foods and other pharmaceuticals, and their ease to digestion in in vivo studies and safety to validate the health benefits of these peptides.

Halorubrum aethiopicum sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon isolated from commercial rock salt.

A novel extremely halophilic archaeon, designated SAH-A6T, was isolated from a sample of commercial rock salt in Ethiopia. Cells of SAH-A6T were aerobic and pleomorphic. The strain was able to grow at concentrations of 15-30 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 20-25 % NaCl), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in a temperature range of 30-55 °C (optimum 37-45 °C). Mg2+ was not required for growth of SAH-A6T cells. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain SAH-A6T was closely related to Halorubrum halodurans Cb34T (99.1 %), Halorubrum rubrum YC87T (98.9 %), Halorubrum aquaticum EN-2T (98.7 %), Halorubrum cibi JCM 15757T (98.4 %), Halorubrum luteum CGSA15T (97.3 %), Halorubrum lipolyticum 9-3T (97.1 %), Halorubrum tibetense 8W8T (97.1 %), Halorubrum kocurii JCM 1478T (97.1 %), Halorubrum halophilum B8T (97.0 %) and Halorubrum persicum C49T (97.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the rpoB' gene sequences showed that strain SAH-A6T was closely related to Hrr. halodurans Cb34T (99.7 %), Hrr. aquaticum JCM 14031T (99.3 %) and other members of the genus Halorubrum (<99.0 %). The DNA G+C content of the strain was 68.0 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain SAH-A6T and the most closely related members of the genus Halorubrum were below 55 %, suggesting that the new isolate constitutes a different genospecies. On the bases of chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and genotypic data, strain SAH-A6T (=KCCM 43215T=JCM 31519T) represents a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Halorubrumaethiopicum sp. nov. is proposed.

Larvivorous fish for preventing malaria transmission.

Adult female Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. Some fish species eat mosquito larvae and pupae. In disease control policy documents, the World Health Organization (WHO) includes biological control of malaria vectors by stocking ponds, rivers, and water collections near where people live with larvivorous fish to reduce Plasmodium parasite transmission. In the past, the Global Fund has financed larvivorous fish programmes in some countries, and, with increasing efforts in eradication of malaria, policymakers may return to this option. Therefore, we assessed the evidence base for larvivorous fish programmes in malaria control.

DHEAS patterning across childhood in three sub-Saharan populations: Associations with age, sex, ethnicity, and cortisol.

Hormones have many roles in human ontogeny, including the timing of life history 'switch points' across development. Limited hormonal data exist from non-Western children, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of the diversity of life history patterning. This cross-sectional study examines dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) production in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and cortisol concentrations, as well as average age of adrenarche, among Aka and Ngandu children of the Central African Republic and Sidama children of Ethiopia.

Lipid Profile in Tuberculosis Patients with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

Understanding whether the preceding low lipid profile leads to active tuberculosis (TB) or active TB leads to low lipid profile is crucial.

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tuberculosis in Prisons Settings of East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

Tuberculosis, mainly in prisoners, is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where there is no medical screening during prison admission. This creates scarcity of TB data in such settings.

Long-term Outcome of Antiretroviral Treatment in Patients With and Without Concomitant Tuberculosis Receiving Health Center-Based Care-Results From a Prospective Cohort Study.

In order to increase treatment coverage, antiretroviral treatment (ART) is provided through primary health care in low-income high-burden countries, where tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is common. We investigated the long-term outcome of health center-based ART, with regard to concomitant TB.

Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia.

To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) among students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia and to identify preventable and treatable causes.

Draft genome sequences of Bradyrhizobium shewense sp. nov. ERR11T and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T.

The type strain of the prospective 10.1601/nm.30737 sp. nov. ERR11T, was isolated from a nodule of the leguminous tree Erythrina brucei native to Ethiopia. The type strain 10.1601/nm.1463 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+10071 T, was isolated from the nodules of Lespedeza cuneata in Beijing, China. The genomes of ERR11T and 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+10071 T were sequenced by DOE-JGI and deposited at the DOE-JGI genome portal as well as at the European Nucleotide Archive. The genome of ERR11T is 9,163,226 bp in length and has 102 scaffolds, containing 8548 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes. The 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+10071 T genome is arranged in 108 scaffolds and consists of 8,201,522 bp long and 7776 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes. Both genomes contain symbiotic genes, which are homologous to the genes found in the complete genome sequence of 10.1601/nm.24498 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+110 T. The genes encoding for nodulation and nitrogen fixation in ERR11T showed high sequence similarity with homologous genes found in the draft genome of peanut-nodulating 10.1601/nm.27386 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DLMG+26795 T. The nodulation genes nolYA-nodD2D1YABCSUIJ-nolO-nodZ of ERR11T and 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+10071 T are organized in a similar way to the homologous genes identified in the genomes of 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+110 T, 10.1601/nm.25806 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+4 and 10.1601/nm.1462 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+05525. The genomes harbor hupSLCFHK and hypBFDE genes that code the expression of hydrogenase, an enzyme that helps rhizobia to uptake hydrogen released by the N2-fixation process and genes encoding denitrification functions napEDABC and norCBQD for nitrate and nitric oxide reduction, respectively. The genome of ERR11T also contains nosRZDFYLX genes encoding nitrous oxide reductase. Based on multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes, the novel species, which contains eight strains formed a unique group close to the 10.1601/nm.25806 branch. Genome Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) calculated between the genome sequences of ERR11T and closely related sequences revealed that strains belonging to 10.1601/nm.25806 branch (10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+4 and 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+15615), were the closest strains to the strain ERR11T with 95.2% ANI. Type strain ERR11T showed the highest DDH predicted value with 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+15615 (58.5%), followed by 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+4 (53.1%). Nevertheless, the ANI and DDH values obtained between ERR11T and 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+15615 or 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+4 were below the cutoff values (ANI ≥ 96.5%; DDH ≥ 70%) for strains belonging to the same species, suggesting that ERR11T is a new species. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic analysis, ANI and DDH values, we formally propose the creation of 10.1601/nm.30737 sp. nov. with strain ERR11T (10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DHAMBI+3532 T=10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DLMG+30162 T) as the type strain.

If Channel as an Emerging Therapeutic Target for Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review of Current Evidence and Controversies.

In 2015, non-communicable diseases accounted for 39.5 million (70%) of the total 56.4 million deaths that occurred globally, of which 17.7 million (45%) were due to cardiovascular diseases. An elevated heart rate is considered to be one of the independent predictors and markers of future cardiovascular diseases. A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies have found that atherosclerosis, heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, and arrhythmia are linked to elevated heart rate. Although there are established drugs to reduce the heart rate, these drugs have undesirable side effects. Hence, the development of new drugs that selectively inhibit the heart rate is considered necessary. In the search for such drugs, almost four decades ago the If channel, also known as the "funny channel," emerged as a novel site for the selective inhibition of heart rate. These If channels, with a mixed sodium and potassium inward current, have been identified in the sinoatrial node of the heart, which mediates the slow diastolic depolarization of the pacemaker of the spontaneous rhythmic cells. The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) subfamily is primarily articulated in the heart and neurons that are encoded by a family of four genes (HCN1-4) and they identify the funny channel. Of these, HCN-4 is the principal protein in the sinoatrial node. Currently, funny channel inhibition is being targeted for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and stroke. A selective If channel inhibitor named ivabradine was discovered for clinical use in treating heart failure and coronary artery disease. However, inconsistencies regarding the clinical effects of ivabradine have been reported in the literature, suggesting the need for a rigorous analysis of the available evidence. The objective of this review is therefore to assess the current advances in targeting the If channel associated with ivabradine and related challenges.

Prevalence of chronic ear disease among HIV+ children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

To determine the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV+, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated children and compare this to the prevalence in healthy children of similar age living in a similar setting.

Mapping the evidence on pharmacological interventions for non-affective psychosis in humanitarian non-specialised settings: a UNHCR clinical guidance.

Populations exposed to humanitarian emergencies are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, including new onset, relapse and deterioration of psychotic disorders. Inadequate care for this group may lead to human rights abuses and even premature death. The WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG), and its adaptation for humanitarian settings (mhGAP-HIG), provides guidance for management of mental health conditions by non-specialised healthcare professionals. However, the pharmacological treatment of people with non-affective psychosis who do not improve with mhGAP first-line antipsychotic treatments is not addressed. In order to fill this gap, UNHCR has formulated specific guidance on the second-line pharmacological treatment of non-affective psychosis in humanitarian, non-specialised settings.

Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharges into the Industrial Zone of Rivers: A Sub-Saharan Countries View, Ethiopia.

Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

Bivariate longitudinal data analysis: a case of hypertensive patients at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Longitudinal data are often collected to study the evolution of biomedical markers. The study of the joint evolution of response variables concerning hypertension over time was the aim of this paper. A hospital based retrospective data were collected from September 2014 to August 2015 to identify factors that affect hypertensive. The joint mixed effect model with unstructured covariance was fitted. A total of 172 patients screened for antihypertensive drugs treated were longitudinally considered from Felege Hiwot referral.

Hope for the Future But Fear the Risk of Stigma: Ethiopian Family Caregivers' Lived Experience of Caring for Their HIV Positive Child Two Years After Starting Antiretroviral Treatment.

Family caregivers are believed to be the primary source of support for HIV-affected children. There is limited evidence about practices of support for caregivers, to strengthen them and to enhance the welfare of HIV positive children, especially in African settings. Our aim was therefore to illuminate caregivers' lived experiences of caring for a child in Ethiopia 2 years after the child was enrolled in antiretroviral therapy. Qualitative interviews with 18 family caregivers of 18 children were performed and analyzed using an inductive design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The family caregivers' lived experience was shown in two main themes comprising "lifelong medication gives hope for the future" and "support challenged by the fear of stigma." The family caregivers experienced hope and dreams for the future as they saw their child as healthy and they had regained normality in life after the child's diagnosis. The caregivers still feared the disclosure of the child's diagnosis, which gave rise to conflicts with the child, the family, and society. Good quality support from the healthcare staff lightened their burdens. Further studies are recommended on the strategies of stigma reduction and developing need-specific modalities to support caregivers in the community.

Impact of male partner involvement on modern contraceptive use among married or partnered women in developing countries: a protocol for systematic review.

The objective of this systematic review is to explore the impact of male partner involvement on modern contraceptive use among married or partnered women of reproductive age in developing countries. Specifically, does male partner involvement.

Clinical Profile and Outcome of Pediatrics Tetanus: The Experience of a Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia.

Tetanus is an acute vaccine preventable illness manifested by neuromuscular dysfunction due to a potent exotoxin, tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. It is a common health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess clinical profile and outcome of Pediatrics tetanus in a referral hospital, South Ethiopia.

Knowledge Management Implementation and the Tools Utilized in Healthcare for Evidence-Based Decision Making: A Systematic Review.

Healthcare is a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management and the tools to manage knowledge in healthcare sector are gaining attention. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate knowledge management implementation and knowledge management tools used in healthcare for informed decision making.

Assessment of Barriers to Reproductive Health Service Utilization among Bench Maji Zone Pastoralist Communities.

The reproductive health (RH) needs and challenges in pastoralist area are different from elsewhere. People in this area live in very traditional settings and adhere strongly to traditional cultural values and beliefs. Some of these beliefs are known to lead to poor sexual and RH outcomes. Thus, the objective of the study was to identify barriers of RH service utilization among pastoralist communities of Bench Maji zone.

Evaluation of Parasitological Methods for the Detection of Strongyloides Stercoralis among Individuals in Selected Health Institutions In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Strongyloides stercoralis causes chronic intestinal infection that may lead to disseminated disease during immunosuppression. Therefore, efficient diagnostic methods are essential to detect silent and latent infections. The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of parasitological methods for the detection of S. stercoralis infection.

Utilization Status of Electronic Information Sources (EIS) for HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment in Specialized Teaching Hospitals of Ethiopia, 2016.

According to the World Health Organization, the use of Electronic Information Sources (EIS) in healthcare is not merely about application of technology, but it is also a foundation to provide higher quality clinical care. This study was aimed to assess Utilization Status of EIS for HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment in specialized teaching hospitals of Ethiopia, 2016.

Determinants of Podoconiosis, a Case Control Study.

Podoconiosis is a non-filarial swelling of lower extremity endemic in tropical regions, North America and India. The etiology and pathophysiology of the disease remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of Podoconiosis.

Assessment of Pediatrics Radiation Dose from Routine X-Ray Examination at Jimma University Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

Given the fact that children are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults, with an increased risk of developing radiation-induced cancer, special care should be taken when they undergo X-ray examinations. The main aim of the current study was to determine Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) to pediatric patients arising from routine x-ray examination in the Radiology Department of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH).

Five Years Malaria Trend Analysis in Woreta Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia.

An estimated 68% of the Ethiopian population, living in 75% of the landmass, is at risk of contracting malaria at any time making it the leading public health problem. The temporal analysis of malaria data could be important to evaluate the performance of malaria prevention programmes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the trend of malaria at Woreta Health Center (WHC) over a period of five years.

Agreement between Direct Fluorescent Microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen Concentration Techniques in Detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia.

The sensitivity of smear microscopy for diagnosis of tuberculosis might be improved through treatment of sputum with sodium hypochlorite and application of fluorescent microscopy. This study aimed to determine the agreement between direct Fluorescent Microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen concentration technique by their ability of detecting acid fast bacilli in resource poor settings.

The Effect of Psychosocial Factors and Patients' Perception of Tuberculosis Treatment Non-Adherence in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Although there are several studies reported on factors affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment non-adherence, there is information gap on psychosocial and patients' perceptions aspects. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perceptions on TB treatment non-adherence in Ethiopia.

Analysis and Economic Implication of X-Ray Film Reject in Diagnostic Radiology Department of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.

Patients usually undergo repeated X-ray examinations after their initial X-ray radiographs are rejected due to poor image quality. This subjects the patients to excess radiation exposure and extra cost.It is therefore investigating the magnitude and causes of reject is mandatory. This study aimed to assess the reject rate of X-ray films and its economic implication in order to obtain information for further recommendations on image quality, cost and radiation exposure.

Intestinal Parasitosis and Their Associated Factors among People Living with HIV at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest-Ethiopia.

Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.