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Ethiopia - Top 30 Publications

Self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia.

This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia.

Thinking locally: Environmental reconstruction of Middle and Later Stone Age archaeological sites in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Zambia based on ungulate stable isotopes.

Our knowledge of the Pleistocene environments of Africa consists primarily of data at a scale too coarse to capture the full habitat variation important to hominins 'on the ground.' These environments are complex, highly variable, and poorly understood. As such, data from individual sites are a needed addition to our current paleoenvironmental reconstructions. This study offers a site-based approach focusing on stable isotope analyses of fossil faunal tooth enamel from three archaeological sites in tropical Africa. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope data are reported from the sites of Porc Epic, Ethiopia, Lukenya Hill, Kenya, and Kalemba Rockshelter, Zambia. Stable isotope data from tooth enamel are used to measure two environmental variables: (1) aridity based on oxygen isotope composition and (2) dietary reconstructions of fossil ungulates based on the relative proportions of C3 browse and C4 graze in the diet. These data allow for a preliminary assessment of existing models that attempt to explain the behavioral and technological variation characteristic of the transition between the Middle and Later Stone Ages. Results indicate spatial and temporal variation in aridity and phytogeography in tropical Africa during the Pleistocene, suggesting that no single model is likely to provide an explanation for the transition at all sites across Africa.

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV-infected patients and food animals and direct genotyping of T. gondii isolates, Southern Ghana.

Toxoplasma gondii is of public health and veterinary importance causing severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals including HIV/AIDS patients and in congenital cases and animals. There is limited information on the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in humans, particularly HIV patients and food animals and the parasite genotypes in Ghana. A total of 394 HIV-infected patients from three hospitals were screened for T. gondii anti-IgG and IgM using ELISA. DNAs from blood samples of seropositve participants and 95 brain tissues of food animals were PCR assayed to detect Toxoplasma gra6. DNA positive samples were genotyped using multilocus nested polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism at 10 loci: sag1, alt.sag2, sag3, btub, gra6, l358, c22-8, c29-2, pk1, and apico. The overall seroprevalence was 74.37% (293/394). Toxoplasma DNAs were detected in 3.07% of the seropositive participants and 9.47% of the animals. Six of the human DNA positive samples were partly typed at sag3: 33.33, 50, and 16.67% isolates had type I, II, and III alleles, respectively. All nine isolates from food animals typed at nine loci except apico were atypical: six isolates were identical to ToxoDB #41 and #145, and one was identical to TgCkBrRj2 all identified in Brazil. The genotype of two isolates has not been reported previously and was named as TgCtGh1. T. gondii seroprevalence is high among the HIV-infected individuals with T. gondii circulating in Ghana being genetically diverse.

Risk of Ocular Hypertension in Adults with Noninfectious Uveitis.

To describe the risk and risk factors for ocular hypertension (OHT) in adults with noninfectious uveitis.

Recognition of depression by primary care clinicians in rural Ethiopia.

Depression is a common health condition affecting up to a third of patients attending primary care, where most of the care for people with depression is provided. Adequate recognition of depression is the critical step in the path to effective care, particularly in low income countries. As part of the Programme for Improving Mental healthcare (PRIME), a project supporting the implementation of integrated mental healthcare in primary care, we evaluated the level of recognition of depression by clinicians working in primary care in rural Ethiopia prior to in service training. We hypothesised that the detection rate of depression will be under 10% and that detection would be affected by gender, education and severity of depression.

Comparative proteomic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis wildtype and dprA null mutant strains links DNA processing to pilus biogenesis.

DNA processing chain A (DprA) is a DNA binding protein which is ubiquitous in bacteria, and is required for DNA transformation to various extents among bacterial species. However, the interaction of DprA with competence and recombination proteins is poorly understood. Therefore, the proteomes of whole Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) wildtype and dprA mutant cells were compared. Such a comparative proteomic analysis increases our understanding of the interactions of DprA with other Nm components and may elucidate its potential role beyond DNA processing in transformation.

Inequalities in health care utilization for common childhood illnesses in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey.

Globally, 5.9 million children under the age of five died in 2015. More than half and almost one-third of those deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, respectively. Diarrhea and Pneumonia, which were the major causes of the problem, accounted for more than two million deaths of the world's youngest children every year. Like other developing countries, child health services utilization is low in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to identify the determinant factors for the inequalities in medical treatment seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Ethiopia.

Foot length, chest and head circumference measurements in detection of Low birth weight neonates in Mekelle, Ethiopia: a hospital based cross sectional study.

Low birth weight (Birth weight < 2500 g) is a leading cause of prenatal and neonatal deaths. The early identification of Low birth weight (LBW) neonates is essential for any comprehensive initiative to improve their chance of survival. However, a large proportion of births in developing countries take place at home and birth weight statistics are not available. Therefore, there is a need to develop simple, inexpensive and practical methods to identify low birth weight (LBW) neonates soon after birth.

Prevalence and associated factors of tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus comorbidity: A systematic review.

The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major global public health concern. There is mounting evidence from different countries on the burden of TB and DM comorbidity. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the existing evidence on prevalence and associated/risk factors of TBDM comorbidity at global and regional levels.

Impact of adverse drug events and treatment satisfaction on patient adherence with antihypertensive medication - a study in ambulatory patients.

To evaluate the impact of adverse drug events (ADEs) and treatment satisfaction on antihypertensive medication adherence.

Kinship, nomadism, and humanitarian aid among Somalis in Ethiopia.

This paper draws on extended ethnographic and health policy research in eastern Ethiopia to reconsider kinship and nomadism among Somalis, as both of these cultural features transform in the contexts of recurrent humanitarian crises and episodic relief operations. The emergence and importance of new patterns of travel and migration among Somalis in Ethiopia reveal significant changes in the configurations and enactments of Somali kinship, on which many Somalis' mobility depends. Conversely, an analysis of Somalis' dynamic sub-clan groupings and geographically dispersed kinship networks also highlights emergent patterns of mobility and migration that enable access to training opportunities and employment with relief organisations, as well as to distributions of humanitarian aid. Based on these findings, this paper argues that kinship and nomadism-both long central to Somalis' identities in Ethiopia-remain interdependent, coevolved, and key to their resilience and livelihoods in the face of recurrent crises and intermittent humanitarian responses.

Service user and care giver involvement in mental health system strengthening in Nepal: a qualitative study on barriers and facilitating factors.

Service user and caregiver involvement has become an increasingly common strategy to enhance mental health outcomes, and has been incorporated in the mental healthpolicies of many developed nations. However, this practice is non-existent or fragmented in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Instances of service user and caregiver involvement have been rising slowly in a few LMICs, but are rarely described in the literature. Very little is known about the context of user and caregiver participation in mental health system strengthening processes in a low-income, disaster- and conflict-affected state such as Nepal.

Recent achievements obtained by chloroplast transformation.

Chloroplasts play a great role for sustained wellbeing of life on the planet. They have the power and raw materials that can be used as sophisticated biological factories. They are rich in energy as they have lots of pigment-protein complexes capable of collecting sunlight, in sugar produced by photosynthesis and in minerals imported from the plant cell. Chloroplast genome transformation offers multiple advantages over nuclear genome which among others, include: integration of the transgene via homologus recombination that enables to eliminate gene silencing and position effect, higher level of transgene expression resulting into higher accumulations of foreign proteins, and significant reduction in environmental dispersion of the transgene due to maternal inheritance which helps to minimize the major critic of plant genetic engineering. Chloroplast genetic engineering has made fruit full progresses in the development of plants resistance to various stresses, phytoremediation of toxic metals, and production of vaccine antigens, biopharmaceuticals, biofuels, biomaterials and industrial enzymes. Although successful results have been achieved, there are still difficulties impeding full potential exploitation and expansion of chloroplast transformation technology to economical plants. These include, lack of species specific regulatory sequences, problem of selection and shoot regeneration, and massive expression of foreign genes resulting in phenotypic alterations of transplastomic plants. The aim of this review is to critically recapitulate the latest development of chloroplast transformation with special focus on the different traits of economic interest.

Assessment of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in Orthopaedics and Traumatology Surgical Unit of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa.

Prophylactic antimicrobials have a starring role in prevention of surgical site infection. This study assesses the practice of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) and development of surgical site infection (SSI) based on patient chart review in patients who underwent surgery in the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Surgical Unit of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital (TASH).

Household level spatio-temporal analysis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Ethiopia.

The global decline of malaria burden and goals for elimination has led to an increased interest in the fine-scale epidemiology of malaria. Micro-geographic heterogeneity of malaria infection could have implications for designing targeted small-area interventions.

Determinants of delayed care seeking for TB suggestive symptoms in Seru district, Oromiya region, Ethiopia: a community based unmatched case-control study.

Early tuberculosis (TB) case finding and adequate chemotherapy are essential for interrupting disease transmission and preventing complications due to delayed care seeking. This study was undertaken in order to provide insights into the magnitude and determinants of patient delay.

Knowledge, attitude, and practice about epilepsy among teachers at Ethio-National School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Epilepsy is one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders and is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its dramatic clinical manifestations, has resulted in a strong social stigma. Since teachers have a key role in society as educators, the purpose of this study was to find out the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards epilepsy among school teachers.

Correction: Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159083.].

Community Health Volunteers in Primary Healthcare in Rural Uganda: Factors Influencing Performance.

Community health volunteers (CHVs) play an integral role in primary healthcare. Several countries rely on CHV programs as a major element in improving access to care and attaining universal health coverage. However, their performance has been heterogeneous and at times context-specific, and influenced by multiple factors. We describe the socio-demographic and workplace characteristics affecting CHVs' performance in a public health program in rural western Uganda.

Immunological and hematological reference intervals among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia.

Pregnancy is a state characterized by profound physiological hematological changes. However, hematological reference intervals being used in clinical practice in Ethiopia are derived from nonlocal general populations, despite the significant variations reported previously. The aim of this study was to determine the immunological and hematological reference intervals in healthy pregnancy among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia.

Essential neonatal care utilization and associated factors among mothers in public health facilities of Aksum Town, North Ethiopia, 2016.

Globally, neonatal death accounts about 44% of child death in 2013. Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal death. Worldwide, more than 43% of deaths among under five year children is contributed by neonates. Half of the neonatal death occur in the first day of life. Recommendations about newborn care practices may conflict with local beliefs and practices. So, it is important to understand the existing newborn care practice and factors affecting it in order to take interventions so as to decrease neonatal death.

Body composition at birth and height at 2 years: A prospective cohort study among children in Jimma, Ethiopia.

Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown.

Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children under Five in Southwest Ethiopia.

Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is found to play an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we assessed the nasopharyngeal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of S. pneumoniae among children under five. A total of 361 children under five attending the outpatient department of Shanan Gibe Hospital in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia were enrolled from June to September 2014. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected using sterile plastic applicator rayon tipped swab and inoculated on tryptone soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 5 µg/mL gentamycin. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the modified disk diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. pneumoniae carriage was 43.8% (158/361) among children under five. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, penicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin was observed in 53.2% (84/158), 43.7% (69/158), 36.1% (57/158), 13.3% (21/158) and 8.9% (14/158) of isolates respectively. Multidrug resistance was seen in 17.7% (28/158) of isolates. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, children living with sibling(s) < 5 years old (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.798; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.169-2.766) and malnutrition (AOR = 2.065; 95% CI, 1.239-3.443) were significantly associated with S. pneumoniae carriage. A high nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was observed among children under five in Southwest Ethiopia. There should be a strategy to prevent S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization and identify the appropriate antibiotic to the individual child.

Distributed Learning: Revitalizing Anesthesiology Training in Resource-Limited Ethiopia.

Ethiopia has a significant paucity of available health-care workers. Despite the increasing number of medical schools, there are not enough physician instructors. Furthermore, availability and standardization of postgraduate training are lacking. Modalities of e-learning have been shown to be successful when used to impart medical education in other resource-limited countries. The Emory University and Addis Ababa University (AAU) Departments of Anesthesiology have formed a collaboration with the intent of improving the AAU Anesthesiology residency program, one of two postgraduate training programs for anesthesiology in Ethiopia.

Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilization among HIV/AIDS Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy at a University Hospital in Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

The objective of this study was to assess traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) utilization pattern among HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Materials and Methods. Data on sociodemographic profile and clinical and TCAM utilization were collected using a structured, pretested questionnaire from April 01 to May 28, 2014, through interviews with patients. Data on CD4 count, HIV stage, and ART regimen were collected from patient records. Analysis was conducted descriptively using SPSS version 20. Results. Of the 300 participants, 43.7% reported using TCAM, with the largest proportion of them from religious institutions (churches/mosques) (41.22%), followed by home prepared (32.82%) and traditional healers (16.03%). The leading forms of TCAM used were spiritual and herbal therapies constituting 56.49% and 36.64% of the patients, respectively. The most frequently used herbal products included Nigella sativa (22.92%) and Moringa oleifera (20.83%). Most of the patients (73.30%) using TCAM reported improvement in their conditions. Conclusions. TCAM utilization among HIV/AIDS patients on ART was common and different sources and types were used alongside ART, with improvement reported by most. Further research is needed to identify CAM therapies which may be used as adjunct treatments among these patients.

Ethnopharmacologic survey of medicinal plants used to treat human diseases by traditional medical practitioners in Dega Damot district, Amhara, Northwestern Ethiopia.

One of the services that plants provide for human beings is their wider medicinal application. Although it is not fully assessed, the practice and wider use of traditional medicine is frequent in Ethiopia. Studies conducted previously are confined to the perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. A total of 45 informants were selected purposefully from the study area. For collecting the data, semi-structured interviewees, observation and field walks were employed from August 10 to September 30/2014. To summarize the information, descriptive statistical methods were applied.

Assessing the status of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and associated factors in Wolaita and Dawro Zones School Adolescents, southern Ethiopia.

Iodine deficiency is the major preventable cause of irreversible mental retardation in the world. Ethiopia is a country with high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders which continue to affect a large number of the country's population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder in Wolaita and Dawuro zones.

SSER: Species specific essential reactions database.

Essential reactions are vital components of cellular networks. They are the foundations of synthetic biology and are potential candidate targets for antimetabolic drug design. Especially if a single reaction is catalyzed by multiple enzymes, then inhibiting the reaction would be a better option than targeting the enzymes or the corresponding enzyme-encoding gene. The existing databases such as BRENDA, BiGG, KEGG, Bio-models, Biosilico, and many others offer useful and comprehensive information on biochemical reactions. But none of these databases especially focus on essential reactions. Therefore, building a centralized repository for this class of reactions would be of great value.

Educational status as determinant of men's knowledge about vasectomy in Dangila town administration, Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia.

Although vasectomy is effective and less expensive contraceptive method, only few men are using it in Africa. The main reason for low level use may be low knowledge about vasectomy among men. Only few studies tried to investigate level of knowledge of vasectomy among married men in Ethiopia. But these studies have limitations in measuring knowledge. This study was therefore designed to assess knowledge of vasectomy among married men in Dangila town.

Prevalence and associated factors of common mental disorders among Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East and South Africa.

Ethiopian migrants to the Middle East and South Africa experience a range of problems at various stages of their migration including overwork, sleep deprivation, denial of food, emotional abuse, difficulty adapting to the host culture, salary denial, sexual abuse, labor exploitation, confiscation of their travel documents, confinement, denial of medication, lack of access to legal service and degrading attitude by employers, traffickers and smugglers. These experiences can be associated with different types of mental disorders. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and socio-demographic and other migration related associated factors among Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East and South Africa.