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Hyaluronic acid - Top 30 Publications

Finite Element Design Optimization of a Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel Drug Delivery Device for Improved Retention.

Drug-loaded hydrogel devices are emerging as an effective means of localized and sustained drug delivery for the treatment of corneal conditions and injuries. One such device uses a novel, thiolated crosslinked carboxymethylated, hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (CMHA-S) film to deliver drug to the ocular surface upon placement into the inferior fornix of the eye. While proven to be very safe and effective, the CMHA-S film tends to dislodge in the highly-lubricated ocular environment, thereby reducing drug delivery efficiency and drug efficacy. In this study, we used a three-dimensional computational finite element model of the eye to determine the effect of geometry and surface friction on film retention in the inferior fornix, and to evaluate multiple geometrical film designs. Retention of the film was dependent on geometry and on the friction ratio of the film to the eyelid and globe. These effects were interactive. When the ratio of friction on the lid side to the globe side of the film was low, geometry played a large role in the film's displacement. When this ratio was high, differences in displacement due to geometry were negligible. The optimal relationship of friction between the film and its eyelid-side and globe-side surfaces was found to be linear with at least 1.4 times greater friction required on the eyelid-side for immobilization. A geometry similar to a half cylinder was found to be most effective with this friction ratio in retaining the film in the inferior fornix and in contact with the globe. Other geometries will likely require other friction ratios. In summary, CMHA-S film retention can be achieved through simple modifications of geometry and manipulation of surface interaction with the eye.

Effect of erythrocyte-sperm separation medium on nuclear, acrosomal, and membrane maturity parameters in human sperm.

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether erythrocyte-sperm separation medium (ESSM) has effects on human sperm motility, morphology, viability, membrane maturity, acrosome integrity, and nuclear attributes before and after cryopreservation.

Non-aesthetic indications for periocular hyaluronic acid filler treatment: a review.

Dermal fillers have been in use for many years for aesthetic rejuvenation of the face. More recently, however, fillers have been increasingly used as an alternative to traditional surgical procedures for non-aesthetic indications. These indications include lagophthalmos, eyelid malpositions and orbital volume deficiency. The advantages of these filler injections are multiple: minimally invasive, repeatable, titratable and even reversible (depending on the product used). We review the current literature of functional uses of filler injections as mentioned above and evaluate the safety profile and efficacy of filler injections for this purpose.

Hyaluronan-decorated liposomes as drug delivery systems for cutaneous administration.

The work aimed to evaluate the feasibility to design hyaluronic acid (HA) decorated flexible liposomes to enhance the skin penetration of nifedipine. Egg phosphatidylcholine (e-PC) based transfersomes (Tween 80) and transethosomes (ethanol) were prepared. HA was reacted with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (HA-DPPE) and two molar ratios (0.5 and 3%) of conjugate with respect to e-PC were tested. The presence of HA significantly increased the packing order of the bilayer (as verified by differential scanning calorimetry), reducing both the encapsulation efficiency and the flexibility of the decorated liposomes in a dose-dependent manner. In fact, at the highest HA content the constant of deformability (K, N/mm) increased and the carriers remained on the skin surface after topical application. The stiffening effect of HA was counterbalanced by the addition of ethanol as fluidizing agent that allowed to maintain the highest HA concentration, meanwhile reducing the K value of the vesicles. HA-transethosomes allowed a suitable nifedipine permeation (J ∼ 30 ng/cm(2)/h) and significantly improved the drug penetration, favouring the formation of a drug depot in the epidermis. These data suggest the potentialities of HA-transethosomes as drug delivery systems intended for the treatment of cutaneous pathologies and underline the importance of studying the effect of surface functionalization on carrier deformability to rationalize the design of such systems.

Lymphocytic thrombophilic arteritis: A distinct inflammatory type I interferon and C5b-9 mediated subcutaneous endovasculitis.

Lymphocytic thrombophilic arteritis is a recently recognized subcuticular larger vessel vasculitis characterized by striking vascular luminal thrombosis.

Hyaluronic Acid-Based Micelles as Ocular Platform to Modulate the Loading, Release, and Corneal Permeation of Corticosteroids.

The aim of this work is to prepare hyaluronic acid-based micelles as a platform to load corticosteroid drugs and to improve their corneal permeation after administration on the ocular surface. Three amphiphilic derivatives of hyaluronic acid (HA) are synthesized using different amounts of hexadecylamine (C16 -NH2 ). HAC16 a, HAC16 b, and HAC16 c derivatives are able to form micelles by the cosolvent evaporation method and to entrap corticosteroids (dexamethasone, triamcinolone, triamcinolone acetonide). HAC16 a and HAC16 b micelles show the best results in terms of drug loading and particle size. They are also able to improve drug release compared to free drug solution or suspension. In addition, HAC16 b micelles show an optimal mucoadhesion and compatibility with human corneal epithelial cells. In vitro and ex vivo permeation studies of drug-loaded HAC16 b micelles are performed to understand the ability of these micelles to act as penetration and/or permeation enhancers.

MMP-2 Sensitive HA end-conjugated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers via click reaction to enhance drug penetration into solid tumor.

Currently, the limited tumor penetration of nanoparticles remains a major challenge of cancer nanomedicine. Herein, we propose a size-shrinkable, drug delivery system based on a polysaccharide-modified dendrimer with tumor microenvironment responsiveness for the first time to our knowledge, which was formed by conjugating the terminal glucose of hyaluronic acid (HA) to the superficial amidogen of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM), using a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-cleavable peptide (PLGLAG) via click reaction. These nanoparticles had an initial size of ∼200 nm, but once deposited in the presence of MMP-2, they underwent a dramatic and sharp size transition and dissociated into their dendrimer building blocks (~10 nm in diameter) due to cleavage of PLGLAG. This rapid size-switching feature not only facilitates nanoparticle extravasation and accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, but also allows faster nanoparticle diffusion and more efficient tumor penetration. We have further carried out comparative studies of MMP-2 -sensitive macromolecules (HA-pep-PAMAM) and MMP-2-insensitive macromolecules (HA-PAMAM) with similar size, surface charge, and chemical composition in both monolayer cells and multicellular spheroids. The results demonstrated that the enzyme-triggered size switching is a viable strategy for improving drug penetration and therapeutic efficacy. Meanwhile, macromolecule based nanoparticles with size-variable characteristics, not only promote drug penetration, but they also can be used as gene delivery systems, suggesting great potential as nano-delivery stystems.

Sustained release of stem cell factor in a double network hydrogel for ex vivo culture of cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells.

Stem cell factor (SCF) is considered as a commonly indispensable cytokine for proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which is used in large dosages during ex vivo culture. The work presented here aimed to reduce the consumption of SCF by sustained release but still support cells proliferation and maintain the multipotency of HSCs.

Atypical Chemokine Receptor 1 polymorphism cannot be used as an indicator of liver fibrosis progression in Hepatitis C virus positive patients.

Atypical chemokine receptor 1(ACKR1) represents an atypical chemokine receptor that can bind promiscuously to various chemokines. Chemokines play a crucial role to recruit leukocyte subsets migration through the endothelium and into liver against the virus during the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Most HCV positive patients can lead to liver fibrosis. Hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), collagen IV(C-IV) and amino-terminal pro-peptide of Type-III pro-collagen (PIII NP) are indices of the extent of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ACKR1 polymorphism and liver fibrosis with these four serum liver markers in HCV positive patients.

Hyaluronic acid 35 normalizes TLR4 signaling in Kupffer cells from ethanol-fed rats via regulation of microRNA291b and its target Tollip.

TLR4 signaling in hepatic macrophages is increased after chronic ethanol feeding. Treatment of hepatic macrophages after chronic ethanol feeding with small-specific sized hyaluronic acid 35 (HA35) normalizes TLR4 signaling; however, the mechanisms for HA35 action are not completely understood. Here we used Next Generation Sequencing of microRNAs to identify negative regulators of TLR4 signaling reciprocally modulated by ethanol and HA35 in hepatic macrophages. Eleven microRNAs were up-regulated by ethanol; only 4 microRNAs, including miR291b, were decreased by HA35. Bioinformatics analysis identified Tollip, a negative regulator of TLR4, as a target of miR291b. Tollip expression was decreased in hepatic macrophages from ethanol-fed rats, but treatment with HA35 or transfection with a miR291b hairpin inhibitor restored Tollip expression and normalized TLR4-stimulated TNFα expression. In peripheral blood monocytes isolated from patients with alcoholic hepatitis, expression of TNFα mRNA was robustly increased in response to challenge with lipopolysaccharide. Importantly, pre-treatment with HA35 reduced TNFα expression by more than 50%. Taken together, we have identified miR291b as a critical miRNA up-regulated by ethanol. Normalization of the miR291b → Tollip pathway by HA35 ameliorated ethanol-induced sensitization of TLR4 signaling in macrophages/monocytes, suggesting that HA35 may be a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of ALD.

Pellet coculture of osteoarthritic chondrocytes and infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cells with chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles promotes chondrogenic differentiation.

Cell source plays a key role in cell-based cartilage repair and regeneration. Recent efforts in cell coculture have attempted to combine the advantages and negate the drawbacks of the constituent cell types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chondrogenic outcome of articular chondrocytes (ACs) and infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in direct coculture.

Safety and tolerability of intradiscal implantation of combined autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyaluronic acid in patients with chronic discogenic low back pain: 1-year follow-up of a phase I study.

Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) offer potential as a therapeutic option for chronic discogenic low back pain (LBP) because of their immunomodulatory functions and capacity for cartilage differentiation. The goal of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability of a single intradiscal implantation of combined AT-MSCs and hyaluronic acid (HA) derivative in patients with chronic discogenic LBP.

pH/Ultrasound Dual-Responsive Gas Generator for Ultrasound Imaging-Guided Therapeutic Inertial Cavitation and Sonodynamic Therapy.

Herein, a pH/ultrasound dual-responsive gas generator is reported, which is based on mesoporous calcium carbonate (MCC) nanoparticles by loading sonosensitizer (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)) and modifying surface hyaluronic acid (HA). After pinpointing tumor regions with prominent targeting efficiency, HMME/MCC-HA decomposes instantaneously under the cotriggering of tumoral inherent acidic condition and ultrasound (US) irradiation, concurrently accompanying with CO2 generation and HMME release with spatial/temporal resolution. Afterward, the CO2 bubbling and bursting effect under US stimulus results in cavitation-mediated irreversible cell necrosis, as well as the blood vessel destruction to further occlude the blood supply, providing a "bystander effect." Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species generated from HMME can target the apoptotic pathways for effective sonodynamic therapy. Thus, the combination of apoptosis/necrosis with multimechanisms consequently results in a remarkable antitumor therapeutic efficacy, simultaneously minimizing the side effects on major organs. Moreover, the echogenic property of CO2 make the nanoplatform as a powerful ultrasound contrast agent to identify cancerous lesions. Based on the above findings, such all-in-one drug delivery platform of HMME/MCC-HA is utilized to provide the US imaging guidance for therapeutic inertial cavitation and sonodynamic therapy simultaneously, which highlights possibilities of advancing cancer theranostics in biomedical fields.

Differentiation potential of human adipose stem cells bioprinted with hyaluronic acid/gelatin-based bioink through microextrusion and visible light-initiated crosslinking.

Bioprinting has a great potential to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues and organs. In particular, the technique enables fabrication of 3D constructs containing stem cells while maintaining cell proliferation and differentiation abilities, which is believed to be promising in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the bioprinting technique to create hydrogel constructs consisting of hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin derivatives through irradiation by visible light to fabricate 3D constructs containing human adipose stem cells (hADSCs). The hydrogel was obtained from a solution of HA and gelatin derivatives possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties in the presence of ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridyl dication and sodium ammonium persulfate. hADSCs enclosed in the bioprinted hydrogel construct elongated and proliferated in the hydrogel. In addition, their differentiation potential was confirmed by examining the expression of pluripotency marker genes and cell surface marker proteins, and differentiation to adipocytes in adipogenic differentiation medium. Our results demonstrate the great potential of the bioprinting method and the resultant hADSC-laden HA/gelatin constructs for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Human hyaluronic acid synthase-1 promotes malignant transformation via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, micronucleation and centrosome abnormalities.

Human hyaluronic acid (HA) molecules are synthesized by three membrane spanning Hyaluronic Acid Synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3). Of the three, HAS1 is found to be localized more into the cytoplasmic space where it synthesizes intracellular HA. HA is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan, mainly present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the cell surface, but are also detected intracellularly. Accumulation of HA in cancer cells, the cancer-surrounding stroma, and ECM is generally considered an independent prognostic factors for patients. Higher HA production also correlates with higher tumor grade and more genetic heterogeneity in multiple cancer types which is known to contribute to drug resistance and results in treatment failure. Tumor heterogeneity and intra-tumor clonal diversity are major challenges for diagnosis and treatment. Identification of the driver pathway(s) that initiate genomic instability, tumor heterogeneity and subsequent phenotypic/clinical manifestations, are fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Thus far, no evidence was shown to correlate intracellular HA status (produced by HAS1) and the generation of genetic diversity in tumors.

Development of chondrocyte-seeded electrosprayed nanoparticles for repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

Due to limited self-healing capacity in cartilages, there is a rising demand for an innovative therapy that promotes chondrocyte proliferation while maintaining its biofunctionality for transplantation. Chondrocyte transplantation has received notable attention; however, the tendencies of cell de-differentiation and de-activation of biofunctionality have been major hurdles in its development, delaying this therapy from reaching the clinic. We believe it is due to the non-stimulative environment in the injured cartilage, which is unable to provide sustainable physical and biological supports to the newly grafted chondrocytes. Therefore, we evaluated whether providing an appropriate matrix to the transplanted chondrocytes could manipulate cell fate and recovery outcomes. Here, we proposed the development of electrosprayed nanoparticles composed of cartilage specific proteins, namely collagen type II and hyaluronic acid, for implantation with pre-seeded chondrocytes into articular cartilage defects. The fabricated nanoparticles were pre-cultured with chondrocytes before implantation into injured articular cartilage. The study revealed a significant potential for nanoparticles to support pre-seeded chondrocytes in cartilage repair, serving as a protein delivery system while improving the survival and biofunctionality of transplanted chondrocytes for prolonged period of time.

Determination of Cancer Cell Based pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles of Cross-linked Polydopamine by Fluorescence Sensing of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Coated Surfaces and Aqueous Solution.

The tumor-specific sensitive fluorescence sensing of cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity based on host-guest specific and pH sensitive by ere conducted on coated surfaces and aqueous states. Cross-linked fluorescent nanoparticles (C-FNP) consisting of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)/boronic acid (BA) and fluorescent hyaluronic acid [FNP(HA)] were conjugated to fluorescent polydopamine [FNP(pDA)]. To determine the quenching effect of this system, hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (NPP) to 4-nitrophenol (NP) was performed in the cavity of β-CD in the presence of ALP activated photo-induced electron transfer (PET) between NP and C-FNP. At an ALP level of 30-1000 U/L, NP caused off-emission of C-FNP because of their specific host-guest recognition. Fluorescence can be recovered under pH shock due to cleavage of the diol bond between β-CD and BA, resulting in release of NP from the fluorescent system. Sensitivity of the assays were assessed by confocal imaging not only in aqueous states, but also for the first time on coated surfaces in MDAMB-231 and MDCK cells. This novel system demonstrated high sensitivity to ALP through generation of good electron donor/acceptor pair during the PET process. Therefore, this fluorescence sensor system can be used to enhance ALP monitoring and cancer diagnosis on both coated surfaces and in aqueous states in clinical settings.

Intratumoral Delivery of Doxorubicin on Folate-Conjugated Graphene Oxide by In-Situ Forming Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel for Breast Cancer Therapy.

By taking advantage of the pH-sensitive drug release property of graphene oxide (GO) after intracellular uptake, we prepared folic acid (FA)-conjugated GO (GOFA) for targeted delivery of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). GOFA-DOX was further encapsulated in an injectable in-situ forming thermo-sensitive hyaluronic acid-chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HACPN) hydrogel for intratumoral delivery of DOX. As the degradation time of HACPN could be extended up to 3 weeks, intratumoral delivery of GOFA-DOX/HACPN could provide controlled and targeted delivery of DOX through slow degradation HACPN and subsequent cellular uptake of released GOFA-DOX by tumor cells through interactions of GOFA with folate receptors on the tumor cell's surface. GOFA nano-carrier and HACPN hydrogel were first characterized for the physico-chemical properties. The drug loading experiments indicated the best preparation condition of GOFA-DOX was by reacting 0.1 mg GOFA with 2 mg DOX. GOFA-DOX showed pH-responsive drug release with ~5 times more DOX released at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.4 while only limited DOX was released from GOFA-DOX/HACPN at pH 7.4. Intracellular uptake of GOFA by endocytosis and release of DOX from GOFA-DOX in vitro could be confirmed from transmission electron microscopic and confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis with MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The targeting effect of FA was revealed when intracellular uptake of GOFA was blocked by excess FA. This resulted in enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity as revealed from the lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of GOFA-DOX (7.3 μg/mL) compared with that of DOX (32.5 μg/mL) and GO-DOX (10 μg/mL). The flow cytometry analysis indicated higher apoptosis rates for cells treated with GOFA-DOX (30%) compared with DOX (8%) and GO-DOX (11%). Animal studies were carried out with subcutaneously implanted MCF-7 cells in BALB/c nude mice and subject to intratumoral administration of drugs. The relative tumor volumes of control (saline) and GOFA-DOX/HACPN groups at day 21 were 2.17 and 1.79 times that at day 0 with no significant difference. In comparison, the relative tumor volumes of treatment groups at the same time were significantly different at 1.02, 0.67 and 0.48 times for DOX, GOFA-DOX and GOFA-DOX/HACPN groups, respectively. The anti-tumor efficacy was also supported by images from an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) using MCF-7 cells transfected with luciferase (MCF-7/Luc). Furthermore, tissue biopsy examination and blood analysis indicated that intratumoral delivery of DOX using GOFA-DOX/HACPN did not elicit acute toxicity. Taken together, GOFA-DOX/HACPN could be deemed as a safe and efficient intratumoral drug delivery system for breast cancer therapy.

Combined aesthetic interventions for prevention of facial ageing, and restoration and beautification of face and body.

The Merz Institute of Advanced Aesthetics Expert Summit was held in Prague, Czech Republic, from 19-20 November 2016. The meeting had a distinct advisory board character and invited aesthetic practitioners from all over the world to hear an international faculty present a range of keynote lectures and conduct live injection sessions with an emphasis on recent developments in combination aesthetic interventions for face and body rejuvenation and beautification. Aging is associated with changes in bones, muscles, ligaments, adipose tissue, and skin and, moreover, involves interactions among these tissue types. To achieve the most natural and harmonious rejuvenation of the face, all changes that result from the aging process should be corrected, which generally involves treatment with more than a single agent or technology. Presentations described innovative treatment algorithms for the face and body and focused on patients' desires for natural-looking rejuvenation and how this requires a three-dimensional approach combining products that relax the musculature, volumize, and re-drape the skin. Besides treating the aging face, these procedures are increasingly used to enhance facial features as well as to delay facial aging in younger patients. The presentations covered patients from different ethnicities as well as the treatment of non-facial areas, with a particular focus on the use of Ultherapy(®) for skin lifting and tightening, and new aesthetic procedures such as Cellfina(®) and diluted Radiesse(®). The current report provides a summary of key presentations from the meeting.

Can hybrid hyaluronic acid represent a valid approach to treat rizoarthrosis? A retrospective comparative study.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the trapeziometacarpal joint (TMJ) is a disabling condition with a significant impact on quality of life. The optimal management of hand OA requires a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments that include intra-articular (i.a.) therapy. EULAR experts recommend corticosteroid injections in TMJ OA and underline the usefulness of hyaluronic acid (HA). The aim of this study was the assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of i.a. injections of a hybrid formulation of HA (Sinovial H-L®) in comparison to triamcinolone in patients with TMJ OA.

Stress relaxing hyaluronic acid-collagen hydrogels promote cell spreading, fiber remodeling, and focal adhesion formation in 3D cell culture.

The physical and architectural cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a critical role in regulating important cellular functions such as spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Natural ECM is a complex viscoelastic scaffold composed of various distinct components that are often organized into a fibrillar microstructure. Hydrogels are frequently used as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture, but are typically elastic, due to covalent crosslinking, and non-fibrillar. Recent work has revealed the importance of stress relaxation in viscoelastic hydrogels in regulating biological processes such as spreading and differentiation, but these studies all utilize synthetic ECM hydrogels that are non-fibrillar. Key mechanotransduction events, such as focal adhesion formation, have only been observed in fibrillar networks in 3D culture to date. Here we present an interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel system based on HA crosslinked with dynamic covalent bonds and collagen I that captures the viscoelasticity and fibrillarity of ECM in tissues. The IPN hydrogels exhibit two distinct processes in stress relaxation, one from collagen and the other from HA crosslinking dynamics. Stress relaxation in the IPN hydrogels can be tuned by modulating HA crosslinker affinity, molecular weight of the HA, or HA concentration. Faster relaxation in the IPN hydrogels promotes cell spreading, fiber remodeling, and focal adhesion (FA) formation - behaviors often inhibited in other hydrogel-based materials in 3D culture. This study presents a new, broadly adaptable materials platform for mimicking key ECM features of viscoelasticity and fibrillarity in hydrogels for 3D cell culture and sheds light on how these mechanical and structural cues regulate cell behavior.

Dermoscopy Study on the Effects of Gold Microacupuncture,Hyaluronic Acid Injection,and rb-bFGF to Treat Facial Rejuvenation.

To explore the dermoscopic changes facial rejuvenation after the combination therapy of gold microacupuncture,Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection,and recombinant bovine alkaline fibroblast growth factor (rbbFGF).

Effects and Its Mechanism of IGF-1R on the Synthesis of Hyaluronic Acid in Orbital Fibroblasts of Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy.

To explore the effects of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) receptor (IGF1R) on the synthesis of hyaluronic acid (HA) in orbital fibroblasts of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and its signal pathway.

Filling the periorbital hollows with hyaluronic acid gel: Long-term review of outcomes and complications.

Hyaluronic acid gel has been used for rejuvenation of the periorbital tissues since 2004. The in-office, nonsurgical procedural nature has resulted in the growing popularity of the use of fillers. The periorbital region poses unique challenges to the cosmetic surgeon. Malar edema, blue-gray dyschromia, and contour irregularities are well reported short-term complications. We present a long-term follow-up review of complications associated with periocular injection of hyaluronic acid gel fillers.

A novel hybrid multichannel biphasic calcium phosphate granule-based composite scaffold for cartilage tissue regeneration.

The objective of the present study was to develop a novel hybrid multichannel biphasic calcium phosphate granule (MCG)-based composite system for cartilage regeneration. First, hyaluronic acid-gelatin (HG) hydrogel was coated onto MCG matrix (MCG-HG). Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres was separately prepared and modified with polydopamine subsequent to BMP-7 loading (B). The surface-modified microspheres were finally embedded into MCG-HG scaffold to develop the novel hybrid (MCG-HG-PLGA-PD-B) composite system. The newly developed MCG-HG-PLGA-PD-B composite was then subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, porosity, compressive strength, swelling, BMP-7 release and in-vitro biocompatibility studies. Results showed that 60% of BMP-7 retained on the granular surface after 28 days. A hybrid MCG-HG-PLGA-PD-B composite scaffold exhibited higher swelling and compressive strength compared to MCG-HG or MCG. In-vitro studies showed that MCG-HG-PLGA-PD-B had improved cell viability and cell proliferation for both MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and ATDC5 pre-chondrocytes cell line with respect to MCG-HG or MCG scaffold. Our results suggest that a hybrid MCG-HG-PLGA-PD-B composite scaffold can be a promising candidate for cartilage regeneration applications.

In situ forming oxidised hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide hydrogel for prevention of epidural fibrosis after laminectomy.

Post-operative epidural fibrosis is a biological response after laminectomy that may lead to clinical symptoms, such as radicular pain. An ideal material for prevention of epidural fibrosis should be able to inhibit fibroblast adhesions and reduce formation of scar tissue. An injectable hydrogel would be the material of choice for this purpose, since it could fill an irregular surgical defect completely, gelate in situ and be delivered in a minimally-invasive manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the cytocompatibility and anti-adhesive effect of an oxidised hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide (oxi-HA/ADH) hydrogel. Different cell types present in the spine were used to test the cytocompatibility of the hydrogel. The hydrogel extraction medium had no deleterious effects on neural cells (PC-12), but reduced fibroblasts viability (NIH/3T3). Although the hydrogel did not change the release of lactate dehydrogenase from myoblasts (C2C12) and Schwann cells (RSC96), the extraction medium concentration slightly affected the mitochondrial activity of these two cell types. qPCR showed that the hydrogel down-regulated S100a and P4hb expression in NIH/3T3 cells, supporting the hypothesis that the hydrogel might inhibit fibroblast activity. The animal study showed a reduction of scar tissue formation as well as severity of adhesion between scar tissue and the dura mater in a rat laminectomy model. Superficially, the peel-off test showed significantly decreased tenacity. In conclusion, the oxi-HA/ADH hydrogel is a promising injectable and thermosensitive material for prevention of post-operative epidural fibrosis.

Hair Germ Model In Vitro via Human Postnatal Keratinocyte-Dermal Papilla Interactions: Impact of Hyaluronic Acid.

Hair follicle (HF) reconstruction in vitro is a promising field in alopecia treatment and human HF development research. Here, we combined postnatal human dermal papilla (DP) cells and skin epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) in a hanging drop culture to develop an artificial HF germ. The method is based on DP cell hair-inducing properties and KC self-organization. We evaluated two protocols of aggregate assembling. Mixed HF germ-like structures demonstrated the initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction, including WNT pathway activation and expression of follicular markers. We analyzed the influence of possible DP cell niche components including soluble factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in the process of the organoid assembling and growth. Our results demonstrated that soluble factors had little impact on HF germ generation and Ki67(+) cell score inside the organoids although BMP6 and VD3 maintained effectively the DP identity in the monolayer culture. Aggrecan, biglycan, fibronectin, and hyaluronic acid (HA) significantly stimulated cell proliferation in DP cell monolayer culture without any effect on DP cell identity. Most of ECM compounds prevented the formation of cell aggregates while HA promoted the formation of larger organoids. In conclusion, our model could be suitable to study cell-cell and cell-niche interactions during HF reconstruction in vitro.

Dual pH-responsive multifunctional nanoparticles for targeted treatment of breast cancer by combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy.

In the present study, a dual pH-responsive multifunctional nanoparticle system was designed for combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy to treat breast cancer through targeting immune cells and cancer cells. A proven anti-tumor immune regulator, R848, was encapsulated with poly(L-histidine) (PHIS) to form PHIS/R848 nanocores. Doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to hyaluronic acid (HA) through an acid-cleavable hydrazone bond linkage to synthesize polymeric prodrug HA-DOX, which was subsequently coated outside PHIS/R848 nanocores to form HA-DOX/PHIS/R848 nanoparticles. Ionization of PHIS around pH 6.5 (a pH value close to that of tumor microenvironment) switched the nature of this material from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and thus triggered the release of R848 to exert immunoregulatory action. The rupture of hydrazone bond in HA-DOX at about pH 5.5 (pH of endo/lysosomes) accelerated the release of DOX to exert cytotoxic effects. In immune cells, PHIS/R848 nanocores exhibited strong immunoregulatory activities similar to those induced by free R848. In breast cancer cells overexpressing CD44, HA-DOX was specially internalized by CD44-mediated endocytosis and significantly inhibited the cell growth. In 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, HA-DOX/PHIS/R848 nanoparticles showed excellent tumor-targeting ability and remarkably inhibited the tumor growth by regulating tumor immunity and killing tumor cells. In summary, this multifunctional nanoparticle system could deliver R848 and DOX respectively to tumor microenvironment and breast cancer cells to achieve synergistic effects of immunotherapy and chemotherapy against breast cancer. Statement of Significance Combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy is becoming a promising new treatment for cancer. The major challenge is to target cancer and immune cells simultaneously and specifically. In this study, a dual pH-responsive multifunctional nanoparticle system based on poly(L-histidine) and hyaluronic acid was designed for co-loading R848 (immune-regulator) and doxorubicin (chemotherapeutic drug) through different encapsulation modes. By responding to the acidic pHs of tumor microenvironment and intracellular organelles, this multifunctional nanoparticle system could release R848 extracellularly and deliver DOX targetedly to breast cancer cells, thus achieving synergistic effects of immunotherapy and chemotherapy against breast cancer.

CD44 targeting hyaluronic acid coated lapatinib nanocrystals foster the efficacy against triple-negative breast cancer.

Lapatinib (LPT) is an orally administered drug for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. For expanding its therapeutic horizon, we have prepared its nanocrystals (LPT-NCs) that were subsequently coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) to produce LPT-HA-NCs. The detailed in-vitro and in-vivo investigation of LPT-HA-NCs showed the superior anticancer activity due to active targeting to CD44 receptors than its counterparts LPT-NCs and free LPT. In the triple negative 4T1 cells induced breast tumor bearing female Balb/C mice; LPT-HA-NCs not only increased the residence time of LPT, but also targeted the tumor, reduced the tumor burden, and increased overall survival. Our findings clearly suggest that HA coated LPT-NCs formulation enhances the activity of LPT against triple negative breast cancer. It exhibited magnificent therapeutic outcome at low dose thus presenting a strategy to reduce dose administrations and minimize dose related toxicity.

Versatile hyaluronic acid modified AQ4N-Cu(II)-gossypol infinite coordination polymer nanoparticles: Multiple tumor targeting, highly efficient synergistic chemotherapy, and real-time self-monitoring.

A novel strategy for the preparation of infinite coordination polymer nanoparticles (ICPs) based nanomedicines was developed, with which hyaluronic acid modified AQ4N-Cu(II)-gossypol nanoparticles ([email protected](II)-gossypol NPs) were obtained. This is a highly efficient nanomedicine, in which gossypol serves as a chemotherapeutic agent and a self-carrier material; Cu(II) serves as the connecting point and anti-tumor enhancer; AQ4N not only serves as a chemotherapeutic agent and self-carrier material, but also as the self-monitor based on its inherent fluorescence. [email protected](II)-gossypol NPs possessed a spherical shape with a dynamic size of 88.7 ± 7.4 nm, and the total drug-loading content and drug encapsulation efficiency are 77.41% and 100%, respectively. This nanomedicine has a multiple tumor-targeting ability caused by HA-receptor mediation and pH-responsive drug release. A significantly low combination index (0.097) of AQ4N and gossypol is ascertained. In vivo experiments indicate that it accumulates and significantly releases drugs at the tumor region. With the use of only one-fiftieth of AQ4N and half of gossypol of the generally administered dose, they can achieve significantly high anti-tumor efficiency with negligible side effects. Importantly, the switching-type changed fluorescence of AQ4N can be used for in vivo real-time self-monitoring of the drug release and distribution, which allows us to adjust the administration dose and time for different tumor types and stages for individual therapy.