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Hyaluronic acid - Top 30 Publications

Solubilized Amnion Membrane Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Accelerates Full-Thickness Wound Healing.

The early and effective treatment of wounds is vital to ensure proper wound closure and healing with appropriate functional and cosmetic outcomes. The use of human amnion membranes for wound care has been shown to be safe and effective. However, the difficulty in handling and placing thin sheets of membrane, and the high costs associated with the use of living cellularized tissue has limited the clinical application of amniotic membrane wound healing products. Here, we describe a novel amnion membrane-derived product, processed to result in a cell-free solution, while maintaining high concentrations of cell-derived cytokines and growth factors. The solubilized amnion membrane (SAM) combined with the carrier hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel (HA-SAM) is easy to produce, store, and apply to wounds. We demonstrated the efficacy of HA-SAM as a wound treatment using a full-thickness murine wound model. HA-SAM significantly accelerated wound closure through re-epithelialization and prevented wound contraction. HA-SAM-treated wounds had thicker regenerated skin, increased total number of blood vessels, and greater numbers of proliferating keratinocytes within the epidermis. Overall, this study confirms the efficacy of the amnion membrane as a wound treatment/dressing, and overcomes many of the limitations associated with using fresh, cryopreserved, or dehydrated tissue by providing a hydrogel delivery system for SAM. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017.

Engineering of cell membrane to enhance heterologous production of hyaluronic acid in Bacillus subtilis.

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high-value biopolymer used in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Current methods of HA production, including extraction from animal sources and streptococcal cultivations, are associated with high costs and health risks. Accordingly, the development of bioprocesses for HA production centered on robust 'Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)' organisms such as Bacillus subtilis is highly attractive. Here, we report the development of novel strains of B. subtilis in which the membrane cardiolipin (CL) content and distribution has been engineered to enhance the functional expression of heterologously expressed hyaluronan synthase of Streptococcus equisimilis (SeHAS), in turn, improving the culture performance for HA production. Elevation of membrane CL levels via overexpressing components involved in the CL biosynthesis pathway, and redistribution of CL along the lateral membrane via repression of the cell division initiator protein FtsZ resulted in increases to the HA titer of up to 204% and peak molecular weight of up to 2.2 MDa. Moreover, removal of phosphatidylethanolamine and neutral glycolipids from the membrane of HA-producing B. subtilis via inactivation of pssA and ugtP, respectively, has suggested the lipid dependence for functional expression of SeHAS. Our study demonstrates successful application of membrane engineering strategies to develop an effective platform for biomanufacturing of HA with B. subtilis strains expressing Class I streptococcal hyaluronan synthase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The Influence of Hyaluronic Acid and Glioblastoma Cell Coculture on the Formation of Endothelial Cell Networks in Gelatin Hydrogels.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly form of brain cancer. Interactions between GBM cells and vasculature in vivo contribute to poor clinical outcomes, with GBM-induced vessel co-option, regression, and subsequent angiogenesis strongly influencing GBM invasion. Here, elements of the GBM perivascular niche are incorporated into a methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin hydrogel as a means to examine GBM-vessel interactions. The complexity of 3D endothelial cell networks formed from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and normal human lung fibroblasts as a function of hydrogel properties and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) presentation is presented. While overall length and branching of the endothelial cell networks decrease with increasing hydrogel stiffness and incorporation of brain-mimetic hyaluronic acid, it can be separately altered by changing the vascular cell seeding density. It is shown that covalent incorporation of VEGF supports network formation as robustly as continuously available soluble VEGF. The impact of U87-MG GBM cells on the endothelial cell networks is subsequently investigated. GBM cells localize in proximity to the endothelial cell networks and hasten network regression in vitro. Together, this in vitro platform recapitulates the close association between GBM cells and vessel structures as well as elements of vessel co-option and regression preceding angiogenesis in vivo.

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells prevented rat vocal fold scarring.

This study aimed to reveal the effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) on prevention of vocal fold scarring by investigating how the immediate ASCs transplantation into the injured rat vocal fold affect the levels of gene transcription and translation.

Enhanced Cell viability in Hyaluronic Acid Coated Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Porous Scaffolds within Microfluidic Channels.

The concept of the present work is to produce porous optimised scaffolds of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coated with hyaluronic acid (HA), to provide a suitable microenvironment for cellular proliferation. Freeze dried scaffolds were produced from PLGA with varying lactic acid and glycolic acid ratios along the polymer backbone, as follows: 50:50 ester terminated, 50:50 carboxylate end-group and 85:15 ester terminated. Subsequently, these scaffolds were immersed in crosslinked HA in order for the coating to enhance biological performance. Scaffolds were fully characterized with respect to surface morphology, physical and chemical properties. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was firstly evaluated using standard L929 fibroblast cells in static culture and subsequently MCF-7 breast cancer cells were seeded on scaffolds which were incorporated within a microfluidic device. The results show that cells were attracted to and adhered to the scaffolds, with a higher affinity for HA coated scaffolds. In our system, cell viability was maintained up to 48h.

Differential response to doxorubicin in breast cancer subtypes simulated by a microfluidic tumor model.

Successful drug delivery and overcoming drug resistance are the primary clinical challenges for management and treatment of cancer. The ability to rapidly screen drugs and delivery systems within physiologically relevant environments is critically important; yet is currently limited due to lack of appropriate tumor models. To address this problem, we developed the Tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), a new microfluidic tumor model simulating the interstitial flow, plasma clearance, and transport of the drug within the tumor. We demonstrated T-MOC's capabilities by assessing the delivery and efficacy of doxorubicin in small molecular form versus hyaluronic acid nanoparticle (NP) formulation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, two cell lines representative of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Doxorubicin accumulated and penetrated similarly in both cell lines while the NP accumulated more in MDA-MB-231 than MCF-7 potentially due to binding of hyaluronic acid to CD44 expressed by MDA-MB-231. However, the penetration of the NP was less than the molecular drug due to its larger size. In addition, both cell lines cultured on the T-MOC showed increased resistance to the drug compared to 2D culture where MDA-MB-231 attained a drug-resistant tumor-initiating phenotype indicated by increased CD44 expression. When grown in immunocompromised mice, both cell lines exhibited cell-type-dependent resistance and phenotypic changes similar to T-MOC, confirming its predictive ability for in vivo drug response. This initial characterization of T-MOC indicates its transformative potential for in vitro testing of drug efficacy towards prediction of in vivo outcomes and investigation of drug resistance mechanisms for advancement of personalized medicine.

Visible-light-sensitive titanium dioxide nanoplatform for tumor-responsive Fe2+ liberating and artemisinin delivery.

Artemisinin is a kind of Fe(2+)-dependent drugs. Artemisinin and Fe(2+) co-transport systems can improve its anti-tumor effect. In this study, a visible light-sensitive nanoplatform (HA-TiO2-IONPs/ART) was developed. Detailed investigation demonstrated that HA-TiO2-IONPs/ART could realize Fe(2+) and artemisinin synchronous co-delivery and tumor-responsive release. This feature enhanced the anti-tumor efficiency of artemisinin significantly. In vitro results proved that hyaluronic acid modification could improve the biocompatibility, dispersion stability and cytophagy ability of nanocarriers. Furthermore, this drug delivery system could generate reactive oxygen species under visual light irradiation. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that HA-TiO2-IONPs/ART combining with laser irradiation displayed the best anti-tumor efficacy. This study affords a promising idea to improve the curative efficiency of artemisinin analogs for cancer therapy.

Injectable Viscoelastic Supplements: A Review for Radiologists.

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is increasingly used by musculoskeletal radiologists in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Although the evidence base for its efficacy is controversial, it remains in common use. With initial evidence suggesting its efficacy in the knee, it is now offered for treating OA of the hip, ankle, and elsewhere.

Comparison of Intra-articular Injection of Hyaluronic Acid and N-Acetyl Cysteine in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

Objective To compare the relative effectiveness of intra-articular N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain, function and cartilage degradation markers in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design We prospectively conducted a clinical trial with 20 patients having a diagnosis of Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2-3 knee OA, and randomly allocated to the HA or NAC groups. Groups were matched on age, sex, and body mass index. Injections of 3-mL HA (Hylan G-F 20) or 3-mL NAC (Asist ampoule) were administered as a single shot. Functional status and pain were evaluated before and after injection, using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Pre- and posttreatment concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial fluid chondroitin-6-sulfate (C-6S), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type 2 collagen (CTX-II), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant concentration (TAC) were obtained. Results WOMAC, VAS scores, and CRP levels were comparable between groups prior to treatment. Both HA and NAC produced comparable reductions in TOS and MMP-3. NAC was more effective in reducing C-6S and CTX-II ( P < 0.05). No effects on TAC were noted. Conclusions NAC is effective in lowering some cartilage degradation markers, with comparable outcomes to HA for pain and function. NAC could provide a cheaper alternative to HA for intra-articular injection treatment of mild to moderate knee OA. Future placebo controlled trials are warranted to evaluate effectiveness in a larger patient population with a wider range of age and OA severity.

Enhanced Skin Regeneration Using a Novel Amniotic-derived Tissue Graft.

Chronic and recalcitrant wounds present a significant therapeutic challenge. Amniotic tissues contain many regenerative cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix molecules including proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid, and collagens I, III, and IV. Dehydrated amnion/chorion grafts are currently used to treat a variety of wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers and burns.

Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a Canadian evidence-based perspective.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic condition characterized by a loss of joint cartilage and is a major cause of disability in Canada, with an estimated CN$195 billion annual cost. Knee OA leads to persistent pain and loss of function, and treatment goals primarily focus on symptom relief and retention of function. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IAHA) has therapeutic benefits, and numerous recently published meta-analyses (MAs) and commentaries have highlighted new evidence on the role of IAHA therapy for knee OA. A diverse, multidisciplinary group of specialists met independently in closed sessions to review findings from eight MAs with literature search end dates no earlier than 2012 to address controversies surrounding IAHA therapy for mild-to-moderate knee OA within the Canadian treatment context. Outcomes from a total of eight MAs were reviewed, and consistent and statistically significant improvements in pain, function and stiffness up to 26 weeks were found with IAHA therapy compared with IA placebo or controls, regardless of MA size or trial quality. These findings are in line with those of a Cochrane review, another recent systematic review and patient satisfaction survey. Overall, three MAs reported outcomes based on molecular weight (MW), with the two reporting effect sizes showing significantly improved pain outcomes for higher compared with lower MW HAs. Recent evidence suggests that HA therapy is well tolerated with no increased risk of serious adverse events compared with placebo and the full therapeutic effect of IAHA therapy appears to have considerable clinical importance, consisting of the combined IA placebo and HA therapeutic effects. IAHA therapy is a well-tolerated and effective option for patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA failing first-line pharmacological therapy.

An in vitro model of renal inflammation after ischemic oxidative stress injury: nephroprotective effects of a hyaluronan ester with butyric acid on mesangial cells.

Acute kidney injury, known as a major trigger for organ fibrosis and independent predictor of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by mesangial cell proliferation, inflammation and unbalance between biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix. Therapeutic approaches targeting the inhibition of mesangial cell proliferation and matrix expansion may represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of kidney injury. An ester of hyaluronic acid and butyric acid (HB) has shown vasculogenic and regenerative properties in renal ischemic-damaged tissues, resulting in enhanced function recovery and minor degree of inflammation in vivo. This study evaluated the effect of HB treatment in mesangial cell cultures exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress.

Hyaluronic Acid and Other Conservative Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis of the Ankle.

Is synovitis detected on non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging associated with serum biomarkers and clinical signs of effusion? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

To determine the relationship between synovitis detected on non-contrast-enhanced (non-CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical markers of inflammation, and clinical assessment of effusion in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Endoscopic injection for primary vesicoureteric reflux: Predictors of resolution and long term efficacy.

We investigated the efficacy of endoscopic-Deflux-injection in treating primary-vesicoureteric-reflux (VUR) and identified factors to predict resolution.

Stability and binding affinity of DNA/chitosan complexes by polyanion competition.

The stability of DNA/chitosan complexes upon exposure to hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin, was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify DNA release. Only the highly charged heparin was found to release DNA from the complexes. Complex stability upon exposure to heparin increased with the degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan and with the ratio of chitosan amino groups to DNA phosphate groups (N/P ratio) in the complexes. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry revealed that among polyanions tested, only heparin has a binding affinity to chitosan approaching that of DNA and can therefore release DNA from the complexes. These results also indicate that anionic components with sufficiently high charge density can induce extracellular or intracellular release of DNA, the former negatively affecting delivery efficiency while the latter is required for gene transfer to occur. Our findings also suggest that increased N/P ratio of the complexes can play an important role in preventing premature dissociation of DNA/polycation complexes upon interaction with anionic components in extracellular milieu.

Correction to: Grotenhuis et al., Implementation of the hyaluronic acid fat graft myringoplasty technique, pitfalls and lessons learned.

The Improvement of the Hepatic Histological Findings in a Patient with Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis with Type 2 Diabetes after the Administration of the Sodium-glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Ipragliflozin.

The patient was a 67-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The administration of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, ipragliflozin improved her liver dysfunction clinically and histologically. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels decreased to normal limits after treatment for four months. Type IV collagen and hyaluronic acid, both of which were serum fibrotic markers, decreased after treatment. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a decrease in the fat deposits in her liver. Her liver sample showed marked improvement, especially in steatosis, inflammation, and ballooning. The SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin may be useful as a specific therapeutic drug for NASH.

Regenerating Heart Using a Novel Compound and Human Wharton Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Myocardial infarction is a major problem in health system and most conventional therapy is not led to restoration of the health. Stem cell therapy is a method to regenerate the heart but today appropriate cell source and scaffold selection as extracellular matrix to achieve the best effect is disputing.

ATDC-5 growth promoted by sustained-releasing chitosan microspheres loading TGF-β1 in artificial cartilage scaffolds.

In order to promote the growth of chondrocyte ATDC-5 in collagen type II-hyaluronic acid-chondroitin sulfate composite scaffolds constructed previously in vitro, the sustained-releasing chitosan microspheres loading TGF-β1 were prepared by emulsification and cross-linking. In addition, ATDC-5 was inoculated into the scaffolds incorporating the chitosan microspheres with TGF-β1. Results show that the morphology of microsphere was round and uniform, mean diameter was about 100 nm, absorption rate was up to 983.7%±4.38%.When the microsphere was incubated under the condition of 10⁷ U/L lysozyme, the degradation rate was only 51.0%±1.8% on day 28. Moreover, to compare the effect of TGF-β1, the growth of ATDC-5 in different scaffolds was observed by MTT assay and fluorescence staining test. According to the cumulative release curve, TGF-β1 was released quickly at initial 24 h, then gradually decelerated, finally reached the plateau after 120 h. MTT assay and fluorescence staining test demonstrated that the scaffolds were suitable for ATDC-5 growth and proliferation, as well as, suggested that the sustained-releasing chitosan microspheres loading TGF-β1 could significantly promote the growth of ATDC-5.

Layer-by-layer nanoparticles co-loading gemcitabine and platinum (IV) prodrugs for synergistic combination therapy of lung cancer.

Cisplatin plus gemcitabine (GEM) is a standard regimen for the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric prodrugs and construct nanoparticles (NPs) with layer-by-layer (LbL) technique.

Irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil-co-loaded, hyaluronic acid-modified layer-by-layer nanoparticles for targeted gastric carcinoma therapy.

For targeted gastric carcinoma therapy, hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified layer-by-layer nanoparticles (NPs) are applied for improving anticancer treatment efficacy and reducing toxicity and side effects. The aim of this study was to develop HA-modified NPs for the co-loading of irinotecan (IRN) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). A novel polymer-chitosan (CH)-HA hybrid formulation (HA-CH-IRN/5-FU NPs) consisting of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and IRN as the core, CH and 5-FU as a shell on the core and HA as the outmost layer was prepared. Its morphology, average size, zeta potential and drug encapsulation ability were evaluated. Human gastric carcinoma cells (MGC803 cells) and cancer-bearing mice were used for the testing of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor efficiency of NPs. HA-CH-IRN/5-FU NPs displayed enhanced antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo than non-modified NPs, single drug-loaded NPs and drugs solutions. The results demonstrate that HA-CH-IRN/5-FU NPs can achieve impressive antitumor activity and the novel targeted drug delivery system offers a promising strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Molecular and macro-scale analysis of enzyme-crosslinked silk hydrogels for rational biomaterial design.

Silk fibroin-based hydrogels have exciting applications in tissue engineering and therapeutic molecule delivery; however, their utility is dependent on their diffusive properties. The present study describes a molecular and macro-scale investigation of enzymatically-crosslinked silk fibroin hydrogels, and demonstrates that these systems have tunable crosslink density and diffusivity. We developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method to assess the quantity and order of covalent tyrosine crosslinks in the hydrogels. This analysis revealed between 28 and 56% conversion of tyrosine to dityrosine, which was dependent on the silk concentration and reactant concentration. The crosslink density was then correlated with storage modulus, revealing that both crosslinking and protein concentration influenced the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The diffusive properties of the bulk material were studied by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which revealed a non-linear relationship between silk concentration and diffusivity. As a result of this work, a model for synthesizing hydrogels with known crosslink densities and diffusive properties has been established, enabling the rational design of silk hydrogels for biomedical applications.

Thermo-responsive in-situ forming hydrogels as barriers to prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion.

In this study, we aimed to assess whether thermo-responsive in-situ forming hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) could prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion. The clinical advantages of the thermo-responsive hydrogels are acting as barrier material to block penetration of fibroblasts, providing mobility and flexibility during application and enabling injection through a small opening to fill spaces of any shape after surgery. The thermo-responsiveness of hydrogels was determined to ensure their clinic uses. By grafting hydrophilic biopolymers chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) to PNIPAM, the copolymer hydrogels show enhanced water retention and lubrication, while reduced volume shrinkage during phase transition. In cell culture experiments, the thermo-responsive hydrogel has good biocompatibility and reduces fibroblast penetration. In animal experiments, the effectiveness of preventing post-operative peritendinous adhesion was studied in a rabbit deep flexor tendon model. From gross examination, histology, bending angles of joints, tendon gliding excursion and pull-out force, HA-CS-PNIPAM (HACPN) was confirmed to be the best barrier material to prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion compared to PNIPAM and CS-PNIPAM (CPN) hydrogels and a commercial barrier film Seprafilm®. There was no significant difference in the breaking strength of HACPN-treated tendons and spontaneously healed ones, indicating HACPN hydrogel application did not interfere with normal tendon healing. We conclude that HACPN hydrogel can provide the best functional outcomes to significantly prevent post-operative tendon adhesion in vivo.

Collagen and hyaluronic acid hydrogel in water-in-oil microemulsion delivery systems.

The increase in skin related health issues has promoted interest in research on the efficacy of microemulsion in dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. Here, we assessed the water-in-oil microemulsion capacity to incorporate two natural polymers, i.e. collagen and hyaluronic acid with low and high molecular weight. Systems were extensively characterized in terms of conductivity, phase inversion studies, droplet diameter, polydispersity index and rheological properties. The results of this research indicate that the structure and extent of water phase in microemulsions is governed by ratio and amount of surfactant mixture (sorbitan ester derivatives). However, results have also shown that collagen, depending upon the weight of the molecule and its surface activity, influence the droplet size of the microemulsions. While the hyaluronic acid, especially with high molecular weight, due to the water-binding ability and hydrogel formation alters the rheological properties of the microemulsion, thus providing viscous consistency of the formulation.

Wound Healing and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Topical Hyaluronic Acid Injection in Surgical-Site Infection Caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Surgical-site infection (SSI) is a common postoperative complication, primarily caused by Staphylococcus aureus. S aureus produces hyaluronidase which degrades hyaluronic acid (HA). HA prevents bacterial proliferation and has anti-inflammatory effects to promote wound healing. We evaluated the effect of HA injection with systemic antibiotics for prevention and treatment of SSIs caused by S aureus. An open wound was created on the dorsum of 40 rats. The wound bed was sutured with S aureus inoculated thread. The test group was injected with HA (HA group), and the control group received a subcutaneous injection of normal saline (NS group). All groups were then treated with intraperitoneal cefazolin injection. The sutures were removed 2 days after the procedure. Gross pathology, bacterial count, and wound histology were assessed at days 2, 4, 6, and 8 postprocedure. The HA group showed a significant reduction in the wound area compared with the control group on gross pathology (at days 8 postprocedure, 36.54% ± 6.12% vs 50.59% ± 5.50%, P < .001). The HA group showed significantly better wound healing than the control group on histological analysis, including assessment of abscess, neutrophilic infiltration, and necrosis (4.2 ± 1.2 vs 11.5 ± 2.1, P < .001). The HA group showed a lower bacterial count compared with the NS group, but the result was not significant statistically (at days 6 postprocedure, 5.11 ± 0.31 vs 5.91 ± 0.35 logCFU/mL, P = .706). In conclusion, immediate local injection of HA in wounds can reduce SSI occurrence and promote wound healing in an animal model.

Clinical Evaluation of a Multi-Modal Facial Serum That Addresses Hyaluronic Acid Levels in Skin.

Hyaluronic acid (HA), the major glycosaminoglycan present in the human skin, is a key contributor to water retention and mechanical support in skin. The level, size, and functionality of cutaneous HA are known to diminish with age. Topical treatments designed to increase the HA content of skin have been met with limited success. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of a multi-modal facial serum containing HA, Proxylane (C-Xyloside), purple rice extract, and dipotassium glycyrrhizate in addressing HA levels in skin.

Factors Affecting the Rheological Measurement of Hyaluronic Acid Gel Fillers.

With the number of available dermal fillers increasing, so is the demand for scientifically based comparisons, often with rheological properties in focus. Since analytical results are always influenced by instrument settings, consensus on settings is essential to make comparison of results from different investigators more useful.

Synergistic effect of l-ascorbic acid and hyaluronic acid on the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9 in human chondrocytes.

Proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). New evidence clarifying the correlation between ROS and inflammation has indicated that oxidative stress can up-regulate inflammatory cytokines. l-Ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and improve matrix deposition in chondrocytes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA; 100 μg/mL) supplemented with AA (50 μg/mL) on human normal and interleukin-1 beta-stimulated (IL-1β, 10 ng/mL) chondrocytes. HA, AA, and HA + AA treatment did not change cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and glycosaminoglycan production in normal chondrocytes. HA, AA, and HA + AA, by contrast, partially restored viability and morphology of hypertrophic chondrocytes, and HA and HA + AA further decreased the cytotoxicity of IL-1β. Real-time PCR revealed that AA and HA + AA had no substantial effects on unstimulated chondrocytes, except for down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mRNA levels. For IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes, significant down-regulation of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), MMP-3, and MMP-9 mRNA expression was found when cells were cultured in HA-supplemented media. Moreover, HA + AA supplementation further significantly decreased MMP-3 and MMP-9 mRNA expression. The protein production of MMP-3 was decreased, with a significant difference between the HA + AA group and HA group. The antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutases activity were also partially restored in stimulated chondrocytes. HA supplemented with AA modulates MMPs expression and antioxidant fuction in chondrocytes. AA may enhance the anticatabolic effects of HA on OA chondrocytes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

New opportunities for inhaled therapy for inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system.

The paper considers current approaches to mucoregulatory therapy for various inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. It gives the advantages and disadvantages of common drugs used in their treatment. Emphasis is laid on the use of inhaled hypertonic saline of NaCl in combination with hyaluronic acid (Hyaneb). Clinical examples of its use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute and chronic bronchitis, and severe asthma are considered.